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Entered into force April 27, 2004 for XIII-1 thru XIII-9 and XIII-14 thru XIII-9; April 28, 2005 for XIII-10 thru XIII-131.

Article IX, paragraph 4, of the Antarctic Treaty provides that recommended measures “shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.”

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future