The United States imposes sanctions under various legal authorities against foreign individuals, private entities, and governments that engage in proliferation activities. Announcements of such sanctions determinations are printed in the Federal Register and can be accessed through the Government Printing Office web page. Copies of relevant statutes can also be accessed via the same site as well as via the Library of Congress’ Congressional Service. The Federal Register notices are the official notifications for all nonproliferation sanctions determinations. Links to those notices found on this page are updated as appropriate, but the Federal Register is the only official and complete listing of nonproliferation sanctions determinations.
Sections 231 and 235 of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)
The Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (“CAATSA,” or “the Act”) (Pub. L. 115-44,) was enacted on August 2, 2017.
Executive Order 13382
Executive Order 13382, signed by the President on June 29, 2005, is an authority aimed at freezing the assets of proliferators of weapons of mass destruction and their supporters, and isolating them financially. Designations under E.O. 13382 prohibit all transactions between the designees and any U.S. person, and freeze any assets the designees may have under U.S. jurisdiction.
Iran and Syria Nonproliferation Act
On Nov. 22, 2005, the President signed into law the Iran Nonproliferation Amendments Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-112), which in part, expanded the scope of the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation Act of 2000 was renamed the Iran and Syria Nonproliferation Act. (50 U.S.C. 1701 note)
Executive Order 12938, as amended
Through Executive Order 12938 of November 1994, then President Clinton declared a national emergency with respect to the proliferation of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and the means of delivering them. E.O. 12938 prohibits the importation of goods, technology, or services produced or provided by foreign persons that the Secretary of State has determined to impose an import ban because of their WMD proliferation activities. Executive Order 12938 has been amended twice—once in 1998 (E.O. 13094) and again in 2005 (E.O. 13382)—with the goal of making it more effective in combating the spread of unconventional weapons. In November 2011, an order was extended that established the spread of chemical, nuclear and biological weapons as a national emergency.
Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992
The Iran-Iraq Arms Non-Proliferation Act of 1992 declares that it is U.S. policy to oppose any transfer of goods or technology to Iraq or Iran whenever there is reason to believe that such transfer could contribute to that country’s acquisition of chemical, biological, nuclear, or advanced conventional weapons. (50 U.S.C. 1701 note)
Missile Sanctions Laws
Two missile sanctions laws, the Arms Export Control Act and the Export Administration Act, prohibit the transfers of missile equipment or technology by foreign persons, and provide legal authority to the President to place sanctions on offending entities.
Chemical and Biological Weapons Sanctions Laws
Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2798); Export Administration Act (50 U.S.C. App 2410c); and Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act (22 U.S.C. 5604-5605).
Sanctions for the Transfer of Lethal Military Equipment
Lethal Military Equipment to Terrorist States (Section 620H of the Foreign Assistance Act and various appropriations acts): Mandatory sanctions restricting the provision of foreign assistance to any foreign government that has provided “lethal military equipment” to a country whose government is a state sponsor of terrorism.
Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act Sanctions (INKSNA)
The Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act authorizes the United States to impose sanctions against foreign individuals, private entities, and governments that engage in proliferation activities.
Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000
The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 was signed into law on March 14, 2000. The act authorizes the President of the United States to take punitive action against individuals or organizations known to be providing material aid to weapons of mass destruction programs in Iran. (50 U.S.C. 1701 note)
Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act
The Nuclear Proliferation Prevention Act generally requires the imposition of sanctions, unless waived, on persons who contribute knowingly and materially, through the export of nuclear-related goods or technology, to the efforts of any individual, group, or non-nuclear weapon state to acquire unsafeguarded special nuclear material or to use, develop, produce, stockpile, or otherwise acquire any nuclear explosive device. The Act provides that the United States government shall not procure, or enter into any contract for the procurement of, any goods or services from any such person.
Export-Import Bank Act of 1945
The Export-Import Bank Act of 1945 established the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the official export credit agency of the United States. Among other things, the Act generally provides for the imposition of measures against any person who knowingly aids or abets, after September 23, 1996, any non-nuclear weapon state to acquire a nuclear explosive device or unsafeguarded special nuclear material. The Board of the Directors of the Bank is prohibited from giving approval to guarantee, insure, or extended credit, or participation in the extension of credit in support of United States exports to any such person.
U.S. Department of Commerce
Consolidated Screening List
Bureau of Industry and Security
U.S. Department of Treasury
Office of Foreign Assets Control