The constitution declares Islam to be the state religion and states sharia shall be “a main source” of legislation. The constitution guarantees the “freedom to practice religious rites” to all persons “in accordance with the law and the requirements of the maintenance of public order and morality.” It prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion. According to the constitution, the emir must be Muslim.
Conversion to another religion from Islam is defined by the law as apostasy and illegal, although there have been no recorded punishments for apostasy since the country’s independence in 1971.
The law provides for a prison sentence of up to seven years for defaming, desecrating, or committing blasphemy against Islam, Christianity, or Judaism. The law stipulates a seven-year prison term for producing or circulating material containing slogans, images, or symbols defaming these three religions. The law also prohibits publication of texts provoking social discord or religious strife, with a potential punishment of up to six months in prison.
To obtain an official presence in the country, non-Muslim religious groups must apply to register with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) Department of Consular Affairs. Muslim religious groups must apply to register with the Ministry of Endowment and Religious Affairs. The only registered religious groups are Sunni and Shia Muslims and eight Christian denominations. The only religions registered to have their own places of worship are Islam and Christianity. Registered groups may hold bank accounts in the organization’s name and may apply for property to build worship space, whereas unregistered entities are unable to open accounts, solicit funds, or legally hire staff.
The government maintains an official list of previously registered Christian denominations, consisting of the Catholic, Anglican, Greek Orthodox, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic, Lebanese Maronite, evangelical Protestant, and Indian Churches. Sunni and Shia Muslims are registered with the Ministry of Endowments and Religious Affairs.
According to the law, unregistered religious groups that engage in worship activities are illegal, and members of those groups are subject to deportation.
The law restricts public worship for non-Islamic faiths. It prohibits non-Muslim religious groups from displaying religious symbols, which includes banning Christian congregations from advertising religious services or placing crosses outdoors, where they are visible to the public. The law criminalizes proselytizing on behalf of an organization, society, or foundation of any religion other than Islam and provides for punishments of up to 10 years in prison. Proselytizing on one’s own accord for any religion other than Islam can result in a sentence of up to five years. The law calls for two years’ imprisonment and a fine of 10,000 Qatari riyals ($2,700) for possession of written or recorded materials or items that support or promote missionary activity. The law allows importation of religious holy books, such as Bibles.
The government regulates the publication, importation, and distribution of all religious books and materials. Groups may publish newsletters without government censorship but may only distribute them internally within religious organizations and with appropriate markings to that effect. In order to import religious materials, groups must submit one copy to the Ministry of Culture and Sports and receive written approval before making large orders or risk having the entire shipment confiscated.
The law designates the minister of endowments and Islamic affairs as the final authority for approving Islamic religious centers. Non-Islamic houses of worship are approved by the MFA in coordination with the private office of the emir.
While a non-Muslim woman is not required by law to convert to Islam when marrying a Muslim, the law considers offspring of such a marriage to be Muslims. A non-Muslim man marrying a Muslim woman must convert to Islam.
Islamic instruction is compulsory for Muslim and non-Muslim students attending state-sponsored schools. Non-Muslims may provide private religious instruction for their children at home or in respective faith services. All children may attend secular and coeducational private schools. These schools must offer optional Islamic instruction; non-Muslim religious education is prohibited.
A unified civil court system, incorporating sharia and secular law, has jurisdiction over both Muslims and non-Muslims. The unified court system applies sharia in family law cases, including those related to inheritance, marriage, divorce, and child custody. For Shia citizens, a judicial panel for Shia Muslims decides cases regarding marriage, divorce, inheritance, and other family matters utilizing Shia interpretations of religious law. In other religious matters, the country’s family law applies across all branches of Islam. Non-Muslims are subject to sharia in cases of child custody, but civil law covers other personal status cases, including those related to divorce and inheritance.
Criminal law is based on the principles of sharia but not its penalties. The type of crime determines whether those convicted receive a sharia-based sentence. There are certain criminal cases, such as drunkenness, in which Muslims are punished according to sharia principles. Sharia-based punishments may also apply to non-Muslims for certain crimes such as alcohol consumption or illicit sexual relations. Muslim convicts may earn a sentence reduction of a few months by memorizing the Quran while imprisoned. Secular law covers dispute resolution for financial service companies.
The Regulatory Authority for Charitable Activities must approve all religious charitable activities by local charities, including religious ones, in advance. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ Department of Consular Affairs is in charge of supervising donations to, and charitable activities of, foreign religious groups.
The country is not a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.