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Access to Archival Documents

In 1992, the government announced that it would open the archives related to Nazi arrivals in Argentina, extradition requests for Nazi war criminals, and laws that prevented Jewish immigration during the same period.  In 2017, the government initiated the digitalization of the archives for convenient access and further study.  It has shared copies of these digitized archives with DAIA and the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, and researchers can access the documents through these organizations.

The government created the Truth Commission for Nazi Activities in Argentina in 1997 to investigate Nazi immigration to Argentina and possible government acquiescence at the time.  A study published by the commission found 180 cases of confirmed Nazi war criminals who entered Argentina.  The government did not repeal a 1948 law barring Jewish immigration to Argentina until 2005.

Education, Remembrance, Research, and Memorial Sites

Argentina’s active civil society organizations take a multifaceted approach to Holocaust remembrance.  Concerning Holocaust primary source education, Argentina’s Museum of the Holocaust is at the forefront of compiling oral testimony from survivors.  Through the institution’s “Apprentice Project,” these survivors entrust their stories to new generations that in turn are expected to further disseminate them to their younger peers to keep the memory of the Shoah alive.  NGOs also remember the Holocaust in ceremonies they sponsor, sometimes with the Israeli embassy or connected to events commemorating the 1994 bombing of the Argentine Israelite Mutual Association (AMIA).

In 2006, Argentina became the only Latin American country to be a full member of IHRA.  In keeping with that membership, the government hosts a yearly Shoah memorial event on January 27, International Holocaust Remembrance Day, which is organized on a rotating basis by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Technology; the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship.  The latter ministry hosted the 2018 event at the Shoah Memorial Plaza in Buenos Aires at which President Mauricio Macri became the first sitting president to attend as a speaker, along with the DAIA president and a Holocaust survivor.  Other provincial capitals hosted the event in prior years, illustrating a commitment to encourage all levels of government to participate in Holocaust remembrance.

Argentina also established a Permanent Advisory Council in 2002 that functions as the local chapter of the IHRA.  The presidency of this council rotates among the aforementioned three government ministries and includes the National Institute against Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Racism, as well as many civil society organizations.  Chief among these NGOs are DAIA, AMIA, B’nai B’rith Argentina, the Anne Frank Center (Centro Ana Frank), the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Plural Jai, the Holocaust Museum Foundation, the Center for Holocaust Studies, the Argentine Judeo-Christian Confraternity, and many more.  The Council convenes monthly to exchange information and discuss initiatives such as remembrance events, workshops, seminars, production of documentary material, and academic curricula.


Access to Archival Documents

Canada has provided funding for the publication of a publicly accessible thematic guide that provides a list of Holocaust-related material in its holdings, titled “Research Guide to Holocaust‑related Holdings at Library and Archives Canada.”  It includes both archival and published sources and covers both governmental and personal documents.  The government has noted, however, that “obstacles still exist for accessing other public and private archived materials,” either because some collections have not been digitized or because those holding the collections have not produced online search catalogues.  In 2016, the government launched the Library and Archives Canada Documentary Communities Heritage Program to support archival research.  This program has provided funding to organizations such as the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre to help develop a digital preservation plan, as well as a plan for processing and accessing archival documents.

Education, Remembrance, Research, and Memorial Sites

In recent decades, Canada has taken substantial steps to support Holocaust education and research and enhance remembrance.  For example, in 1979, the Montreal Holocaust Museum was established to educate people about the Holocaust and to collect, preserve, and share artifacts relating to the Holocaust.  The museum also runs Holocaust education programs across Canada and has produced hundreds of educational video clips that are available online.  In 1994, the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre was established to further education to combat racism.  In 2013, Canada launched a five-year initiative under the Community Historical Recognition Program to acknowledge and educate all Canadians about the experiences of populations impacted by discriminatory wartime measures and immigration restrictions.  As part of the program, the government made 2.5 million Canadian dollars (approximately 2.4 million U.S. dollars) available to Jewish organizations for projects related to Canada’s internment camps and refusal to accept some Jewish refugees.

Canada is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) and marks International Holocaust Remembrance Day on January 27.  In 2013, Canada chaired the IHRA and provided 800,000 Canadian dollars (approximately 767,000 U.S. dollars) for the preservation of Holocaust survivor testimony and educational projects.  The project resulted in the digitization of thousands of oral histories of Holocaust survivors.

Canadian primary and secondary students learn about the Holocaust within the historical context of World War II, as well as through curricula focused on social justice, world religions, and language arts.  A number of nonprofit organizations are active in Holocaust education and remembrance, including the Friends of Simon Wiesenthal Center for Holocaust Studies, the Canadian Society for Yad Vashem, the Azrieli Foundation, the Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre, and the Centre for Israel and Jewish Affairs.  Canada is also home to a wide range of Holocaust studies academic programs and Jewish academic centers.


Access to Archival Documents

Claimants have access to archival documents that could be relevant to proving ownership.  The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum has had good cooperation with Estonian archives, but there are no active projects between the museum and Estonia at this time.

Education, Remembrance, Research, and Memorial Sites

Estonia joined the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in 2007.  Since joining, awareness of Holocaust issues in the country has increased considerably.  Senior government leaders participate in International Holocaust Remembrance Day events and other significant commemorations, such as the September anniversary of the murders of approximately 2,000 prisoners at the Klooga concentration camp between 1943 and 1944.

The government supports Holocaust education.  Lessons on the Holocaust are an integral and mandatory part of the Estonian school curriculum, as directed by the Ministry of Education and Research.  Educators participate in regular educational exchanges on Holocaust issues in Israel and the United States.


Education, Remembrance, Research, and Memorial Sites

Israel is home to a number of Holocaust museums.  These include Yad Vashem, the Chamber of the Holocaust, the Ghetto Fighters’ House Museum, and the Massuah International Institute for Holocaust Studies, which aims to bring young people from Israel and around the world into dialogue with the memory of the Holocaust.  There are also hundreds of small memorials throughout Israel honoring people or families who died in the Holocaust.  The Jewish National Fund (JNF), for example, planted six million trees in a “Martyr’s Forest” in 1951, according to the JNF website.

Each year, the International School for Holocaust Studies (ISHS) at Yad Vashem hosts more than 350,000 schoolchildren, university students, and educators.  The ISHS trains educators and develops tools to teach about the Holocaust, using a multi-disciplinary approach that is age‑appropriate.  The Israeli Ministry of Education has also created a comprehensive Holocaust education curriculum for students from kindergarten through high school.

Each year, Israel marks Yom HaShoah as a day of commemoration for the Jews who died in the Holocaust.  Yom HaShoah commemorations began in 1951, and the day became a national memorial day under Israeli law in 1959.  Every year on Yom HaShoah, an air raid siren sounds at 10:00 a.m., and the country’s Jewish populace observes two minutes of solemn reflection.  Israel also commemorates International Holocaust Remembrance Day annually on January 27.  Israel became a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in 1998.

In the days leading up to Yom HaShoah, many Israelis refocus their efforts to remember the Holocaust and educate others about its horrors.  One highly successful program is “Zichron B’Salon” (Memory in the Living Room) in which Israelis host small groups of people in their homes to meet with Holocaust survivors in an intimate setting.

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