AG/RES. 2880 (XLVI-O/16) Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach

Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
June 14, 2016


(Adopted at the second plenary session, held on June 14, 2016)

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,

HAVING SEEN the Annual Report of the Permanent Council to the General Assembly 2015-2016 (AG/doc.5514/16 add. 1), in particular the section on the activities of the Committee on Hemispheric Security (CSH);

RECALLING the resolutions assigned to the CSH as detailed in the document “List of Resolutions Assigned to the Committee on Hemispheric Security (1991-2015)” and Other Resolutions Related to Security Issues (1991-1994)” (CP/CSH/INF. 453/16), as well as its resolutions AG/RES. 2862 (XLIV-O/14), “The Americas: A Zone of Peace, Cooperation, and Peaceful Dispute Settlement,” and AG/RES. 2866 (XLIII-O/14) “Advancing Hemispheric Security: A Multidimensional Approach”;

REITERATING the efforts to combat threats to hemispheric peace and security and transnational crimes that threaten the public security of member states, bearing in mind their peculiarities and diverse natures, as called for in paragraph 4, subparagraphs a), i), and m), as well as paragraph 43 of the Declaration on Security in the Americas (Mexico, 2003);

HAVING SEEN the annual reports presented to the forty-fifth and forty-sixth regular sessions of the General Assembly by the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) (CP/doc.5120/15 and CP/doc.5188/16), by the Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE) (CP/doc.5112/15 and CP/doc.5177/16), and by the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) (CP/doc.5121/15 rev. 1 and CP/doc.5170/16);

EXPRESSING ITS SATISFACTION with the holding of the Fourth Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons, in Brasilia, Brazil, on December 4 and 5, 2014; the Fifth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA V), in Lima, Peru, on November 19 and 20, 2015; two regular sessions of CICTE, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C.: the fifteenth, on March 19, 2015, and the sixteenth, on February 25 and 26, 2016; four regular sessions of CICAD: the fifty-sixth, in Guatemala City, Guatemala, from November 19 to 21, 2014; the fifty-seventh, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., from April 29 to May 1, 2015; the fifty-eighth, in Trujillo, Peru, from November 11 to 13, 2015; and the fifty-ninth, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., on April 25 and 26, 2016; the sixteenth and seventeenth regular meetings of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA, on May 5, 2015, and May 2, 2016, respectively; and the United Nations General Assembly special session on the World Drug Problem, in New York from April 18 to 21, 2016;

TAKING NOTE of the XI Conference of Ministers of Defense in the Americas, held in Arequipa, Peru, from October 12 to 14, 2014;

TAKING NOTE ALSO of the Report of the Chair of the Working Group on the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime (CSH/GT/DOT-13/16 rev. 2) and the Report of the Chair of the Working Group to Coordinate All the Preparations for the Fifth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA-V) (CSH/GT/MISPA V-21/15);

UNDERSCORING the holding of the second meeting of the MISPA Subsidiary Technical Working Group on Police Management, in Trujillo, Peru, on April 23 and 24, 2015; the meeting of the MISPA Subsidiary Technical Working Group on International Cooperation, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C., on September 28, 2015; and the Sixth Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, on March 12, 2015, at OAS headquarters in Washington, D.C.;

BEARING IN MIND the results, reports, and recommendations of the aforesaid conferences and meetings; and

RECOGNIZING that the global drugs problem impacts public health, individuals and families, citizen security, justice and people’s wellbeing, and that it affects development and undermines the rule of law, democratic institutions, and political stability, and that therefore it must be addressed, in accordance with the principle of common and shared responsibility, through a comprehensive, balanced, and multidisciplinary approach, based on evidence and scientific knowledge and with full respect for human rights; and that the design and implementation of drug-related policies and actions must be geared toward the wellbeing and health of all humankind, pursuant to the Charter of the United Nations, the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1972 Protocol amending it, the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other pertinent international instruments, bearing in mind the commitments set out in resolution AG/RES. 1 (XLVI-E/14) “Reflections and Guidelines to Formulate and Follow up on Comprehensive Policies to Address the World Drug Problem in the Americas,”

RESOLVES:

I. ACTIVITIES OF THE COMMITTEE ON HEMISPHERIC SECURITY AND MEMBER STATES

1. To reaffirm to the Permanent Council and to the General Secretariat the applicable General Assembly mandates on hemispheric security; to urge the member states to continue contributing to the attainment of the objectives established in those mandates through the development and execution of activities, the submission of reports, the exchange of information, the adoption of measures and policies, and cooperation, support and mutual assistance, and technical and financial contributions; and to instruct the General Secretariat to provide the necessary support for those ends.

2. To recognize the central role of the CSH in matters of multidimensional security, including defense, in the framework of the Organization of American States (OAS), and to instruct the Permanent Council to continue, through the CSH, promoting and coordinating cooperation among the organs, agencies, and entities of the Organization, and participating in, holding consultations with, and sharing experiences and information with other regional and international forums.

Meetings of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA)

3. To endorse the Lima Recommendations for the Prevention of Crime, Violence, and Insecurity (MISPA-V/doc.3/15 rev. 1), adopted by the Fifth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA V), held on November 19 and 20, 2015, in Lima, Peru; to urge member states to apply and continue implementing the Recommendations of Medellín for Strengthening International Cooperation in the Area of Public Security, the Consensus of Santo Domingo on Public Security, the Recommendations of Port of Spain on Police Management, and the Commitment to Public Security in the Americas; and to request that the OAS General Secretariat continue providing technical support to the member states and subregional bodies that so request, in order to attain the goals and objectives of those recommendations for preventing crime, violence, and insecurity in the region; and that it keep the Permanent Council informed, through the CSH, on the results obtained. (Agreed upon on April 28, 2016)

4. To convene the first meeting of the Subsidiary Technical Working Group on the Prevention of Crime, Violence, and Insecurity, to be held in the city of Quito, Ecuador, in the fourth quarter, 2016, pursuant to follow-up paragraph No. 3 of the “Lima Recommendations for the Prevention of Crime, Violence, and Insecurity”; to thank the Ecuadorian Government for its offer to host that meeting; and to request that the results of that meeting be presented to the CSH.

5. To express its gratitude for and accept the offer made by the Government of Honduras to host the Sixth Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Public Security in the Americas (MISPA VI) and to convene it in the second half of 2017. To that end, to instruct the Permanent Council to establish, through the CSH, a Working Group chaired by Honduras, to coordinate all the preparations for MISPA VI.

Preventing violence and crime

6. To include the subject of preventing violence and crime in the CSH’s Schedule of Activities for 2016-2017.

7. To request that the General Secretariat, through its Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, report to the Permanent Council, through the CSH, on progress with the implementation of the Inter-American Network for the Prevention of Violence and Crime, and that it present a report on the use and results of the Specific Fund set up to support the activities carried out under the aegis of that network.

8. To develop and adapt, as appropriate, strategies and actions with a comprehensive rights-based approach for preventing and reducing all forms of violence, involving children and adolescents in various social settings: families, institutions, communities; as well as prevent the use of children and adolescents by organized crime including in cyberspace.

Combating transnational organized crime

9. To recognize that the work of the Working Group on the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Translational Organized Crime, established by the Committee on Hemispheric Security in January 2016, and underscore the agreements reached contained in the Report of the Chair on the matter (CSH/GT/DOT-13/16 rev. 2), in particular, the development of the evaluation questionnaire on the level of implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Translational Organized Crime, the review of the mandates regarding resolution AG/RES.2866 (XLIV-O/14), and the list of recommendations made by the delegations to improve implementation of said Hemispheric Plan of Action, which shall be considered by the Committee on Hemispheric Security during future discussion on the matter.

10. To instruct the Committee on Hemispheric Security to include on its schedule of activities for the 2016-2017 period a meeting of National Points of Contact, with the support of the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, in the second half of 2016, in order to assess the implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime, bearing in mind the Report of the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security with the replies received to the questionnaire adopted by the CSH (CP/CSH-1729/16) and yearly special sessions of the CHS to address matters of importance for the members states on organized transnational crime.

11. To support the creation of the Department to Combat Transnational Organized Crime (DDOT) by the OAS General Secretariat in 2016, and urge the competent committees and bodies of the organization to create synergies to bolster DDOT work.

Hemispheric efforts to combat trafficking in persons

12. To condemn trafficking in persons in all its forms, reaffirm its commitment to fight that scourge, and assist and protect the victims; and to reiterate its will to cooperate at the international, regional, and subregional levels in fighting this form of modern-day slavery.

13. To endorse the outcomes of the Fourth Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons held in Brasilia, Brazil, on December 4 and 5, 2014, particularly the Inter-American Declaration against Trafficking in Persons (Declaration of Brasilia) and the Second Work Plan against Trafficking in Persons in the Western Hemisphere 2015-2018, as points of reference to guide the actions of member states in preventing, combating, and punishing trafficking in persons and in providing assistance and protection to victims; and to instruct the General Secretariat to move forward with implementing the mandates assigned to it.

14. To include World Day against Trafficking in Persons in the Organization’s calendar of events and support its commemoration on July 30 each year, as established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2014 for the purposes of increasing awareness of the plight of victims of this crime and promoting and protecting their rights.

15. To convene the Fifth Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons in the first half of 2017 and to establish, through the CSH, a working group to coordinate the preparations for that meeting of national authorities, with the support of the General Secretariat.

Illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects

16. To include the issues associated with illicit trafficking in small arms and light weapons, in the CSH Schedule of Activities for 2016-2017.

17. To continue the discussions on public policies and existing best practices on controlling small arms and light weapons and ammunition, and their parts and components, the production and illicit trafficking thereof, border controls, the lawful import and export of weapons and ammunition, and on measures for the marking and tracing of small arms and light weapons, taking into account that further provisions on illicit trafficking in firearms are contained in Section II of this resolution, “Legal Instruments,” under the heading Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA).

18. To urge member states to implement the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects, and to underscore the importance of submitting national implementation reports voluntarily on a biennial basis.

Police Technical Cooperation [1]/ [2]/

19. To encourage the General Secretariat, through its Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to continue strengthening police cooperation in areas such as technology, science, and education, taking into consideration the Framework Agreement on Interinstitutional Cooperation that was signed between the General Secretariat of the OAS and the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL), including the Network for Police Development and Professionalization. To urge member states of AMERIPOL to continue to offer police technical cooperation, to countries so requesting, and to designate, where appropriate and pursuant to national legislation, in coordination with the AMERIPOL Secretariat and the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, the relevant liaison officers.

20. To request the Secretariat for Multidimensional-Department of Public Security to establish within the department and coordinate, under its leadership and with existing resources, a round table to which it could invite technical officers and police attaches appointed by countries, regional and sub-regional organizations, as well as AMERIPOL to collaborate in the implementation of OAS actions related to police training and cooperation.

The Americas as a Zone of Peace

21. To encourage member states to take actions at the regional, sub-regional and bilateral level to continue to consolidate the Americas as a zone of peace based on respect for the principles and provisions of international law, including the international instruments to which the member states are parties, and the principles and purposes of the United Nations Charter and of the Charter of the Organization of American States (OAS); and to assist in the preservation of peace and the peaceful settlement of disputes among OAS member states and to reiterate the commitment that no state or group of states has the right to intervene, directly or indirectly, for any reason whatever, in the internal or external affairs of any other state.

22. To applaud the progress made in the process of dialogue between the Government of the Republic of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) aimed at reaching a Final Agreement to end the conflict and establish stable and lasting peace in the country, which will significantly assist peace and stability throughout the Hemisphere. In that regard, to commend efforts by the member states that have supported the peace talks in Havana, Cuba, thereby underscoring the importance of international solidarity and cooperation. To applaud, at the same time, announcement of the start of negotiations between the Government of Colombia and the Army of National Liberation (ELN), wishing success in this process.

Consolidation of the regime established in the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco)

23. To recognize the Treaty of Tlatelolco, on the 49th anniversary of its entry into force, as demonstrating the fact that the absence of nuclear weapons in the region strengthens security and confidence among the states of the Hemisphere and sets a clear example for those states that possess such weapons and contributes to efforts toward a world free of nuclear weapons.

24. To encourage the states that have ratified the protocols to the Treaty of Tlatelolco to review any related reservations, in keeping with Action 9 of the final document of the 2010 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).[3]/

Disarmament and nonproliferation in the Hemisphere

25. To step up the member states’ efforts to attain peace and security for a world without weapons of mass destruction and, in that regard, to reaffirm our decision to implement controls to avoid the proliferation of armaments of that kind; and to continue developing and implementing confidence-building measures, including among them the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC), and to reiterate the agreements adopted in resolution AG/RES. 2862 (XLIV-O/14), “The Americas: A Zone of Peace, Cooperation, and Peaceful Dispute Settlement.”

26. To take note of the work of the Open-ended Working Group, established under resolution 70/33, entitled “Taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations,” of the United Nations General Assembly, chaired in 2016 by Thailand, to substantively address concrete effective legal measures, legal provisions and norms that will need to be concluded to attain and maintain a world without nuclear weapons, and recommendations on other measures that could contribute to taking forward multilateral nuclear disarmament negotiations.[4]/

27. To take note of the efforts being made at the multilateral level to identify and seek effective measures to fulfill the commitments on non-proliferation.

28. To strongly support the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention as a cornerstone of the international legal regime banning biological weapons, call on all states that are not yet Parties to the Convention to join without delay, and affirm our commitment to strengthening the Convention at the Eighth Review Conference in 2016.

Support for the hemispheric implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) of the United Nations Security Council

29. To request that the Permanent Council, through the CHS and with the support of the CICTE, continue to support member states in the implementation of resolution 1540 (2004) of the United Nations Security Council by holding a meeting that enables, among other actions, disseminating lessons learned, exchanging experiences, identifying areas and specific projects requiring assistance, even though the preparation of voluntary national action plans on implementation, with a view to establishing priorities based on a hemispheric perspective; and to foster enhanced exchange of information with international, regional, and sub-regional organization on the implementation of resolution 1540 (2004), including Committee 1540 of the United Nations Security Council and, in particular, its second Comprehensive Review of the resolution, thereby contributing to the efforts made in the framework of the United Nations.

The Americas as an antipersonnel-land-mine-free zone [5]/

30. To instruct the Organization’s General Secretariat to continue its work in support of the affected member states’ efforts to free their territories of antipersonnel landmines, to destroy stockpiles thereof, and to make the Americas the world’s first antipersonnel-landmine-free zone; and to firmly condemn, in accordance with the principles and norms of international humanitarian law, the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices. In this framework, to specifically condemn the carrying out of these practices by illegal armed groups, whose acts put at grave risk the population of the affected countries; and to strongly urge non-state actors to observe the international norm established by the Ottawa Convention to facilitate progress in the Americas toward a mine-free world.

31. To urge all States Parties to the Ottawa Convention, interested states, the United Nations, other competent international organizations or institutions, regional organizations, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and competent non-governmental organizations to review progress made in implementing the commitments under the 2014-2019 Plan of Action and the Maputo+15 Political Declaration, which were adopted at the Third Review Conference, held from June 23 to 27, 2014, and to renew their commitment to the Ottawa Convention.

32. To resolutely support and promote fulfillment of the principles of the Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Mines in each of its pillars, to wit: universalization, education on risks, victims assistance, humanitarian de-mining, and international cooperation and assistance, including the commitments undertaken in the Review Conferences, as well as support for States that have requested an extension for fulfilling their commitments related to cleaning and decontamination, in order to meet the established deadlines on time.

33. To urge the States Party that have requested extensions in virtue of Article 5 of the Ottawa Convention to undertake all the necessary efforts to fulfill their obligations by established deadlines.

34. Considering the importance of having comprehensive mine action policies, to recognize the results achieved by the Government of the Republic of Colombia on the matter, highlighting the contributions of the international community, which have been channeled through the Organization of American States (OAS) for this purpose and which reaffirm the unwavering commitment of the member states and the General Secretariat of the Organization to continue supporting efforts being pursued in this country. To highlight as well the central role that humanitarian demining has played in peace talks, a fact that has yielded results with a highly positive impact on the standard of living for populations affected by this scourge.

Confidence- and security-building measures in the Americas

35. To adopt, as the thirty-seventh Confidence and Security-building Measure (CSBM), “Exchange information related to adopting and/or adapting provisions under domestic laws that govern processes for obtaining data and information, and also, with the participation of governments, service providers, end users, and others, exchange experiences in the prevention and management of and protection against cyberthreats, with a view to sustained mutual cooperation to prevent, address, and investigate criminal activities that threaten security, and to ensure an open, interoperable, secure, and reliable internet, while respecting obligations and commitments under international law, particularly international human rights law,” and to include it in the corresponding New Consolidated List of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBM) for Reporting According to OAS Resolutions,” in a new section titled “Non-traditional Measures,” and, thus, adopt this New List in keeping with the decision made by the Committee on Hemispheric Security on May 5, 2016 (CP/CSH-1743/16)[6]/

36. To urge all member states to furnish the General Secretariat, no later than July 15 of each year, with information on the application of CSBMs, using the “New Consolidated List of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures for Reporting According to OAS Resolutions” (CP/CSH-1743/16) and the “Format for Reporting on the Application of Confidence- and Security-Building Measures” (CSH/FORO-IV/doc.7/10) and to request the OAS General Secretariat to complete the online CSBMs database and electronic template for the submission of online annual reports on CSBMs and to provide funding for this endeavor as mandated in resolution AG/RES. 2866 (XLIV-O/14).

37. To convene the Seventh Meeting of the Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures in the first quarter of 2017 at the headquarters of the OAS General Secretariat.

Follow-up to the Special Conference on Security

38. To reaffirm the commitment to the Declaration on Security in the Americas and, in particular, the multidimensional security approach, recognizing their important contribution to the hemispheric agenda and the need to continue their implementation, by the OAS and its member states, considering the elements identified in the 10-year anniversary seminar that addressed the relationship between security and social development, in order to bolster hemispheric cooperation; to contribute to reducing poverty, fostering social inclusion, and promoting the preventive approach that enables counteracting the threats that jeopardize integral development.

39. To encourage member states to continue to make progress on the implementation of the Declaration on Security in the Americas and to voluntary report on their progress, ensuring the security of citizens; combatting transnational threats; promoting the peaceful resolution of conflicts; and fostering a climate of confidence, security, and cooperation in the Americas.

Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas

40. To urge member states and the General Secretariat to continue to implement the Hemispheric Plan of Action to Follow-up on the Declaration of San Salvador on Citizen Security in the Americas, whose implementation has been extended.

Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean

41. To express satisfaction with the successful outcome of the Meetings on the Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean held within the Committee on Hemispheric Security at the Organization of American States in Washington D.C., on March 27, 2015 and April 7, 2016; and to instruct the Permanent Council to continue convening the annual meeting on the special security concerns of the small island states of the Caribbean, re-emphasizing that their peculiar characteristics of small, fragile economies and scarce resources render these states particularly vulnerable and susceptible to the effects of the myriad forms of transnational organized crime and other types of insecurities.

42. To acknowledge the following recommendations put forward by the member states and the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security:

a. Develop a concrete security agenda through development of a joint plan of action addressing the core areas of the Memorandum of Understanding between the OAS and the Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS).

b. Enhance cooperation between the OAS and IMPACS in order to mitigate the damaging effects of crime, violence and man-made and natural disasters.

c. Develop a focused agenda for security cooperation with tangible outcomes.

d. Maximize benefits to be derived by member states from limited resources through cooperative initiatives.

43. To instruct the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States through the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to continue collaborating with the CARICOM Implementation Agency for Crime and Security (IMPACS) and to develop a five-year Work Plan to facilitate implementation of the Memorandum of Understanding between the OAS and IMPACS bearing in mind that specific funds should be sought for implementation of this Work Plan so as to reduce the financial burden on the OAS.

Support for the Central American Security Strategy

44. To urge the General Secretariat to continue providing cooperation and support, through the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to the Central American Integration System (SICA), in order to strengthen implementation of the Central American Security Strategy.

Protecting Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Natural Disasters

45. To instruct the Committee on Hemispheric Security, with support from the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security, to hold a meeting of experts, to which it will also invite members of the Inter-American Committee for Natural Disaster Reduction (IACNDR), on “Protecting Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Natural Disasters” in the fourth quarter of 2016, with the aim of raising awareness about the importance of the issue and exploring mechanisms to strengthen, where appropriate, the prevention, mitigation, and rebuilding efforts of member states in relation to such infrastructure in the event of natural disasters.

Cyber Security

46. To urge member states to deepen the regional dialogue on matters related to cyber security and, where defined by the States, digital security, in keeping with national legislation, to create awareness and promote a culture on cyber security among member states, in response to the challenges posed by information and communication.

II. LEGAL INSTRUMENTS

47. To urge those member states that have not already done so to give prompt consideration to ratifying or acceding to, as the case may be, the Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA) and the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC) and the Inter-American Convention against Terrorism.

Inter-American Convention against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives, and Other Related Materials (CIFTA)

48. To adopt as a non-binding reference guide the document “OAS Firearms Standards: Marking and Recordkeeping,” prepared by the Virtual Working Group of designated national experts and approved by the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA at its Seventeenth Meeting, held on May 2, 2016.

49. To convene the eighteenth regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA, pursuant to Article XXI of the Convention, as a one-day event to be held during the first half of 2017, and the IV Conference of States Party to the CIFTA to be held the first week of December 2016; and to request the Technical Secretariat of the CIFTA to provide support for the preparations for and follow-up for both meetings.

50. To instruct the Technical Secretariat to prepare a comparative study of the CIFTA and other related international conventions on the subject, to, among other issues, find synergies among them, lending visibility to potential work opportunities, and showing possible duplication of efforts that may exist among these conventions. This comparative study should also include the United Nations Programme of Action to prevent, combat, and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects (UNPOA), and the International Tracing Instrument (ITI). The results of the study should be submitted to the Eighteenth Regular Meeting of the Consultative Committee of the CIFTA.

Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC)

51. To renew the request that the General Secretariat, through the SMS, prepare the consolidated annual reports for the years 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016.

52. To hold the Second Conference of States Party to the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisition (CITAAC) in the second half of 2017.

III. OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE ORGANS, AGENCIES, AND ENTITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION 
(ARTICLE 91.F OF THE CHARTER OF THE ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES)

Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD)

53. To instruct the General Secretariat to strengthen the Executive Secretariat of CICAD so that it may continue to discharge its mandates, including, but not limited to, providing the member states with technical assistance and facilitating the development and implementation of policies on drugs based on a comprehensive, balanced, sustainable, and multidisciplinary approach; and to urge the member states, permanent observers, and other international donors to continue to make voluntary contributions toward those goals.

54. To conclude the preparation of the 2016-2020 Hemispheric Plan of Action on Drugs prior to the 60th regular session of CICAD, pursuant to the mandate of the resolution adopted by the forty-sixth special session of the OAS General Assembly (held in Guatemala City, Guatemala) AG/RES. 1 (XLVI-E/14), “Reflections and Guidelines to Formulate and Follow up on Comprehensive Policies to Address the World Drug Problem in the Americas,” and taking into consideration the outcome document of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem, titled “Our joint commitment to effectively addressing and countering the world drug problem” (A/S-30/L.1).

Inter-American Committee against Terrorism (CICTE)

55. To instruct the General Secretariat to provide the CICTE Secretariat, within the resources allocated in the program-budget of the OAS, the human and financial resources needed for implementing the CICTE Work Plan, which includes the areas of border controls, legislative assistance and combating terrorism financing, critical infrastructure protection, strengthening strategies on emerging terrorist threats, Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1540, and international coordination and cooperation, as well as preparing for and holding the Seventeenth Regular Session.

56. To instruct the General Secretariat to provide, through the CICTE Secretariat, continued support to member states’ comprehensive capacity-building efforts aimed at establishing and/or strengthening national alert, monitoring, and response groups known as Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs); to strengthen specialized units within their relevant law enforcement agencies for the prevention and investigation of cybersecurity incidents, as well as the hemispheric security network of the CSIRTs and cybersecurity authorities, member states’ exchanges of information, and their cooperation related to the protection of critical information infrastructure; and to continue to develop comprehensive national cybersecurity strategies and to involve all relevant actors and stakeholders in their development and implementation, including the private sector, academia, the technical community, civil society, and other social stakeholders.

57. To convene the Seventeenth Regular Session of CICTE, scheduled to be held from March 16-17, 2017, in Panama City, Panama, as well as the three one-day preparatory meetings to be held at the Organization’s headquarters on December 2, 2016, January 20, 2017, and February 17, 2017, in accordance with the rules and regulations governing the activities of CICTE.

Inter-American Defense Board (IADB) [7]/ [8]/ [9]/ [10]/

58. To request that the IADB, within the framework of its Statutes and the mandates of the OAS, continue providing technical, consultative, and educational advice to the OAS and the member states that request and technical advisory support needed by the Pro Tempore Secretariat of the XII Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas; and to invite the member states that so wish to consider continuing to provide the IADB with the financial and human resources necessary to support that institution.

59. To instruct the IADB to prepare studies and reports, which can be used by the organs of the OAS and member states, on military and defense issues, particularly as regards confidence- and security-building measures, the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC), defense forums and conferences in the hemisphere, demining, and stockpile management, security, and destruction, as well as humanitarian assistance and disaster search and rescue.

60. To invite member states to designate civilian, military, and police candidates to pursue the Master of Sciences degree in Inter-American Defense and Security offered by the Inter-American Defense College, the educational arm of the Inter-American Defense Board, which degree was recently accredited by the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (ACICS).

IV. RENEWAL OF MANDATES CONTAINED IN RESOLUTION ASSIGNED BY THE PERMANENT COUNCIL TO THE CHS

61. Given that their implementation is not yet complete, to renew the mandates contained in operative paragraphs 16 (on CSBM), 36, 37, 41, and 44 (on TOC), 75, 77, 78, 81, and 85 (on the CIFTA), and 92 (on the CITAAC) of resolution AG/RES. 2866 (XLIV-O/14).

V. FOLLOW-UP AND REPORTING

62. To instruct the Secretariat for Multidimensional Security to submit, in due course, its 2016-2017 plan of activities for consultations or proper oversight by the member states.

63. To request the Permanent Council to report to the General Assembly at its forty-seventh regular session on the implementation of this resolution. Execution of the activities envisaged in this resolution will be subject to the availability of financial resources in the program-budget of the Organization and other resources.

VI. SCHEDULE OF MEETINGS AND SPECIAL EVENTS

Sequence

Topic

Estimated Date

Name

Place

1.

CDMA

October 10-12, 2016

XII Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas

Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

2.

CICAD

November 1-4, 2016

60th regular session of the CICAD

Nassau, Bahamas

3.

CIFTA

December 5-9, 2016

Fourth Conference of the States Party to the CIFTA

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

4.

MISPA

Fourth quarter 2016

First meeting of the Subsidiary Technical Working Group on the Prevention of Crime, Violence, and Insecurity

Quito, Ecuador

5.

Protecting Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Natural Disasters

Fourth quarter 2016

Meeting of experts on Protecting Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Natural Disasters

OAS headquarters, Washington, D.C.

6.

Transnational Organized Crime

Second half of 2017

Meeting to assess implementation of the Hemispheric Plan of Action against Transnational Organized Crime

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

7.

CIFTA

First half of 2017

13th regular meeting of the Consultative Committee of CIFTA

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

8.

CICTE

March 16-17, 2017

17th Regular Session of CICTE

Panama City, Republic of Panama

9.

Human Trafficking

First half of 2017

Second Meeting of National Authorities on Trafficking in Persons

(To be determined)

10.

CSBMs

First half of 2017

Seventh Forum on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

11.

Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean

First half of 2017

Special Security Concerns of the Small Island States of the Caribbean

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

12.

MISPA

Second half of 2017

MISPA VI

Honduras

13.

CITAAC

Second half of 2017

Second Conference of States Party to the Inter-American Convention on Transparency in Conventional Weapons Acquisitions (CITAAC)

OAS headquarters

Washington, D.C.

FOOTNOTES

[1]. Footnote from Venezuela: The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela questions the existence and enforceability of the Framework Cooperation Agreement signed by the OAS General Secretariat and the American Police Community in June 2011. That document was not negotiated or approved by OAS member states. Moreover, AMERIPOL does not represent the police agencies of all the Hemisphere's countries. Accordingly, a pretense at institutionalization in the Organization cannot be used to impose cooperation with said community. Venezuela supports voluntary cooperation on police matters based on respect for sovereignty, independence, the principle of noninterference, the system of laws, and the institutions of countries. Such cooperation must always be coordinated by and subject to the civilian control of all the OAS member states.

[2]. Footnote from Bolivia: Agreements signed by the General Secretariat neither can nor should become a source of mandates for the Organization, given that the member states gathered in the appropriate organs are the only ones that can set mandates. Therefore, the agreement with AMERIPOL does not constitute a mandate for the member states.

[3]. Footnote from Mexico: The Government of Mexico believes that the use of the word “reservation” in the context of the paragraph is incorrect, given that Article 28 of the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco) stipulates that it may not be subject to reservation; as such, Mexico’s intention in proposing the use of “Interpretive Declarations” in its place seeks to rectify a historical error that undermines the treaty itself. To this end, it bears also noting resolutions CG/E/Res.568 and CG/Res.03/2015 of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (OPANAL), adopted by the 33 member states of the agency in November 2014 and 2015, respectively, in which the following language is used: “…with a view to achieving the review or withdrawal of the Interpretive Declarations that States Party to the Additional Protocols to the Treaty of Tlatelolco made to such instruments.

[4]. Footnote from the United States: The United States does not support this paragraph. The United States remains committed to seeking the peace and security of a world without nuclear weapons. The Open-ended Working Group established under UNGA resolution 70/33, however, is neither inclusive nor consensus-based, and such non-consensus efforts will not advance the cause of nuclear disarmament. The United States supports practical steps towards the elimination of nuclear weapons, an approach that has reduced dramatically nuclear arsenals from their Cold War highs and which the United States seeks to build on through negotiations on further reductions, which require a willing partner and a conducive security environment and through support for FMCT, CTBT and Nuclear Weapon Free Zones.

[5]. Footnote from the United States: The United States is the largest contributor of demining humanitarian assistance in the world and the hemisphere. We have contributed over $2.6 billion for conventional weapons destruction since 2003. The United States will continue to support OAS efforts to eliminate the humanitarian threat of all remaining landmines and declare countries “mine-impact-free.” In February 2016, President Obama announced that the United States and Norway will lead a Global Demining Initiative for Colombia. The President highlighted his request to Congress for $21 million dollars to support this initiative. In September 2014 the United States announced that it would align its activities outside the Korean Peninsula with key requirements of the Ottawa Convention. This means the United States will:

  • not use anti-personnel landmines (APL) outside the Korean Peninsula;
  • not assist, encourage, or induce anyone outside the Korean Peninsula to engage in activity prohibited by the Ottawa Convention; and
  • undertake to destroy APL stockpiles not required for the defense of the Korean Peninsula.

Although the United States is not party to the Ottawa Convention, we continue our efforts to diligently pursue material and operational solutions that would be compliant with the Convention and that would ultimately allow us to accede to the Convention while ensuring our ability to meet our alliance commitments to the Republic of Korea.

[6]. Footnote from Nicaragua: Nicaragua’s position regarding the adoption of confidence- and security-building measures, remains the same as that which it expressed at the meeting of the Committee on Hemispheric Security meeting held on March 3, 2016:

“The Government of the Republic of Nicaragua acknowledges confidence- and security-building measures as a mechanism that helps to foster an international climate of trust and peace in the region. It agrees with the need that such measures be consistent with geographic, political, social, cultural, economic, and technological conditions and realities. In that sense, it is broadly in favor of a confidence-building measure involving the exchange of information related to adopting and adapting provisions under domestic laws that govern processes for obtaining data and information, and exchanges of experiences among governments regarding prevention, management of, and protection against cyber threats. Furthermore, the participation of service providers and end-users under this measure should be voluntary and should not entail any obligation for States.”

[7]. Footnote from Ecuador: The Government of Ecuador, in keeping with Article 4, paragraph 4.4 of the Statutes of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), gave notice of its definitive withdrawal from the IADB on February 20, 2014, and in keeping with the established procedure, ceased its membership of the Board on February 20, 2015. As such, Ecuador cannot be part of any consensus or commitment that the states make on this matter.

[8]. Footnote from Nicaragua: The Government of Nicaragua believes that the historical context that enabled the establishment of the Inter-American Defense Board differs from the current realities of our states. Nicaragua does not agree that the Inter-American Defense Board should intervene in matters of a military or any other nature that would undermine the sovereignty, independence, institutions, or legal system of a country.

[9]. Footnote from Venezuela: the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela calls into question the continued validity of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB), given its origins, nature, scope, objectives, and performance. The international context in which the IADB was conceived is long gone. Therefore, it should adapt to the new paradigms and times of the Hemisphere. The Government of Venezuela reiterates that the IADB’s activities should be confined to the competencies specifically established in its Statutes, and it should refrain from intervening in matters of a military or other nature that undermine peace, sovereignty, independence, freedom, the principle of noninterference, territorial integrity, self-determination, system of laws, and institutions of states, which are fundamental elements for the peaceful coexistence of nations.

[10]. Footnote from Bolivia: In the new climate of relations among states in the Hemisphere and in keeping with the decisions of the OAS member states in terms of making the Americas a Zone of Peace, the Inter-American Defense Board has ceased to have any validity and does not contribute to the priorities of the member states, or those of the OAS. Accordingly, an agency that is nothing more than a drain on the Organization's financial resources should not continue to be maintained.