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Government-by-Government Assessments: The Bahamas

During the review period, the government made its executive budget proposal, enacted budget, and end-of-year report widely and easily accessible to the public, including online.  Information on debt obligations was publicly available.  Budget documents provided a substantially complete picture of the government’s planned expenditures and revenue streams.  Information in budget documents was generally considered reliable.  However, the supreme audit institution, which met international standards of independence, did not publish an audit report of the government’s executed budget within a reasonable period.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was public.

The Bahamas’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution audits the government’s executed budget; and
  • Making audit reports publicly available within a reasonable period.

Government-by-Government Assessments: People's Republic of China

During the review period, the government made its enacted budget and end-of-year report accessible to the public, including online, but it did not publish an executive budget proposal before enacting the budget.  Information on debt obligations was publicly available but was not always complete or updated.  Budget documents did not identify financial allocations to or earnings from state-owned enterprises.  Not all major state-owned enterprises had publicly available audited financial statements and they did not disclose their debt holdings.  The supreme audit institution did not meet international standards of independence but reviewed the government’s accounts and made audit reports publicly available within a reasonable period.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was publicly available.  The sovereign wealth fund had a sound legal framework and disclosed its sources of funding, but not its general approach to withdrawals.

The People’s Republic of China’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing executive budget proposals ahead of the budget’s enactment;
  • Providing timely and complete information on debt obligations;
  • Detailing debt holdings as well as financial allocations to and earnings from state-owned enterprises in the budget or other public documents;
  • Publishing audit reports for major state-owned enterprises;
  • Establishing an independent supreme audit institution that meets international standards of independence; and
  • Disclosing the sovereign wealth fund’s general approach to withdrawals.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Eswatini

During the review period, budget documents were available to the public.  However, the executive budget proposal and the end-of-year report were not available online within a reasonable period.  Information on debt obligations was publicly available online.  While budget documents provided a general picture of government revenues and expenditures, expenditures for royal emoluments were not broken down.  Information in the budget was considered generally reliable.  The government’s supreme audit institution published an audit report within a reasonable period, however it lacked independence that met international standards and its audits did not cover the entire annual executed budget.  The government outlined in law or regulation the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction licenses and contracts, but the opacity of the procedures cast doubt on whether the government followed the law in practice.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was not always publicly available.  It is not clear whether sovereign wealth funds had sound legal frameworks, and they did not disclose sources of funding or general approaches to withdrawals.

Eswatini’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing the executive budget proposal and end-of-year report online within a reasonable period;
  • Including comprehensive expenditure information for royal emoluments in budget documents;
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution meets international standards of independence and its reports cover the entire annual executed budget;
  • Ensuring laws for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses are followed in practice;
  • Making basic information on natural resource extraction awards publicly available; and
  • Ensuring sovereign wealth funds have a sound legal framework and disclose their sources of funding and general approach to withdrawals.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Yemen

During the review period, the government did not produce within a reasonable period any budget documents, including an executive budget proposal, end-of-year report, or enacted budget.  The government published limited information on debt obligations.  It did not publish state-owned enterprise debt, in part because most state-owned enterprises are in Sana’a, which is outside central government territorial control.  Actual revenues and expenditures likely differed from the budget extensions.  The supreme audit institution met international standards of independence; however, it did not conduct an audit of the government’s executed budget.  The government did not fully specify in law or regulation the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  The government did not issue any natural resource awards during the review period.

Yemen’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Passing a budget and making budget documents available to the public within a reasonable period;
  • Publishing substantially complete information on debt obligations, including for state-owned enterprises,
  • Ensuring budget documents are substantially complete and reliable;
  • Ensuring actual revenues and expenditures reasonably correspond to budget projections;
  • Producing and publishing audit reports of the government’s executed budget within a reasonable period; and
  • Clarifying laws and regulations for awarding contracts and licenses for natural resource extraction.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Cameroon

During the review period, budget documents were widely and easily accessible to the public online.  Information in budget documents, however, was incomplete.  Information on debt obligations was publicly available and updated quarterly, including for state-owned enterprises.  Allocations to and earnings from state-owned enterprises were not identified in budget documents, and few state-owned enterprises produced financial statements.  The government did not review its budget throughout the year.  The government maintained off-budget accounts not subject to adequate audit or oversight, and there were similar concerns regarding the budget for military and intelligence services.  The information in the budget was considered generally reliable.  The supreme audit institution did not meet international standards of independence and did not audit the government’s executed budget.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was publicly available.

Cameroon’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Including allocations to and earnings from state-owned enterprises in its budget;
  • Making audited financial statements for state-owned enterprises publicly available;
  • Eliminating off-budget accounts or subjecting them to adequate audit and oversight;
  • Subjecting military and intelligence budgets to civilian oversight;
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution meets international standards of independence; and
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution audits the government’s executed budget, makes its reports publicly available and follows up on its findings.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Bangladesh

During the review period, the government made significant progress by publishing its end-of-year report within a reasonable period.  It also made its executive budget proposal and enacted budget widely and easily accessible to the public, including online.  Information on debt obligations was publicly available.  Budget documents provided a reasonably complete picture of the government’s planned expenditures and revenue streams, including natural resource revenues.  Financial allocations to and earnings from state-owned enterprises were included in publicly available budget documents.  Information in the budget was considered generally reliable, although budget documents were not prepared according to internationally accepted principles.  The government’s supreme audit institution reviewed the government’s accounts, but its reports did not contain substantive findings and were not made publicly available within a reasonable period.  The supreme audit institution did not meet international standards of independence.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was not consistently made publicly available.

Bangladesh’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Preparing budget documents according to internationally accepted principles;
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution meets international standards of independence and has sufficient resources;
  • Publishing timely audit reports that contain substantive findings, recommendations, and narratives; and
  • Making basic information about natural resource extraction awards publicly and consistently available.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Palestinian Authority

During the review period, the Palestinian Authority made its enacted budget public, but not within a reasonable period, and the data was incomplete.  The budget was not approved by the legislature.  It published monthly budget execution reports that provided a substantially full picture of expenditures and revenue streams.  The information in the reports was considered reliable and reasonably accurate, but information on debt obligations was incomplete.  The supreme audit institution lacked independence, and its audit reports were not publicly available within a reasonable period and did not cover the entire annual executed budget.

The Palestinian Authority’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing its executive budget proposal, complete enacted budget, and end-of-year report in a timely manner;
  • Providing complete and timely information on debt obligations;
  • Ensuring the independence of the supreme audit institution; and
  • Publishing supreme audit institution reports of the entire annual executed budget within a reasonable period.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Kazakhstan

During the review period, the government published its executive budget proposal and enacted budget, but not its end-of-year report, in a reasonable period.  Information on debt obligations was widely and easily accessible to the public, including online, but did not include comprehensive information on state-owned enterprise debt.  The budget was substantially complete and generally reliable.  The supreme audit institution reviewed the government’s accounts and made its reports publicly available but did not meet international standards of independence.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was publicly available.  Sovereign wealth funds had sound legal frameworks and disclosed sources of funding and general approaches to withdrawals.

Kazakhstan’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Disclosing state-owned enterprise debt in the budget;
  • Publishing an end-of-year report within a reasonable period; and
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution meets international standards of independence.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Belize

During the review period, the government made its enacted budget, end-of-year report, and information on debt obligations widely accessible to the public, including online.  However, it did not publish an executive budget proposal within a reasonable period.  Information on debt obligations were widely and easily accessible to the public, including online.  Publicly available budget documents provided a substantially complete picture of the government’s planned expenditures and revenue streams, including natural resource revenues.  Budget information was generally reliable.  While the supreme audit institution met international standards of independence, it did not publish audit reports within a reasonable period.

Belize’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing its executive budget proposal within a reasonable period; and
  • Ensuring the supreme audit institution audits the government’s executed budget and makes audit reports publicly available within a reasonable period.

Government-by-Government Assessments: Lesotho

During the review period, the government made significant progress by making its budget proposal and enacted budget publicly available in a reasonable period.  The government did not, however, publish an end-of-year report in a reasonable period.  The government also made significant progress by publishing information on debt obligations, including state-owned enterprise debt, within a reasonable period.  Budget documents provided a mostly complete picture of the government’s planned expenditures and revenue streams, including natural resource revenues.  According to budget executive reports and end-of-year reports, actual revenues and expenditures did not reasonably correspond to those in the enacted budget.  The supreme audit institution met international standards of independence and published audits that covered the entire budget and contained substantive findings.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for awarding natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was not publicly available.

Lesotho’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing an end-of-year report online within a reasonable period;
  • Ensuring actual revenues and expenditures correspond with those in the enacted budget;
  • Making expenditures to support executive offices publicly available; and
  • Making basic information on natural resource extraction publicly available.

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