1. Representatives from the five Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Nuclear Weapon States (NWS), or “P5”, met in Paris on 2-3 December 2021 for the 10th P5 Conference, to discuss the preparations for the upcoming 10th NPT Review Conference and related matters.
2. For over fifty years since its entry into force, the NPT has made invaluable contributions to humanity as a whole by providing an international framework that is indispensable to curbing the threat of nuclear proliferation. At the Paris Conference, the NWS reaffirmed their enduring commitment to the NPT across all three pillars, and their unconditional support for its universalization. They emphasized the primacy of the NPT as the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime.
3. Just one month ahead of the 10th NPT Review Conference (4-28 January 2022), they reiterated their active determination to approach this milestone event in the most positive and constructive manner. In this regard, they expressed their full support to President-designate Gustavo Zlauvinen in his endeavor to achieve a meaningful outcome.
4. The Paris Conference gave an opportunity to reflect and take stock of NWS efforts and the contribution of this work to the strengthening of the NPT. Twelve years after the establishment of the P5 Process, the NWS firmly believe that this forum has proved useful, and will continue to be a key mechanism for fostering a better mutual understanding among NWSand to examine the means through which they can collectively help facilitate the goals of the NPT.
5. They reaffirmed their commitment under the NPT to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to nuclear disarmament and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control. They support the ultimate goal of a world without nuclear weapons with undiminished security for all. By helping to ease international tensions and create conditions of stability, security and trust among nations, the NPT has made a vital contribution to nuclear disarmament and to reducing proliferation of nuclear weapons. The NPT continues to help create conditions that are essential for further progress on nuclear disarmament.
6. They also recalled the instrumental role of the NPT in providing confidence that, in line with article III of the Treaty, nuclear energy is not diverted from peaceful uses to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.The NPT provides a foundation for the promotion and sharing of the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, to the benefit of all.In this regard, they reiterated their full and continued support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in implementing the safeguards agreements and Additional Protocols, in promoting the benefits of peaceful uses and in verifying States’ compliance with their nuclear non-proliferation obligations.
7. They also reflected on the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the importance of its entry into force, twenty-five years after it was opened for signature, and recalled the importance of moratoria on nuclear tests to the achievement of disarmament and non-proliferation objectives.
8. They reviewed progress achieved concerning the different work streams under the P5 Process in preparation for the10th NPT Review Conference:They exchanged updates on their respective nuclear doctrines and policies and reiterated their commitment to the ongoing discussions in this area that contribute to strengthening predictability, confidence and mutual understanding among the NWS. In this regard, they consider this work stream as a tangible risk reduction measure, and reaffirmed their willingness to pursue these discussions, as well as to host a dedicated side-event on nuclear doctrines and policies at the Review Conference;
- They recognized their responsibility to work collaboratively to reduce the risk of nuclear conflict. They intend to build on their fruitful work on strategic risk reduction within the P5 Process in the course of the next NPT review cycle, in order to reduce the likelihood of nuclear weapons use. This is complementary to the NPT’s overarching goals and is consistent with the NWS’ long-term efforts towards disarmament and the ultimate goal of a world without nuclear weapons with undiminished security for all;
- They endorsed the second edition of the P5Glossary of Key Nuclear Terms, which contributes to enhancing mutual trust and understanding among the NWS. They decided to submit the Glossary as a P5 working paper to the 10th NPT Review Conference and hold a side-event during the Conference;
- They reaffirmed their commitment to the objectives of the Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zones, including theSoutheast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone, and recalled the importance of advancing discussions between the NWSand the ASEAN countries on the Protocol to the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty.They also recalled their support to the establishment of a Middle-East zone free of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery;
- They reiterated their support for the negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) –banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices–on the basis of the Shannon mandate and with the participation of all countries in the Conference on Disarmament;
- They stressed the shared benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the need to strengthen this pillar of the NPT. As such, they reaffirmed their strong support for broadening access within the NPT community to the numerous benefits of nuclear energy, science and technology and their applications for peaceful purposes, their support for the role of nuclear energy in addressing climate change and in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. They will promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy during the 10th NPT Review Conference.
9. The Paris Conference also provided an opportunity for substantial discussions among the NWSon the international security environment, non-proliferation issues and the importance of strategic stability. They agreed on the urgency of a full return to the JCPoA and on the need to achieve complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.
10. They emphasized the importance of transparency and outreach. In that regard, they conducted fruitful dialogues with the NPT Bureau, Non-Nuclear Weapon States and civil society representatives, and intend to keep open all communications channels to contribute to a positive outcome of the NPT Review Conference. They decided to launch a pilot project to develop a Young Professionals Network of P5 academics.