1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment
The GOC’s policies towards foreign direct investment (FDI) are generally positive. There are few formal restrictions on foreign trade and investment.
Chad’s laws and regulations encourage FDI. The National Investment Charter of 2008, a set of guidelines promulgated by the National Agency for Investment and Exports (ANIE, Agence Nationale des Investissements et des Exports), an agency of the Ministry of Industrial and Commercial Development & Private Sector Promotion, offers incentives to foreign companies establishing operations in Chad, including up to five years of tax-exempt status. Under Chadian law, foreign and domestic entities may establish and own business enterprises. The National Investment Charter permits full foreign ownership of companies in Chad. The only limit on foreign control is on ownership of companies deemed related to national security. The National Investment Charter guarantees both foreign companies and individuals equal standing with Chadian companies and individuals in the privatization process. In principle, tenders for foreign investment in state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and for government contracts are conducted through open international bid procedures.
Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
There are no limits on foreign ownership or control. There are no sector-specific restrictions that discriminate against market access for U.S. or other foreign investors, and no de facto anti-foreign discriminatory practices.
Other Investment Policy Reviews
The World Trade Organization (WTO) last published a trade policy review for Chad, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Gabon, and Central African Republic in July 2013.
Neither the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nor the United Nations Committee on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has published any investment policy reviews (IPR) of Chad.
Foreign businesses interested in investing in or establishing an office in Chad should contact ANIE, which offers a one-stop shop for filing the legal forms needed to start a business. The process officially takes 72 hours and is the only legal requirement for investment. ANIE’s website ( ) provides additional information. Online business registration is not yet available via the Global Enterprise Registration web site ( ) or the Business Facilitation Program ( ).
In 2018, the World Bank ranked Chad 180 out of 190 countries for ease of starting a business, which included factors beyond the registration, to include permitting, access to resources like space and energy, and access to capital.
Contracts are tailored to each investment and often include additional incentives and concessions, such as permissions to import labor or agreements to work with specific local suppliers. Some contracts are confidential. Occasionally, government ministries attempt to change the terms of contracts or apply new laws broadly, even to companies that have pre-existing agreements that exempt them. Chad’s judicial system is weak, and rulings, including those relating to contract disputes, are susceptible to government interference. There is limited capacity within the judiciary to address commercial issues, including contract disputes. Parties usually settle disputes directly or through arbitration provided by the Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, Mining, and Crafts (CCIAMA) or through an outside entity, such as the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) in Paris.
The GOC does not offer any programs or incentives encouraging outward investment, although there are no restrictions on domestic investors who might have the means and the interest in investing abroad.
The GOC does not restrict domestic investors from investing abroad.