1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment

Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment

Canada and the United States have one of the largest and most comprehensive investment relationships in the world. U.S. investors are attracted to Canada’s strong economic fundamentals, its proximity to the U.S. market, its highly skilled work force, and abundant resources. As of 2018, the United States had a stock of US$401 billion of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Canada. U.S. FDI stock in Canada represents 46 percent of Canada’s total investment. Canada’s FDI stock in the United States totaled US$511 billion.

Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed a modernized and rebalanced NAFTA agreement – the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) – on November 30, 2018 and a protocol of amendment to the USMCA on December 10, 2019. President Trump signed legislation implementing the USMCA on January 29, 2020. The agreement will come into force after the completion of the domestic ratification processes by each individual member of the agreement, likely in 2020. The agreement updates NAFTA’s provisions with respect to investment protection rules and investor-state dispute settlement procedures to better reflect U.S. priorities related to foreign investment. All Parties to the agreement have agreed to treat investors and investments of the other Parties in accordance with the highest international standards, and consistent with U.S. law and practice, while safeguarding each Party’s sovereignty and promoting domestic investment.

Invest in Canada is Canada’s investment attraction and promotion agency. It provides information and advice on doing business in Canada, strategic market intelligence on specific industries, site visits, as well as introductions to provincial, territorial, and local investment promotion agencies who can help companies access local opportunities, networks, and programs.

Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

U.S. FDI in Canada is subject to the provisions of the Investment Canada Act (ICA), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Chapter 11 of NAFTA contains provisions such as “national treatment” designed to protect cross-border investors and facilitate the settlement of investment disputes. NAFTA does not exempt U.S. investors from review under the ICA, which has guided foreign investment policy in Canada since its implementation in 1985. The ICA provides for review of large acquisitions by non-Canadian investors and includes the requirement that these investments be of “net benefit” to Canada. The ICA also has provisions for the review of investments on national security grounds. The Canadian government has blocked investments on a few occasions.

The Canadian government announced April 18 enhanced scrutiny of certain foreign investments under the ICA, which will apply until the economy recovers from the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. While all investments will continue to be examined on their own merits, the Government will scrutinize with particular attention foreign direct investments of any value in Canadian businesses that are related to public health or involved in the supply of critical goods and services to Canadians. The Government will also subject all foreign investments by state-owned investors, or investors with close ties to foreign governments, to enhanced scrutiny under the Investment Canada Act.

Although foreign investment is a key component of Canada’s economic growth contributing 1.9 percent to GDP, restrictions remain in key sectors. Under the Telecommunications Act, Canada maintains a 46.7 percent limit on foreign ownership of voting shares for a Canadian telecom services provider. However, a 2012 amendment exempts foreign telecom carriers with less than 10 percent market share from ownership restrictions in an attempt to increase competition in the sector. In May 2018, Canada eased its foreign ownership restrictions in the aviation sector, which increased foreign ownership limits of Canadian commercial airlines to 49 percent from 25 percent. Investment in cultural industries also carries restrictions, including a provision under the ICA that foreign investment in book publishing and distribution must be compatible with Canada’s national cultural policies and be of “net benefit” to Canada. Canada is open to investment in the financial sector, but barriers remain in retail banking.

Other Investment Policy Reviews

The World Trade Organization conducted a trade policy review of Canada in 2019. The report is available at: .

Business Facilitation

Canada ranks third out of 190 countries in the World Bank’s Doing Business survey on starting a business. The Canadian government has a business registration page available at: . Corporations must incorporate either through the federal or provincial government, apply for a federal business number and corporation income tax account from the Canada Revenue Agency, register as an extra-provincial or extra-territorial corporation in all other Canadian jurisdictions where you plan to do business, and apply for any permits and licenses the business may need. In some cases, registration for these accounts is streamlined (a business can receive its business number, tax accounts, and provincial registrations as part of the incorporation process); however, this is not true for all provinces and territories.

Outward Investment

Canada’s trade diversification strategy promotes trade and investment opportunities, primarily through export promotion and negotiation of free trade agreements, which generally have investment chapters.

Investment Climate Statements
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The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future