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Entered into force December 16, 1978 for VIII-6 thru VIII-8 and VIII-10 thru VIII-14, September 1, 1980 for VIII-3 and VIII-4, November 1, 1983 for VIII-1, VIII-2, VIII-5 and VIII-9.

Article IX, paragraph 4, of the Antarctic Treaty provides that recommended measures “shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.”

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future