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A woman’s hands counting coins. (Riya Kumari; 2018)

3Ps: Prosecution, Protection, and Prevention

The “3P” paradigm—prosecution, protection, and prevention—continues to serve as the fundamental framework used around the world to combat human trafficking. The TIP Office employs a range of diplomatic and programmatic tools to advance the 3P paradigm worldwide. In addition, a fourth “P”—for partnership—serves as a complementary means to achieve progress across the 3Ps and enlist all segments of society in the fight against modern slavery. Learn more about the 3Ps»

U.S. Government Response

Combating human trafficking requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary effort. Within government, this means the participation and coordination among agencies with a range of responsibilities that include criminal enforcement, labor enforcement, victim outreach and services, public awareness, education, trade policy, international development and programs, customs and immigration, intelligence, and diplomacy. Coordinated federal efforts that incorporate state, local, and tribal entities, the private sector, civil society, survivors, religious communities, and academia are essential to an integrated response to human trafficking that leverages resources and amplifies results. In the United States, federal agencies work to ensure a whole-of-government approach to address all aspects of human trafficking. Learn more about the U.S. Government Response»


Research is an integral vehicle for enhancing the U.S. government’s understanding of the multifaceted nature of human trafficking and guiding its anti-trafficking policies and programs. The TIP Office supports evidence-based research that identifies effective strategies for combating human trafficking. Learn more about Research»

International and Domestic Law

Within the United States, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended, provides the tools to combat trafficking in persons both worldwide and domestically. The Act authorized the establishment of the State Department’s TIP Office and the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist in the coordination of U.S. government anti-trafficking efforts.  Internationally, several conventions, in particular the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Protocol), set out international standards for combating trafficking in persons. Learn more about International and Domestic Law»

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future