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Afghanistan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Albania

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Algeria

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Andorra

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

On February 15, parliament approved the first-ever Equality and Nondiscrimination Law, which provides for the right to equal treatment and nondiscrimination, and strengthens effective protection through the establishment of judicial, administrative, and institutional guarantees, which provide protection and reparation for victims of discrimination. The law also provides for a sanctioning regime. The Department of Equality Policies designed programs and activities to start implementing the law.

Angola

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Antigua and Barbuda

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Argentina

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Armenia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Australia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Austria

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Azerbaijan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bahamas

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bahrain

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bangladesh

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Barbados

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Belarus

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Belgium

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Belize

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Benin

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bhutan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bolivia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Botswana

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Brazil

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Brunei

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Bulgaria

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Burkina Faso

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Burma

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Burundi

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cabo Verde

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cambodia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cameroon

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Canada

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Central African Republic

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Chad

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Chile

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet) – Hong Kong

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet) – Macau

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

China (Includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet) – Tibet

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Colombia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Comoros

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Costa Rica

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Côte d’Ivoire

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Crimea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Croatia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cuba

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cyprus

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Cyprus – the Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Czech Republic

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Denmark

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Djibouti

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Dominica

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Dominican Republic

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Ecuador

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Egypt

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

El Salvador

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Equatorial Guinea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Eritrea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Estonia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Eswatini

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Ethiopia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

While the government’s political transformation contributed to a reduction in the number of deaths from engagement with government forces, violence between communities and among citizens began to rise.

Fiji

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Finland

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

France

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Gabon

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Gambia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The constitution and law provide for equality of all persons; no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner because of race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status. Legal provisions against discrimination do not apply to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, and inheritance of property. The law prohibits discrimination in employment, access to credit, owning and managing a business, or in housing or education.

There were no reports the government failed to enforce the law.

Georgia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Germany

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Ghana

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Greece

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Grenada

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Guatemala

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Guinea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Guinea-Bissau

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Guyana

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Haiti

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Honduras

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Hungary

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Iceland

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

India

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Indonesia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Iran

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Iraq

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Ireland

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Israel, West Bank, and Gaza

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Italy

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Jamaica

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Japan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Discrimination based on race, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, or gender identity is not prohibited.

Jordan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kazakhstan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kenya

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kiribati

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kosovo

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kuwait

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Kyrgyzstan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Laos

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Latvia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Lebanon

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Lesotho

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Violence reporting: Media reported rapes and killings of the elderly across the country. For example, on August 13, two boys strangled and killed an 87-year-old woman at Moshoeshoe II village in Maseru. The government held gatherings to raise public awareness of the problem of elder abuse at which senior government officials issued warnings, including the view that security services should summarily kill perpetrators of violence against the elderly (see section 1.a.).

Liberia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Libya

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Liechtenstein

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Lithuania

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Luxembourg

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Madagascar

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Malawi

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Malaysia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Maldives

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mali

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Malta

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The law criminalizes domestic abuse. In July the government amended the criminal code and the Gender-Based Violence and Domestic Violence Act to strengthen enforcement in cases of gender-based violence and domestic violence and also to ensure representation of persons with disabilities on the Gender-Based Violence and Domestic Violence Commission.

Marshall Islands

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mauritania

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mauritius

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mexico

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Micronesia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Moldova

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Monaco

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mongolia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Montenegro

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Morocco

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Mozambique

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Namibia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Nauru

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Nepal

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Netherlands

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

New Zealand

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Nicaragua

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Niger

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Nigeria

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

North Korea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

North Macedonia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Norway

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Oman

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Pakistan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Palau

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Panama

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Papua New Guinea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Paraguay

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Peru

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Philippines

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Poland

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Portugal

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Qatar

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Republic of the Congo

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Romania

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Russia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Rwanda

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Saint Lucia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Samoa

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

San Marino

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Sao Tome and Principe

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Saudi Arabia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Senegal

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Serbia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Seychelles

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Sierra Leone

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Singapore

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Parliament passed the Criminal Law Reform Act in May. The law has been formally gazetted (published), but implementation was pending as of December. Under the new law, individuals convicted under the Penal Code for any offenses committed against vulnerable victims–children below the age of 14, persons with mental or physical disabilities, and domestic workers–will be liable to up to twice the maximum penalty. The law will abolish marital immunity for rape, expand the definition of rape to make it gender neutral, increase the penalties for offenses committed against unmarried partners, and introduce new criminal offenses for technology-related crimes such as voyeurism. These and other provisions of the new law will significantly change many of the legal provisions reported below.

The Protection from Harassment (Amendment) Act became law in June–implementation was pending as of December–makes doxing an offense and improves judicial procedures for victims of online harassment.

Slovakia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Slovenia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Solomon Islands

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Somalia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

South Africa

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

South Korea

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

South Sudan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Spain

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Sri Lanka

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Sudan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Suriname

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Sweden

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Switzerland

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Syria

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Taiwan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Tajikistan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Tanzania

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Thailand

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Timor-Leste

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Togo

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Tonga

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Trinidad and Tobago

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Tunisia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Turkey

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Turkmenistan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Tuvalu

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Uganda

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Ukraine

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

During the year the OHCHR and human rights groups documented fewer incidents of xenophobic societal violence and discrimination, compared with a spike in these incidents in 2018. Civil society groups remained concerned, however, about the lack of accountability for crimes committed by radical groups in cases documented in 2018. During the year members of such groups committed violent attacks on ethnic minorities (especially Roma), LGBTI persons, feminists, and other individuals they considered to be “un-Ukrainian” or “anti-Ukrainian.” The HRMMU noted that the failure of police and prosecutors to prevent these acts of violence, properly classify them as hate crimes, and effectively investigate and prosecute them created an environment of impunity and lack of justice for victims.

There were continued reports that the government provided grant funds to or cooperated with radical groups. For example, according to monitoring by independent investigative media outlet Bellingcat, during the year the Ministry of Youth and Sport awarded 845,000 hryvnias ($35,000) to groups–such as National Corps and C14 that have committed violence against minorities–to run “national-patriotic education projects” for children.

United Arab Emirates

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

United Kingdom

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Uruguay

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Uzbekistan

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Vanuatu

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Venezuela

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Vietnam

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

West Bank and Gaza

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Western Sahara

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Moroccan law and practice apply. For more information, see the Department of State’s 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for Morocco.

Yemen

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Zambia

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

Zimbabwe

Section 6. Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future