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Entered into force July 27, 1966 for III-I thru VI, III-IX and III-X; September 1, 1966 for III-XI; December 22, 1978 for III-VII.

Article IX, paragraph 4, of the Antarctic Treaty provides that recommended measures “shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.”

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future