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Afghanistan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Albania

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Algeria

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Andorra

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Angola

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Antigua and Barbuda

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Argentina

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person Including Freedom from:

Armenia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Australia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Austria

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Azerbaijan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were reports of government abuse of international law enforcement tools, such as those of Interpol (the International Criminal Police Organization), in attempts to detain foreign residents who were activists. There also were reports that the government targeted dissidents and journalists who lived outside of the country through kidnappings, digital harassment, and intimidation of family members who remained in the country.

In January authorities in Gdansk, Poland, detained Dashgyn Agalarli, an Azerbaijani national with refugee status in Norway, reportedly due to an Interpol notice submitted by the Azerbaijan government. He was held for three days and then released on bail. According to news reports in September, however, he remained in Poland and was unable to leave the country.

In December 2019 the State Migration Service reported that political emigrant and government critic Elvin Isayev was deported to Azerbaijan from Ukraine and arrested upon arrival. According to RFE/RL, Ukraine’s State Migration Service and Prosecutor General’s Office denied having ordered his deportation. Isayev was charged with incitement to riot and for open calls for action against the state. On September 8, the Prosecutor General’s Office alleged that seven other political emigrants residing in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Switzerland participated in these criminal acts, together with Isayev. On the basis of the Prosecutor General’s Office’s petition, the Nasimi District Court ordered the arrest of all seven emigrants. The emigrants subject to this order included Ordukhan Babirov, Tural Sadigli, Gurban Mammadov, Orkhan Agayev, Rafael Piriyev, Ali Hasanaliyev, and Suleyman Suleymanli. The Prosecutor General’s Office stated that it requested an international search for these individuals from Interpol. On October 30, the Baku Court on Grave Crimes convicted and sentenced Elvin Isayev to eight years in prison.

Bahamas

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Bahrain

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Bangladesh

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Barbados

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Belarus

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Belgium

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Belize

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Benin

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports the government attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes against specific individuals located outside the country.

In April 2019 a Spanish court rejected the government’s request for the extradition of former minister of finance Komi Koutche, who had been arrested during a stopover in Madrid in 2018 based on an Interpol (International Police Criminal Organization) Red Notice. The court cited lack of evidence to substantiate the request, potential political motivation for the request, and CRIET’s inability to provide for a fair trial due to its lack of independence from the government. On April 4, CRIET tried Komi Koutche in absentia, found him guilty of embezzlement of public funds and abuse of office while head of the National Fund for Microcredit, and sentenced him to 20 years’ imprisonment. Koutche remained in self-imposed exile at year’s end.

Bhutan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Bolivia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Botswana

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Brazil

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Brunei

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Bulgaria

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Burkina Faso

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Burma

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Burundi

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the government attempted to use international law enforcement tools for politically motivated reprisals against specific individuals located outside of the country. Human Rights Watch reported that authorities collaborated with Tanzanian officials to arrest, torture, forcibly repatriate, and detain without charges refugees and asylum seekers residing in Tanzania for allegedly “attempting to destabilize the country.”

Cabo Verde

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Cambodia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Cameroon

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that for political reasons the government attempted to exert bilateral pressure on other countries aimed at having them take adverse legal action against specific individuals, including Anglophone separatists and other political opponents.

On August 18, Serge Sihonou, the secretary of MRC’s operation in Gabon, was allegedly detained by the counterinterference service of the B2 Brigade in Libreville, where he was harassed and physically abused. He was accused of continuing to run an MRC operation that he created in the town of Oyam, despite a ban on the party in Gabon. On August 21, MRC leader Maurice Kamto sent a letter to the Gabonese ambassador to Cameroon denouncing the treatment and demanding the release of Sihonou. In his letter, Kamto accused the Cameroonian ambassador to Gabon of instigating the harassment of MRC members in Gabon since 2018.

Canada

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Central African Republic

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Chad

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Chile

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports the government attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as a reprisal against specific individuals located outside the country. There also were credible reports that for politically motivated purposes, the government attempted to exert bilateral pressure on other countries aimed at having them take adverse action against specific individuals.

Reports continued throughout the year regarding PRC pressure on Xinjiang-based relatives of persons located outside China who spoke publicly about the detentions and abusive policies underway inside Xinjiang. In Kazakhstan media reported that Kazakh authorities temporarily detained Aqiqat Qaliolla and Zhenis Zarqyn for their protests in front of the PRC embassy regarding lost family members in Xinjiang “re-education” camps.

PRC state media also released videos of Xinjiang-based ethnic and religious minorities to discredit their overseas relatives’ accounts to foreign media. The persons in the videos urged their foreign-based family members to stop “spreading rumors” about Xinjiang. The overseas relatives said they had lost communication with their Xinjiang relatives until the videos were released.

In July, the PRC state publication China Daily, which targets foreign audiences, challenged the account of a foreign citizen, Ferkat Jawdat, who was called by his mother in May 2019 after having lost contact with her because she was in an internment camp and urged to stop his activism and media interviews; the article said Ferkat’s mother was “living a normal life in Xinjiang and has regular contact with him.” In July, China Daily also contradicted the 2019 account of another Uyghur individual, Zumrat Dawut, regarding her elderly father’s death, saying he was not detained and interrogated but died in a hospital beside her older brothers and other family members. Relatives of Dawut joined in a video in November 2019 urging her to stop “spreading rumors.” Overseas-based relatives said the PRC government coerced their family members to produce such videos.

In July a Chinese activist living in Australia on a temporary work visa told SBS World News that the government tracked and harassed her and her family in an attempt to silence her. The activist, who goes by Zoo or Dong Wuyuan, ran a Twitter account that made fun of Xi Jinping and previously had organized rallies in memory of Li Wenliang, the doctor who died after being one of the first to warn the world about COVID-19. She reported her parents were taken to a police station in China on a weekly basis to discuss her online activities. A video showed a police officer in the presence of Zoo’s father telling her, “Although you are [in Australia], you are still governed by the law of China, do you understand?”

In September an Inner Mongolian living in Australia on a temporary visa reported receiving a threatening call from Chinese officials stating that he would be removed from Australia if he spoke openly about changes to language policy in China.

Even those not vocal about Xinjiang faced PRC pressure to provide personal information to PRC officials or return to Xinjiang. Yunus Tohti was a student in Egypt when PRC police contacted him through social media, asked when he would return to Xinjiang, and ordered him to provide personal details such as a copy of his passport. Yunus then fled from Egypt to Turkey and later arrived in the Netherlands. Police in Xinjiang called Yunus’ older brother in Turkey, told him they were standing next to his parents, and said he should return to Xinjiang, which he understood to be threat against his parents’ safety. Yunus Tohti subsequently lost contact with his family in Xinjiang and worried that they may have been detained.

Colombia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Comoros

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Costa Rica

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Côte d’Ivoire

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports the country attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as a reprisal against specific individuals located outside the country. After Guillaume Soro on November 4 called for the armed forces to overthrow the government, the government charged some opposition leaders with sedition and terrorism and issued an international arrest warrant for Soro and three associates living in France (see section 1.e, Denial of Fair Public Trial and section 3, Recent Elections).

Crimea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Croatia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Cuba

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Cyprus

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Czech Republic

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Denmark

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Djibouti

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Dominica

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Dominican Republic

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Ecuador

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Egypt

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Five cousins of a U.S. citizen were arrested and detained in June, and his already incarcerated father was moved to an unknown prison location in apparent retaliation for the filing of a U.S.-based lawsuit alleging that Egyptian officials authorized the torture of the U.S. citizen. Government authorities reportedly did not provide the cousins access to counsel or family members. The cousins were released in early November; however, the location of the father of the U.S. citizen, a former senior official in the Morsi government, remained unknown.

El Salvador

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Equatorial Guinea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal Against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Authorities removed by extrajudicial means several alleged coup plotters from South Sudan and imprisoned them in the country.

In November 2019 there were multiple reports the government seized several persons, including at least four Equatoguineans and two dual Spanish nationals, in Juba, South Sudan, and brought them back through extrajudicial transfer in coordination with the South Sudanese government. In March the government televised the confessions of the individuals, who were accused of plotting a coup. Several were members of an Equatoguinean opposition movement formed in Spain. As of December the government had yet to allow consular access to the foreign citizens, citing the COVID-19 pandemic as one reason for the delay, although they allowed one telephone call.

Eritrea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Estonia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Eswatini

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Ethiopia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Fiji

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Finland

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

France

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Gabon

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Gambia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Georgia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Germany

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Ghana

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Greece

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Grenada

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Guatemala

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Guinea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Guinea-Bissau

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Guyana

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Haiti

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Honduras

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Hong Kong

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

The NSL is not restricted to the SAR or its residents, but instead claims jurisdiction over any individual, regardless of location, deemed to be engaged in one of the four criminal activities under the NSL: secession, subversion, terrorist activities, or collusion with a foreign country or external elements to endanger national security. In August the national security forces purportedly issued arrest warrants for six individuals, all residing abroad, and one of whom had foreign citizenship and had resided outside the SAR and mainland China for more than 20 years. Although reported in state-controlled media, the government refused to acknowledge the existence of the warrants.

Hungary

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Iceland

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

India

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Indonesia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Iran

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the government attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as reprisals against specific individuals located outside the country.

In August, Reuters reported Ministry of Intelligence officials detained Jamshid Sharmahd, a member of a promonarchist group “Tondar” (Thunder) or “Kingdom Assembly of Iran” based outside the country, which it accused of responsibility for a deadly 2008 bombing at a religious center in Shiraz and of plotting other attacks. A man who identified himself as Sharmahd appeared on Iranian television blindfolded and “admitted” to providing explosives to attackers in Shiraz. The ministry did not disclose how or where they detained Sharmahd. His son told Radio Free Europe that Sharmahd was likely captured in Dubai and taken to Iran.

In November al-Arabiya reported the former leader of the separatist group for Iran’s ethnic Arab in minority in Khuzestan Province, the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz (ASMLA), Habib Asyud also known as Habib Chaab, who also holds Swedish citizenship, was arrested in Turkey and later resurfaced in Iran under unclear circumstances. Neither Turkey nor Sweden officially commented on Asyud’s case. The Iranian government holds ASMLA responsible for a terror attack in 2018 on a military parade that killed 25 individuals including civilians.

In October 2019 France-based Iranian activist Ruhollah Zam was abducted from Iraq. Iranian intelligence later took credit for the operation. Zam was executed in December (see Section 1.a.).

Iraq

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Ireland

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Israel, West Bank and Gaza

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Italy

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Jamaica

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Japan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Jordan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Kazakhstan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

In March Rustam Ibragimov, the former managing director of BTA Bank, was extradited to the country from the United Arab Emirates. As an alleged associate of Mukhtar Ablyazov, a leading opposition figure residing in France, Ibragimov was allegedly suspected of helping Ablyazov illegally transfer money from BTA Bank to foreign financial institutions. His extradition occurred after joint efforts from Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Emirati authorities found a passport he had used to be illegal.

On September 29, France’s National Court of Asylum Issues granted political asylum to Mukhtar Ablyazov. In its ruling the court deplored direct pressure from the government of Kazakhstan and “the obvious attempts by outside agents to exert influence on the asylum authorities.”

On October 12, an Italian court sentenced six Italian law enforcement officers on abduction charges and one justice of the peace for forgery. According to the Italian authorities, Alma Shalabayeva, the wife of Kazakhstani opposition leader and political refugee Mukhtar Ablyazov, and her six-year-old daughter Alua were abducted by certain Italian officers and officials in the framework of interstate cooperation in criminal matters. After a meeting between Giuseppe Procaccini, then head of cabinet of the Ministry of the Interior, and Andrian Yelemesov, the Kazakhstani ambassador to Italy, Alma and Alua were detained by Italian police in 2013 during a raid on Ablyazov’s residence in Rome. While Ablyazov was not home, two days after the raid, Alma and Alua were forced onto a private plane provided by Kazakhstani authorities and flown to Kazakhstan after being charged with alleged passport fraud. Due to mounting international criticism, Alma and Alua were returned to Italy at the end of 2013. The court did not provide a full explanation of the verdict but announced that all the accused received higher sentences than those requested by prosecutors. The head of Rome’s Immigration Office, Maurizio Improta, and the head of the police flying squad, Renato Cortese, were convicted and sentenced to five years’ imprisonment and disqualification from holding any public office. Similarly, Francesco Stampacchia and Luca Armeni, the officers of Rome’s flying squad, were sentenced to five years in prison. Stefano Leoni and Vincenzo Tramma, the officers of Rome’s Immigration Office, were given three years and six months and four years, respectively.

Activists and media regularly noted the government targets political opponents, in particular those with business or family connections to Ablyazov, using INTERPOL red notices. On May 14, Ukraine’s Supreme Court revoked a lower court’s ruling in favor of Kazakhstani journalist and activist Zhanara Akhmet’s asylum request. The Supreme Court’s decision made possible the extradition to Kazakhstan of Akhmet, who was wanted there for fraud and was an active supporter of Ablyazov, because Ukraine had ratified an extradition agreement with Kazakhstan. The journalist’s supporters alleged that Ukraine’s Supreme Court decision was a result of cooperation between Ukrainian and Kazakhstani law enforcement agencies. The Open Dialogue Foundation, Freedom House, and Ukrainian and Kazakhstani human rights NGOs called on Ukraine’s authorities not to extradite Akhmet.

Kenya

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Kiribati

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Kosovo

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Kuwait

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Kyrgyzstan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

In December 2019 Syrgak Kenzhebaev, the husband of Shirin Aitmatova, former member of Kyrgyzstan’s parliament and a prominent anticorruption activist, was detained and deported to Kyrgyzstan from Kazakhstan on the basis of a case lodged on behalf of a Chinese businessman in Kyrgyzstan who accused him of fraud. This came at a time when Aitmatova was heavily involved in protests against the KG government related to new corruption allegations. Aitmatova said the deportation was based on a complaint by one of the individuals implicated in the corruption scandal.

Laos

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal Against Individuals Located Outside the Country

As of November the whereabouts of Od Sayavong, a Lao prodemocracy activist living in Thailand who disappeared in August 2019, remained unknown. He had been critical of the Lao government and was seeking asylum in a third country. The UN special rapporteur on human rights defenders stated Od might have “been disappeared.”

Latvia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Lebanon

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Lesotho

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Liberia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Libya

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Liechtenstein

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Lithuania

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Luxembourg

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Macau

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Macau

Madagascar

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Malawi

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Malaysia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Maldives

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mali

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Malta

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Marshall Islands

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mauritania

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mauritius

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mexico

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Micronesia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Moldova

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Monaco

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mongolia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Montenegro

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible allegations that the country attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as reprisal against specific individuals located outside the country.

In August, Interpol’s Commission for Control of International Arrest Warrants adopted the appeal filed by fugitive businessman Dusko Knezevic and revoked the arrest warrant issued for him in January 2019. The country’s special prosecutor indicted Knezevic for several crimes, including organizing a criminal group, money laundering, and tax evasion. Knezevic, who fled to London, accused President Milo Djukanovic of corruption, claiming the arrest warrant was issued upon pressure from a cadre close to the president and his family who were trying to take over Knezevic’s business and properties. Knezevic had claimed that Interpol’s arrest warrants against him were not in line with the organization’s legal regulations. His legal representative, Zdravko Djukic, told media that revoking the arrest warrant against Knezevic proved that the indictments against him were politically motivated.

Toby Cadman, a London-based lawyer specializing in criminal law, human rights law, and extradition, told local A1 Television that Interpol also revoked its international red notice against British-Israeli political consultant Aron Shaviv, whom he represented. Prosecutors accused Shaviv of assisting an alleged 2016 coup attempt in the country. After hearing arguments from both the defense and the prosecution, Interpol concluded, per Cadman, that the Montenegro-initiated red notice for Shaviv constituted “abuse of process” and was “politically motivated.”

Morocco

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Mozambique

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Namibia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Nauru

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Nepal

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Netherlands

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

New Zealand

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Nicaragua

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal Against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the government attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated reprisal against individuals. In one example from September, government authorities used the Interpol system to call for the arrest in the United States of the son of a prominent opposition leader. Local press reported the Interpol warrant was based on spurious charges of weapons smuggling to opposition groups.

In April unidentified attackers assaulted the father of exiled journalist Winston Potosme in the father’s home (see section 2.a.).

On July 25, exiled journalist Gerall Chavez reported that his parents living in the Carazo Department had received a letter threatening Chavez with torture and death. Groups of exiles in Costa Rica lodged complaints with Costa Rican authorities, alleging political persecution by parapolice and FSLN sympathizers who crossed the border to target exiles. In October the National Assembly approved the politically motivated Cybercrimes Law, which establishes the government may use the international extradition system to pursue Nicaraguans abroad who commit so-called cybercrimes.

Niger

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Nigeria

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

North Korea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal Against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that for political purposes the regime attempted to exert bilateral pressure on another country to repatriate refugees. According to the UN secretary-general, several UN member states, as well as OHCHR and the special rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the country, expressed concern that forcibly returned defectors, including children, faced a significant risk of human rights violations, including torture. Additionally, the government attempted to target, harass, and threaten defectors and other perceived enemies resident outside of the country.

North Macedonia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Norway

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Oman

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Pakistan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Journalists in exile in Europe reported targeted harassment and physical violence they believed was linked to their investigative work into the military’s actions and into human rights abuses. Unknown Urdu-speaking assailants attacked blogger Ahmed Waqas Goraya in the Netherlands in February.

Palau

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Panama

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Papua New Guinea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Paraguay

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Peru

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Philippines

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Poland

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Portugal

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Qatar

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Republic of the Congo

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Romania

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Russia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal Against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the country attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as a reprisal against specific individuals located outside the country. Authorities used their access to the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) to target political enemies abroad. For example, the religious freedom rights organization Forum 18 reported that the country issued Interpol red notices in January to secure the extradition of at least two individuals facing “extremism” charges for exercising their freedom of religion or belief. Ashurali Magomedeminov, who studied the work of the late Turkish Muslim theologian Said Nursi, left Russia in 2016; the Investigative Committee launched a criminal case against him in 2017 after accusing him of sharing “extremist literature.”

There were credible reports that, for politically motivated purposes, the government attempted to exert bilateral pressure on another country aimed at having it take adverse action against specific individuals. For example, on February 21, Belarusian police detained Nikolay Makhalichev, a member of Jehovah’s Witnesses, at the request of the Russian authorities. Makhalichev said that Belarusian police told him that Russian authorities had put him on an interstate wanted list after they opened a criminal case against him for “extremism” for his religious affiliation. Russian prosecutors brought forth a request for extradition, but on April 7, the Belarusian courts determined that he would not be extradited.

Rwanda

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were reports the government attempted to pursue political opponents abroad. Rusesabagina’s family and supporters maintained that Rusesabagina did not travel to the country freely or through internationally sanctioned law enforcement channels but rather was brought to the country through illicit government intervention after he boarded a private jet in Dubai that he believed was bound for Bujumbura, Burundi. Although the government initially stated Rusesabagina’s arrival in Kigali was an outcome of international law enforcement cooperation, Emirati authorities stated they were not involved in the case.

In 2019 the government of South Africa issued arrest warrants for two Rwandans accused of murder for the 2014 killing of Rwandan dissident Patrick Karegeya at a hotel in Johannesburg. According to media reports, South Africa’s special investigative unit stated in written testimony that both Karegeya’s killing and the attempted homicide in Pretoria, South Africa, of the country’s former army chief of staff General Kayumba Nyamwasa “were directly linked to the involvement of the Rwandan government.” The government had not yet cooperated with the arrest warrants.

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Saint Lucia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Samoa

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

San Marino

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

São Tomé and Príncipe

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Saudi Arabia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

In August, Saad al-Jabri, a former high-ranking Saudi intelligence official who fled the country in 2016, filed a suit in Canada alleging that a hit squad (Tiger Squad) had been sent to track and kill him in 2018. The team was reportedly stopped by Canadian border services and refused entry, around the same time that Saudi officials killed Jamal Khashoggi in Istanbul. The suit also alleged al-Jabri’s family members were held hostage in Saudi Arabia and that spyware was implanted on his smartphone. According to media reports, INTERPOL lifted a Red Notice that Saudi Arabia filed against him in 2017 on the basis that it was politically motivated.

Senegal

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Serbia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Seychelles

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Sierra Leone

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Singapore

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Slovakia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Slovenia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Solomon Islands

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Somalia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

South Africa

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

South Korea

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

South Sudan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the country exerted bilateral pressure on other countries, including Uganda, aimed at having them take adverse actions against specific individuals for politically motivated purposes. In July, Peter Biar Ajak, a high-profile political activist and former political prisoner, fled Nairobi, Kenya, with his family after receiving credible threats that the government of South Sudan was planning to kidnap or kill him.

Spain

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Sri Lanka

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Sudan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Unlike under the Bashir regime, there were no reported cases of such practices.

Suriname

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Sweden

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Switzerland

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Taiwan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Tajikistan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

During the year there were credible reports of attempted misuse of international law enforcement tools, such as law enforcement systems (for example, INTERPOL red notices), for politically motivated reprisals against specific individuals located outside the country. The government used INTERPOL notices in an effort to locate and forcibly repatriate Tajik dissidents targeted by the government. The Central Bank of Tajikistan keeps a public list of over 2,400 names of suspected terrorists as defined by authorities. The list also includes names of opposition journalists and activists. According to a RFE/RL report from October 2019, six journalists and opposition activists living in self-exile in Europe publicly demanded the bank remove their names from the list. Other dissidents were frequently harassed or detained on politically motivated charges of extremism. As of July, the government had placed 72 Muslim Brotherhood members on the international wanted list.

In June the Supreme Court sentenced 29-year-old opposition activist Hizbullo Shovalizoda to 20 years in prison on charges of extremism after he was extradited from Austria in March. The Supreme Court classified the trial as secret, preventing officials from discussing Shovalizoda’s trial with embassies and other interested parties. Shovalizoda’s relatives told RFE/RL that the family was not permitted to attend the trial. In July the Austrian Supreme Court invalidated the extradition order, ruling that Austria’s decision to reject Shovalizoda’s asylum request and extradite him to Tajikistan was illegal. The court further noted that the decision to reject the asylum request was based on outdated information.

In September a member of banned opposition “Group 24” told RFE/RL that one of its members, Shobuddin Badalov, had been arrested in Russia and forcibly repatriated to the country, where he was likely to face torture. Neither Russian nor Tajik officials issued official statements regarding the situation. In response to an inquiry, the government confirmed that Badalov was detained upon his arrival in Tajikistan and a case against him for “arranging activities of an extremist organization” was in pretrial investigation. He remained in custody.

Tanzania

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Thailand

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There continued to be allegations that Thai authorities took politically motivated reprisals against activists and critics outside the country.

International and local human rights organizations alleged government authorities were complicit in the disappearance of activist Wanchalearm Satsaksit, who was reportedly abducted by masked gunmen in Cambodia in June. Thai authorities had issued an arrest warrant for Wanchalearm, who had lived in exile in Cambodia since the 2014 coup, for inciting unrest through his Facebook page. Cambodian authorities began an investigation, reportedly in response to a Thai government request, and in September released preliminary findings that there was no evidence an abduction had occurred. The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights expressed concern that Wanchalearm’s reported abduction “may now comprise an enforced disappearance.” NGOs alleged that at least eight exiled Thai dissidents had been victims of such disappearances since the 2014 coup. In November, Wanchalearm’s sister traveled to Phnom Penh to give evidence in the case.

There were no further developments in the reported arrests in 2019 of activists Chucheep Chivasut, Siam Theerawut, and Kritsana Thapthai by Vietnamese authorities and their forcible return to Thailand.

Tibet

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Approximately 150,000 Tibetans live outside Tibet, many as refugees in India and Nepal. There were credible reports that the PRC continued to put heavy pressure on Nepal to implement a border systems management agreement and a mutual legal assistance treaty, as well as to conclude an extradition treaty, that could result in the refoulement of Tibetan refugees to the PRC. Nepal does not appear to have implemented either proposed agreement and has postponed action on the extradition treaty.

In January in its annual work report, the TAR Higher People’s Court noted that in 2019 the first TAR fugitive abroad was repatriated. The fugitive reportedly was charged with official-duty-related crimes. The report stated the repatriation was part of the TAR’s effort to deter corruption and “purify” the political environment; no other details were available.

The Tibetan overseas community is frequently subjected to harassment, monitoring, and cyberattacks believed to be carried out by the PRC government. In September media outlets reported PRC government efforts to hack into the phones of officials in the Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and of several leaders in the Central Tibetan Administration, the governance organization of the overseas Tibetan community. The PRC government at times compelled Tibetans located in China to pressure their family members seeking asylum overseas to return to China.

Timor-Leste

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Togo

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Tonga

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Trinidad and Tobago

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Tunisia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Turkey

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

The government engaged in a worldwide effort to apprehend suspected members of the Gulen movement. There were credible reports that the government exerted bilateral pressure on other countries to take adverse action against specific individuals, at times without due process. According to a report by several UN special rapporteurs in May, the government reportedly coordinated with other states to transfer more forcibly than 100 Turkish nationals to Turkey since the 2016 coup attempt, of which 40 individuals were subjected to enforced disappearance. In January, Albania deported Turkish citizen Harun Celik, a teacher at a school associated with the Gulen movement, to Turkey after arresting him for traveling on false documents in 2019. Celik’s lawyer reported Celik requested asylum while detained in Albania and that Albania repatriated him to Turkey without giving him an opportunity to appeal the decision. Authorities detained Celik upon arrival in Istanbul. Turkish media hailed the repatriation as a successful operation by Turkish state intelligence. Individuals returned to the country under such circumstances usually faced legal proceedings based on their association with the Gulen movement. In September, Isa Ozer, a Turkish national who had been an elected local deputy in Dogubeyazit in eastern Anatolia for the left-wing HDP, was brought to Turkey from Ukraine in what the Turkish state press described as an intelligence operation.

There were also credible reports that the government attempted to use INTERPOL red notices to target specific individuals located outside the country, alleging ties to terrorism connected to the 2016 coup attempt or to the PKK, based on little evidence. Freedom House reported that, since the 2016 coup attempt, the country had uploaded tens of thousands of requests in INTERPOL for persons the government designated as affiliated with the Gulen movement. There were also reports that individuals faced complications related to erroneous lost or stolen passport reports the government filed against suspected Gulen movement supporters in the years directly following the coup attempt. Targeted individuals often had no clearly identified role in the attempted coup but were associated with the Gulen movement or had spoken in favor of it. The reports to INTERPOL could lead to individuals’ detention or prevent them from traveling.

In September press reported that the Diyarbakir Chief Prosecutor’s Office requested the extradition of former HDP MP and Diyarbakir mayor Osman Baydemir, who resides in the United Kingdom, as part of a terrorism investigation. Authorities also petitioned an INTERPOL red notice for Baydemir. He was previously convicted for insulting police and stripped of MP status in 2018.

The government used property seizure orders to pressure individuals living in exile abroad. In October a court seized all assets, including property and bank accounts, of exiled opposition journalist Can Dundar and declared him a fugitive after he did not attend trial proceedings for the case against him and other former Cumhuriyet journalists who reported on alleged illicit arms shipments by Turkish intelligence officers to Syria. On December 23, an Istanbul court sentenced Dundar in absentia to 27 years’ imprisonment. The court also upheld the asset seizure and began an extradition request from Germany, where Dundar resides.

The government continued to refuse to renew the passports of some citizens with temporary residency permits in other countries on political grounds, claiming they were members of “Gulenist” organizations; these individuals were unable to travel outside of their countries of residence.

Turkmenistan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals located Outside the Country

On August 1, RFE/RL reported Dursoltan Taganova, an activist and representative of the Democratic Choice of Turkmenistan (DCT) living in Istanbul, was detained during a July 19 protest in front of the Turkmen consulate. One of the DCT leaders, Myrat Gurbanov, told RFE/RL that Taganova was transferred to a deportation camp in Istanbul because her immigration documents had expired. Gurbanov stated Turkish business representatives were pressuring Turkish authorities to send Taganova to Turkmenistan. According to media reports, Turkish officials released Taganova from the detention center on October 13 and granted her asylum in Turkey. On October 30, RFE/RL reported Turkmenistan government officials continued to harass Taganova and her family.

The Turkmen Initiative for Human Rights reported the national security services had increased their efforts to recruit informants among the growing community of Turkmenistani citizens who resided in Turkey. On July 1, Turkmen News reported that officials of the Ministry of National Security were persecuting Turkmen activists abroad, as well as their relatives who were in Turkmenistan.

Tuvalu

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Uganda

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Ukraine

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

United Arab Emirates

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

United Kingdom

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Uruguay

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Uzbekistan

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

Kyrgyzstan authorities extradited journalist Bobomurod Abdullayev to Tashkent on August 9 at the request of Uzbekistan authorities. The Uzbekistan government charged the journalist on two counts of crimes against the government, reportedly based on accusations that he had published allegations of corruption against Uzbekistan officials. After Abdullayev signed a nondisclosure agreement, he was released, and the charges were eventually dropped (see section 2.a.).

Vanuatu

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Venezuela

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that the illegitimate Maduro regime attempted to misuse international law enforcement tools for politically motivated purposes as a reprisal against specific individuals located outside the country. On October 22, the TSJ issued an extradition request for Ivan Simonovis, former political prisoner and sitting interim government commissioner for security. The regime charged Simonovis with the attempted murder of Maduro, treason, terrorism, and weapons trafficking. Simonovis escaped from house arrest in May 2019 and fled the country.

Vietnam

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

In March Radio Free Asia blogger Truong Duy Nhat, who was forcibly returned to Vietnam from Thailand in January 2019 after applying for refugee status with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), was tried and sentenced to 10 years’ imprisonment on charges of “abusing his position and power while on duty.” An appeal in August upheld the verdict. In response to Nhat lawyer’s question during the appeal about where and when Nhat was arrested, the prosecutor stated that Nhat was arrested in Hanoi in January 2019. The court refused to address the time gap between Nhat’s apparent refoulement from Thailand in January 2019 and his subsequent appearance in Hanoi in March, ignoring international and domestic calls for transparency related to the circumstances leading to his detention.

In March, Bui Thanh Hieu, an exiled blogger in Germany, announced on Facebook that he would stop blogging because Vietnamese authorities were harassing his family in the country.

West Bank and Gaza

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Yemen

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Zambia

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Zimbabwe

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

Politically Motivated Reprisal against Individuals Located Outside the Country

There were credible reports that for politically motivated purposes the government attempted to exert bilateral pressure on another country to take adverse action against specific individuals or groups. In September media reported government officials secured an extradition treaty with South Africa to allow the forcible return of some members of the “G40,” a group comprised of former Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) members aligned with Grace Mugabe, widow of the late president Robert Mugabe. As of November 30, no publicized extraditions of G40 members had occurred.

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