U.S. Relations With Poland
More information about Poland is available on the Poland Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
Poland is a stalwart ally in Central Europe and one of the United States’ strongest partners on the continent in fostering security and prosperity regionally, throughout Europe, and the world. The United States and Poland partner closely on NATO capabilities, counterterrorism, nonproliferation, missile defense, human rights, economic growth and innovation, energy security, and regional cooperation in Central and Eastern Europe. Poland jointly hosts the NATO Multinational Corps and Division Northeast Headquarters in its territory, hosts a NATO Force Integration Unit (NFIU) in its territory, will be a framework nation under the very high readiness joint task force (VJTF) in 2020, and hosted the 2016 NATO Summit in Warsaw. Poland has contributed to operations in Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and defeating ISIS. Poland hosts a U.S. aviation detachment and will host a ballistic missile defense site under the European Phased Adaptive Approach. It also hosts units from a rotational U.S. Armored Combat Brigade Team and a NATO enhanced Forward Presence battalion (with the United States as the framework partner). Poland facilitates numerous military exercises; in 2016, over 16,000 U.S. military personnel participated in exercises there under Operation Atlantic Resolve, Polish national exercise Anakonda 16, and other U.S. and NATO exercises. The strong U.S.-Poland relationship and shared commitment to freedom date back to the American Revolution, when Polish heroes such as Tadeusz Kosciuszko and Casimir Pulaski aided our cause. Poland is marking 100 years of the restoration of independence in 2018, in which the United States played a significant role through U.S. President Wilson’s proclamation of support for an independent Poland in his Fourteen Points address on January 8, 1918. Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II. A communist regime consolidated power in 1947 following the war and ended in 1989. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004.
U.S. Assistance to Poland
Poland graduated from USAID assistance in 2000 and capitalized on its successful transition experience to become a provider of assistance to other countries in the region. For example, Poland has been a regional leader in partnering with the United States through the Emerging Donors Challenge Program (EDCP) – a program overseen by the Office of the Coordinator of U.S. Assistance to Europe, Eurasia, and Central Asia. Through the EDCP initiative, the United States builds partnerships with donor nations like Poland by co-financing joint foreign assistance activities, especially in Eastern Partnership countries. The U.S. Government-financed Polish-American Enterprise Fund was a major investor in private Polish companies in the 1990s. The Polish-American Freedom Foundation continues this legacy by investing in training and education in Poland. Poland is active in the EU’s Eastern Partnership and spearheaded the launch of the European Endowment for Democracy.
U.S. security assistance enhances Poland’s capability to meet its NATO obligations and to deploy and sustain professional forces in multilateral operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The United States has devoted substantial funds to enhance Polish military facilities and sustain the U.S. troop presence in Poland via the European Deterrence Initiative (EDI). In March 2018, Poland signed a $4.75B letter of acceptance to purchase the PATRIOT air and missile defense system, marking Poland’s largest military procurement ever.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Strong and uninterrupted economic growth, a large domestic market, tariff-free access to the European Union (EU), political stability, and a relatively low-cost well-educated workforce are prime reasons that U.S. companies do business in Poland. Opportunities for trade and investment have attracted foreign investors into all sectors, and the United States is Poland's top non-EU investor. Poland is the leading trade partner for the United States in East Central Europe. As an EU member, Poland applies the EU's common external tariff to goods from other countries, including the United States. The United States and Poland have signed a double taxation treaty, an agreement pursuant to the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), and a bilateral treaty on business and economic relations which includes an investor-state dispute mechanism. The United States and Poland have a robust Science and Technology (S&T) relationship, and in April 2018 renewed a bilateral S&T Agreement.
Poland's Membership in International Organizations
Poland and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Poland is an observer to the Organization of American States. Poland is serving as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council from January 2018 through December 2019.
Poland maintains an embassy in the United States at 2640 16th St. NW, Washington, DC 20009 (tel. 202-234-3800).
More information about Poland is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here:
Department of State Poland Page
Department of State Key Officers List
CIA World Factbook Poland Page
History of U.S. Relations With Poland
Human Rights Reports
International Religious Freedom Reports
Trafficking in Persons Reports
Narcotics Control Reports
Investment Climate Statements
U.S. Census Bureau Foreign Trade Statistics
Export.gov International Offices Page
Library of Congress Country Studies