Note:  The method of first application of Open Skies has varied depending on the situation, including prior bilateral agreement, application on the basis of comity and reciprocity (usually set out in a signed memorandum of conversation or public statement), provisional application after signature of the agreement, entry into force of the agreement upon signature, or entry into force of the agreement through the procedure provided therein (such as an exchange of diplomatic notes).

Partner Status Date Open Skies First Applied Date Signed Location Signed Date Entered into Force (EIF) All-Cargo 7ths for U.S.
1. Netherlands1 In Force 10/14/1992 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
2. Belgium1 In Force 3/1/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
3. Finland1 In Force 3/24/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
4. Denmark1 In Force 4/26/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
5. Norway1 Provisional 4/26/1995 6/16/2011 and 6/21/2011 Luxembourg and Oslo
6. Sweden1 In Force 4/26/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
7. Luxembourg1 In Force 6/6/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
8. Austria1 In Force 6/14/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
9. Iceland1 Provisional 6/14/1995 6/16/2011 and 6/21/2011 Luxembourg and Oslo Yes
10. Switzerland In Force 6/15/1995 6/21/2010 Bern 6/21/2010 Yes
11. Czech Republic1 In Force 12/8/1995 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
12. Germany1 In Force 2/29/1996 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
13. Jordan In Force 11/10/1996 11/10/1996 Amman 11/10/1996
14. Singapore2 In Force 1/22/1997 5/1/2001 Washington 12/21/2001 Yes
15. Taiwan (AIT-TECRO Agreement) In Force 2/28/1997 3/18/1998 Washington 3/18/1998
16. Costa Rica In Force 10/15/1999 5/8/1997 San Jose 10/15/1999
17. El Salvador In Force 5/8/1997 5/8/1997 San Jose 1/3/2000 Yes
18. Guatemala In Force 5/8/1997 5/8/1997 San Jose 9/3/2001 Yes
19. Honduras Provisional 5/8/1997 5/8/1997 San Jose Yes
20. Nicaragua In Force 5/2/1997 5/8/1997 San Jose 12/5/1997 Charter Only
21. Panama In Force 12/28/1998 5/8/1997 Panama 12/28/1998 Yes
22. New Zealand2 In Force 5/29/1997 5/1/2001 Washington 12/21/2001 Yes
23. Brunei2 In Force 6/20/1997 5/1/2001 Washington 12/21/2001 Yes
24. Malaysia In Force 6/21/1997 6/21/1997 San Francisco 6/21/1997 Yes
25. Aruba In Force 7/22/1997 9/18/1997 Washington 6/11/1998 Yes
26. Chile2 In Force 10/28/1997 5/1/2001 Washington 4/9/2002 Yes
27. Uzbekistan In Force 2/27/1998 2/27/1998 Washington 2/27/1998 Yes
28. Republic of Korea In Force 4/23/1998 6/9/1998 Washington 6/9/1998
29. Peru In Force 6/12/1998 6/10/1998 Lima 2/8/1999 Yes
30. Romania1 In Force 7/15/1998 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
31. Italy1 In Force 11/11/1998 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
32. U.A.E. In Force 4/13/1999 3/11/2002 Abu Dhabi 12/11/2002 Yes
33. Pakistan In Force 4/29/1999
(via amendment)
4/10/1997 Rawalpindi 4/10/1997 Yes
34. Bahrain In Force 7/6/2001 5/24/1999 Washington 7/6/2001 Yes
35. Tanzania Provisional 11/3/1999 8/28/2000 Dar es Salaam Yes
36. Portugal1 In Force 12/22/1999 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
37. Slovak Republic1 In Force 1/7/2000 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
38. Namibia In Force 2/4/2000 3/16/2000 Windhoek 6/19/2019 Yes
39. Burkina Faso In Force 2/9/2000 7/27/2000 Washington 7/27/2000 Yes
40. Turkey In Force 3/22/2000 5/2/2000 New York 8/13/2001
41. Gambia In Force 1/18/2001 5/2/2000 Washington 1/18/2001 Yes
42. Nigeria Provisional 8/26/00 8/26/2000 Abuja Yes
43. Morocco In Force 10/10/2001 10/10/2001 Rabat 8/19/2002 Yes
44. Ghana In Force 3/16/2000 10/11/2000 Washington 8/17/2001 Yes
45. Rwanda In Force 7/14/2010 10/11/2000 Washington 7/14/2010 Yes
46. Malta1 In Force 10/12/2000 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
47. Benin In Force 8/7/2017 11/28/2000 Washington 8/7/2017 Yes
48. Senegal In Force 12/15/2000 1/11/2001 Washington 8/11/2003 Yes
49. Poland1 In Force 5/31/2001 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
50. Oman In Force 9/16/2001 12/19/2013 Muscat 1/16/2015 Yes
51. Qatar Provisional 10/3/2001 10/3/2001 Washington Yes
52. France1 In Force 10/19/2001 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020 Yes
53. Sri Lanka In Force 6/11/2002 6/11/2002 Washington 11/18/2002 Yes
54. Uganda In Force 6/4/2002 10/27/2009 Atlanta 10/27/2009 Yes
55. Cabo Verde In Force 6/21/2002 1/14/2003 Praia 1/14/2003 Yes
56. Samoa2 No longer applied 7/4/2002 Withdrew from MALIAT 3/9/2019
57. Jamaica In Force 10/30/2002 10/30/2008 Kingston 10/30/2008 Yes
58. Tonga2 In Force 1/20/2004 9/19/2003 1/20/2004 Yes
59. Albania In Force 5/4/2004 9/24/2003 Washington 5/4/2004 Yes
60. Madagascar In Force 3/10/2004 3/10/2004 Antananarivo 8/22/2017 Yes
61. Gabon In Force 5/26/2004 5/26/2004 Washington 5/26/2004 Yes
62. Indonesia C&R3 7/26/2004 7/26/2004 Denpasar Yes
63. Uruguay In Force 10/20/2004 10/20/2004 Montevideo 6/16/2006 Yes
64. India In Force 1/15/2005 4/14/2005 New Delhi 6/21/2005 Yes
65. Paraguay In Force 5/2/2005 5/2/2004 Asuncion 8/1/2006 Yes
66. Maldives In Force 5/5/2005 5/5/2005 Washington 5/5/2005 Yes
67. Ethiopia In Force 5/17/2005 5/17/2005 Washington 7/21/2006 Yes
68. Thailand In Force 9/19/2005 9/19/2005 Washington 9/19/2005 Yes
69. Mali In Force 10/17/2005 10/17/2005 Washington 10/17/2005 Yes
70. Bosnia And Herzegovina In Force 11/22/2005 11/22/2005 Washington 11/22/2005 Yes
71. Cameroon In Force 2/16/2006 2/16/2006 Yaounde 1/15/2019 Yes
72. Cook Islands2 In Force 2/28/2006 3/8/2006 7/23/2006 Yes
73. Chad C&R3 5/31/2006 Yes
74. Kuwait In Force 8/30/2006 8/30/2006 Kuwait 5/27/2007 Yes
75. Liberia In Force 2/15/2007 2/15/2007 Washington 2/15/2007 Yes
76. Canada In Force 3/12/2007 3/12/2007 Washington 3/12/2007 Yes
77. Bulgaria1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
78. Cyprus1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
79. Estonia1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
80. Greece1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
81. Hungary1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
82. Ireland1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
83. Latvia1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
84. Lithuania1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
85. Slovenia1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
86. Spain1 In Force 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
87. United Kingdom1 Provisional; see note 1 3/30/2008 4/25/2007 and 4/30/2007 Brussels and Washington 6/29/2020
88. Georgia In Force 12/6/2007 6/21/2007 Washington 12/6/2007 Yes
89. Australia In Force 2/14/2008 3/21/2008 Washington 6/18/2013 Yes
90. Croatia In Force 3/13/2008 2/3/2011 Washington 9/7/2011 Yes
91. Kenya In Force 5/30/2008 6/18/2008 Washington 6/18/2008
92. Laos In Force 10/3/2008 7/13/2010 Washington 7/13/2010 Yes
93. Armenia In Force 10/6/2008 11/21/2008 Washington Yes
94. Zambia In Force 3/16/2010 3/16/2010 Lusaka 3/16/2010 Yes
95. Israel In Force 3/29/2011 12/1/2010 Jerusalem 3/29/2011
96. Trinidad & Tobago In Force 5/1/10 5/22/2010 Port of Spain 11/1/2010 Yes
97. Barbados In Force 5/5/2015 5/5/2015 Bridgetown 5/5/2015 Yes
98. Japan In Force 10/25/10
(via amendment)
10/25/2010 Tokyo 11/13/2010
99. Colombia In Force 11/11/2010 5/10/2011 Bogota 5/6/2014 Yes3
100. Brazil In Force 3/19/2011 3/19/2011 Brasilia 5/21/2018
101. Saudi Arabia In Force 4/18/2011 5/28/2013 Jeddah 10/22/2014
102. St. Kitts (St. Christopher) & Nevis In Force 11/28/2011 12/13/2011 Basseterre 12/13/2011 Yes
103. Montenegro In Force 12/5/2011 3/2/2012 Podgorica 3/2/2012 Yes
104. Suriname In Force 6/21/2012 7/8/2013 Paramaribo 12/9/2014 Yes
105. Sierra Leone In Force 6/26/2012 9/10/2012 Washington 9/20/2012 Yes
106. North Macedonia In Force 7/11/2011 8/23/2012 Skopje 7/5/2013 Yes
107. Seychelles In Force 12/12/2012 12/7/2015 Victoria 1/7/2016 Yes
108. Yemen C&R3 12/12/2012 Yes
109. Guyana In Force 3/25/2013 3/25/2013 Georgetown 3/25/2013 Yes
110. Bangladesh C&R3 8/15/2013 Yes
111. Botswana In Force 12/12/2013 5/23/2014 Gaborone 5/23/2014 Yes
112. Equatorial Guinea In Force 8/7/2014 8/7/2014 Washington 8/7//2014 Yes
113. Burundi C&R3 11/18/2014 Yes
114. Togo In Force 4/7/2015 4/7/2015 Lome 4/7/2015 Yes
115. Serbia In Force 8/5/2015 5/29/2015 Belgrade 8/5/2015 Yes
116. Ukraine In Force 1/14/2016 7/14/2015 Washington 1/14/2016 Yes
117. Côte d’Ivoire In Force 10/20/15 8/16/2016 Abidjan 8/16/2016 Yes
118. Azerbaijan In Force 4/6/16 4/6/2016 Baku 7/14/2016 Yes
119. Curaçao4 In Force 4/1/2017 9/26/2016 Willemstad 4/1/2017 Yes
120. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines In Force 4/7/2017 4/7/2017 Kingstown 4/7/2018 Yes
121. Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville) C&R3 5/30/2017 12/4/2018 Washington Yes
122. Bonaire, St. Eustatius, and Saba (BES)5 In Force 10/1/2018 1/17/2018 Washington 10/1/2018 Yes
123. Guinea In Force 3/19/2018 9/13/2019 Washington 9/13/2019 Yes
124. Sint Maarten6 In Force 4/1/2018 7/14/2017 Philipsburg 4/1/2018 Yes
125. Grenada In Force 2/1/2018 4/10/2018 St. George’s 4/10/2018 Yes
126. Belize In Force 10/16/2018 10/16/2018 Belmopan 10/16/2018 Yes
127. Haiti C&R3 12/12/2018 Yes
128. Belarus C&R3 12/3/2019 Yes
129. The Bahamas In Force 12/3/2019 1/27/2020 Nassau 1/27/2020 Yes
130. Kazakhstan Not yet applied 12/30/2019 12/30/2019 Nur-Sultan Yes

1. The U.S.-EU Air Transport Agreement, signed in Brussels April 25 and in Washington April 30, 2007, superseded prior agreements as set out in Annex I and was provisionally applied from March 30, 2008 for all 27 European Union Member States at that time. Norway and Iceland became party to the U.S.-EU agreement pursuant to an agreement signed at Luxembourg on June 16, 2011 and at Oslo on June 21, 2011 and provisionally applied from June 21, 2011.  The UK has exited the European Union as of January 31, 2020; however, the United States will endeavor wherever possible to afford the United Kingdom the treatment it would receive if the U.S. EU Air Transport Agreement, as amended, applied to it, subject to relevant legal and policy considerations, until the end of the transition period, which concludes on December 31, 2020.

2. Multilateral Agreement on the Liberalization of International Air Transportation (MALIAT). Effective March 9, 2019, Samoa withdrew from the MALIAT and for the time being DOT is permitting operation of Samoan air carriers to the United States on the basis of comity and reciprocity pending negotiation of a new bilateral air transport agreement.

3. Applied on the basis of comity and reciprocity (C&R).

4. The agreement is between the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, relating to air transport between Curaçao and the United States.

5. The agreement is between the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, relating to air transport between the Caribbean part of the Netherlands and the United States.

6. The agreement is between the United States and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, relating to air transport between Sint Maarten and the United States.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future