Croatia became a member of the EU in 2013, which enhanced its economic stability and provided new opportunities for trade and investment. Croatia is accessing a substantial amount of available EU funds, but many direct benefits of EU entry are still to come. The Croatian government pledged to take legislative and administrative steps to reduce barriers to investment, streamline bureaucracy and public administration, and program EU funds more efficiently, but it has been slow to deliver promised reforms.
The government is willing to meet at senior levels with interested investors and to assist in resolving problems. Prime Minister Andrej Plenkovic is a former member of the European Parliament and has signaled his commitment to wide-ranging structural reforms in line with recommendations from the EU and global financial institutions. His government is working with the World Bank and other international institutions to improve the ease of doing business in Croatia and to attract investment. Relative strengths in the Croatian economy include low inflation, a stable exchange rate, and developed infrastructure. Historically, the most promising sectors for investment in Croatia have been tourism, telecommunications, pharmaceuticals, and banking.
Although the Croatian economy was stable ahead of the COVID-19 global epidemic, the government assessed in late April that GDP will drop by at least 9.4 percent in 2020. Tourism directly contributes 12 percent of Croatia’s GDP and up to 20 percent when indirect contributions of the sector are included; the tourism sector is expected to suffer tremendous losses due to the COVID-19 crisis. The COVID-19 impact is not entirely negative. The government sped up the digitalization of many public administration services and will likely expand this effort. The economy is burdened by a large government bureaucracy, underperforming state-owned enterprises, and low regulatory transparency, all of which contributes to poor performance and relatively low levels of foreign investment. Following a decade of growth from the end of the war in 1995, investment activity in Croatia slowed substantially in 2008 and remained under historic levels despite the economy’s emergence from the recession at the end of 2015, relatively robust growth in 2016, and continued moderate growth through 2019.
The banking system weathered the global financial crisis well but was saddled with financial costs related to the government-mandated conversion of Swiss Franc loans into euros in 2015.
In the last three years, the government implemented a number of financial incentives and measures designed to attract investment and support entrepreneurship. However, these incentives are not corrective for profound deficiencies in the investment climate which are predominantly linked to an inefficient, unpredictable judicial system that is slow to resolve legal disputes. Investors continue to face high “para-fiscal” fees, rigid labor laws, and slow and complex permitting procedures for most investments.
Before the COVID-19 crisis, the government maintained a budget deficit well within EU-recommended levels, but now expects a 6.8 percent budget deficit for 2020. In March 2020, the government announced the fourth economic reform package of PM Plenkovic’s tenure. This package is expected to create sustainable economic growth and development, to connect education to the labor market, and to sustain public finances. Significant structural reform is still needed. Although the government continues to make incremental improvements to the business environment, its primary focus remains on preventing job losses from state-owned enterprises and “strategic” sectors. In the last year, the government provided state guarantees for two major shipbuilding companies.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2019||63 of 180||https://www.transparency.org/
|World Bank’s Doing Business Report||2020||51 of 190||https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/
|Global Innovation Index||2019||42 of 128||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)||2019||$83.4||Host government, Croatian National Bank
|World Bank GNI per capita||2018||$23,316||https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/
1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment
Croatia is generally open to foreign investment and the Croatian government continues to make efforts, through financial incentives, to attract foreign investors. All investors, both foreign and domestic, are guaranteed equal treatment by law, with a handful of exceptions described below. However, bureaucratic and political barriers remain. Investors agree that an unpredictable regulatory framework, lack of transparency, judicial inefficiencies, lengthy administrative procedures, lack of structural reforms, and unresolved property ownership issues weigh heavily upon the investment climate.
Croatia is partnered with the World Bank on the “Croatia Business Environment Reform” project which intends to help Croatia implement various business reforms. The Ministry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Crafts Directorate for Investment, Industry and Innovation assists investors. For more information, see: . The Strategic Investment Act fast-tracks and streamlines bureaucratic processes for large projects valued at USD 10.7 million or more on the investor’s behalf. Various business groups, including the American Chamber of Commerce, Foreign Investors’ Council, and the Croatian Employers’ Association, are in dialogue with the government about ways to make doing business easier and to keep investment retention as a priority.
Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
Croatian law allows for all entities, both foreign and domestic, to establish and own businesses and to engage in all forms of remunerative activities. Article 49 of the Constitution states all entrepreneurs have equal legal status. However, the Croatian government restricts foreign ownership or control of services for a handful of national security-sensitive sectors: inland waterways transport, maritime transport, rail transport, air to ground handling, freight-forwarding, publishing, education, and ski instruction. Apart from these, the only blocks to market access involve professional licensing requirements (architect, auditor, engineer, lawyer, and veterinarian, etc), about which detailed information can be found at . Over 90 percent of the banking sector is foreign-owned.
Other Investment Policy Reviews
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) published an investment climate review for Croatia in June 2019:
The Croatian government offers two e-government options for on-line business registration, and , both of which provide 24-hour access. Start.gov.hr provides complete business registration for a limited liability company (d.o.o.), simple limited company (j.d.o.o.) or company, without any need to physically enter a public administration office. The procedure guarantees a short turnaround on requests and provides deadlines by which the company can expect to be registered. The Start.gov.hr procedure eliminates fees for public notaries, proxies, seals and stamps, and reduces court registration fees by 50 percent. Hitro.hr also provides on-line services but maintains offices in 60 Croatian cities and towns for those who want to register their business in person.
In 2019, the Global Enterprise Registration website ( ) rated Croatia’s business registration process 4 out of 10, while the 2020 World Bank Ease of Doing Business report ranks Croatia as 114 out of 190 countries in this category. The government pledged to improve conditions for business registration. In 2019, the government adopted legislation relieving the service sector of various fees, licensing requirements, and prohibitions for companies in legal services, energy certification, architecture, accounting, tourism, pharmaceutics, and physical therapy. Croatia’s business facilitation mechanism provides for equitable treatment to all interested in registering a business, regardless of gender or ethnicity.
Croatian foreign direct investment totals approximately USD 23.1 million in the United States, according to Croatian National Bank figures. The government does not promote or incentivize outward investment. Croatia has no restrictions on domestic investors who wish to invest abroad.
3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
Croatian legislation, which is harmonized with European Union legislation (acquis communautaire), affords transparent policies and fosters a climate in which all investors are treated equally. Nevertheless, bureaucracy and regulation can be complex and time-consuming, although the government is working to remove unnecessary regulations. All legislation is published both on-line and in in the National Gazette, available at: . There are no informal regulatory processes, and investors should rely solely on government-issued legislation to conduct business.
The Croatian Parliament promulgates national legislation, which is implemented at every level of government, although local regulations vary from county to county. Members of Government and Members of Parliament, through working groups or caucuses, are responsible for presenting legislation. Responsible ministries draft and present new legislation to the government for approval. When the Government approves a draft text, it is sent to Parliament for approval. The approved act becomes official on the date defined by Parliament and when it is published in the National Gazette. Citizens maintain the right to initiate a law through their district Member of Parliament. New legislation and changes to existing legislation which have a significant impact on citizens are made available for public commentary at . The Law on the Review of the Impact of Regulations defines the procedure for impact assessment, planning of legislative activities, and communication with the public, as well as the entities responsible for implementing the impact assessment procedure.
Croatia adheres to international accounting standards and abides by international practices through the Accounting Act, which is applied to all accounting businesses. Publicly listed companies must adhere to these accounting standards by law.
Croatian courts are responsible for ensuring that laws are enforced correctly. If an investor believes that the law or an administrative procedure is not implemented correctly, the investor may initiate a case against the government at the appropriate court. However, judicial remedies are frequently ineffective due to delays or political influence.
The Enforcement Act defines the procedure for enforcing claims and seizures carried out by the Financial Agency (FINA), the state-owned company responsible for offering various financial services to include securing payment to claimants following a court enforced order. FINA also has the authority to seize assets or directly settle the claim from the bank account of the person or legal entity that owes the claim. Enforcement proceedings are regulated by the Enforcement Act, last amended in 2017, and by laws regulating its execution, such as the Act on Implementation of the Enforcement over Monetary Assets, amended in 2020. The legislation incorporates European Parliament and European Commission provisions for easily enforcing cross-border financial claims in both business and private instances. Enforcement proceedings are conducted on the basis of enforcement title documents which specify the creditor and debtor, the subject, type, scope, and payment deadline.
More information can be found at . Various types of regulation exist, which prescribe complicated or time-consuming procedures for businesses to implement. Reports on public finances and public debt obligations are available to the public on the Ministry of Finance website at: .
International Regulatory Considerations
Croatia, as an EU member, transposes all EU directives. Domestic legislation is applied nationally and – while local regulations vary from county to county — there is no locally based legislation that overrides national legislation. Local governments determine zoning for construction and therefore have considerable power in commercial or residential building projects. International accounting, arbitration, financial, and labor norms are incorporated into Croatia’s regulatory system.
Croatia has been a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) since 2000.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
The legal system in Croatia is civil and provides for ownership of property and enforcement of legal contracts. The Commercial Company Act defines the forms of legal organization for domestic and foreign investors. It covers general commercial partnerships, limited partnerships, joint stock companies, limited liability companies and economic interest groupings. The Obligatory Relations Act serves to enforce commercial contracts and includes the provision of goods and services in commercial agency contracts.
The Croatian constitution provides for an independent judiciary. The judicial system consists of courts of general and specialized jurisdictions. Core structures are the Supreme Court, County Courts, Municipal Courts, and Magistrate/Petty Crimes Courts. Specialized courts include the Administrative Court and High and Lower Commercial Courts. A Constitutional Court determines the constitutionality of laws and government actions and protects and enforces constitutional rights. Municipal courts are courts of first instance for civil and juvenile/criminal cases. The High Commercial Court is located in Zagreb and has appellate review of lower commercial court decisions. The Administrative Court has jurisdiction over the decisions of administrative bodies of all levels of government. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and, as such, enjoys jurisdiction over all civil and criminal cases. It hears appeals from the County, High Commercial, and Administrative Courts. Regulations and enforcement actions are appealable and adjudicated in the national court system.
The Ministry of Justice continues to pursue a court reorganization plan intended to increase efficiency and reduce the backlog of judicial cases. The World Bank approved a USD 110 million loan to Croatia for the Justice for Business Project in March 2020, specifically for the purpose of supporting reforms that will improve justice sector services to improve the business climate. This effort will be led by the Ministry of Justice, in coordination with the Economy Ministry and the Construction Ministry, from 2020 to 2024. Reforms are underway, but significant challenges remain in relation to land registration training court officers, providing adequate resources to meet the court case load, and reducing the backlog and length of bankruptcy procedures. Investors often face problems with unusually protracted court procedures, lack of clarity in legal proceedings, contract enforcement, and judicial efficiency. On average, Croatian courts resolve roughly the same number of cases that they receive each year, but there is a significant backlog (of sometimes tens of thousands of cases) which carries over from year to year. The European Union Country Report for 2020 assessed that the length of court proceedings continues to be a burden for business.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
There are no specific laws aimed at foreign investment; both foreign and domestic market participants in Croatia are protected under the same legislation. The Company Act defines the forms of legal organization for domestic and foreign investors. The following entity types are permitted for foreigners: general partnerships; limited partnerships; branch offices; limited liability companies; and joint stock companies. The Obligatory Relations Act regulates commercial contracts.
The Ministry of Economy Directorate for Investment, Industry, and Innovation (investcroatia.gov.hr) facilitates both foreign and domestic investment. The directorate’s website offers relevant information on business and investment legislation and includes an investment guide.
According to Croatian commercial law a number of significant or “strategic” business decisions must be approved by 75 percent of the company’s shareholders. Minority investors with at least 25 percent ownership plus one share have what is colloquially called a “golden share,” meaning they can block or veto “strategic” decisions requiring a 75 percent vote. The law calls for minimum 75 percent shareholder approval to remove a supervisory board member, authorize a supervisory board member to make a business decision, revoke preferential shares, change company agreements, authorize mergers or liquidations, and to purchase or invest in something on behalf of the company that is worth more than 20 percent of the company’s initial capital. (Note: This list is not exhaustive.)
Competition and Anti-Trust Laws
The Competition Act defines the rules and methods for promoting and protecting competition. In theory, competitive equality is the standard applied with respect to market access, credit and other business operations, such as licenses and supplies. In practice, however, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and government-designated “strategic” firms may still receive preferential treatment. The Croatian Competition Agency is the country’s competition watchdog, determining whether anti-competitive practices exist and punishing infringements. It has determined in the past that some subsidies to SOEs constituted unlawful state aid. Information on authorities of the Agency and past rulings can be found at . The website includes a “call to the public” inviting citizens to provide information on competition-related concerns.
Expropriation and Compensation
Croatian Law on Expropriation and Compensation gives the government broad authority to expropriate real property in economic and security-related circumstances, including eminent domain. The Law on Strategic Investments also provides for expropriation for projects that meet the criteria for “strategic” projects. However, it includes provisions that guarantee adequate compensation, in either the form of monetary compensation or real estate of equal value to the expropriated property, in the same town or city. The law includes an appeals mechanism to challenge expropriation decisions by means of a complaint to the Ministry of Justice within 15 days of the expropriation order. The law does not describe the Ministry’s adjudication process. Parties not pleased with the outcome of a Ministry decision can pursue administrative action against the decision, but no appeal to the decision is allowed.
Article III of the U.S.-Croatia Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) covers both direct and indirect expropriations. The BIT bars all expropriations or nationalizations except those that are for a public purpose, carried out in a non-discriminatory manner, in accordance with due process of law, and subject to prompt, adequate, and effective compensation.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
In 1998 Croatia ratified the Washington Convention that established the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Croatia is a signatory to the following international conventions regulating the mutual acceptance and enforcement of foreign arbitration: the 1923 Geneva Protocol on Arbitration Clauses; the 1927 Geneva Convention on the Execution of Foreign Arbitration Decisions; the 1958 New York Convention on the Acceptance and Execution of Foreign Arbitration Decisions; and the 1961 European Convention on International Business Arbitration.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
The Croatian Law on Arbitration addresses both national and international proceedings in Croatia. Parties to arbitration cases are free to appoint arbitrators of any nationality or professional qualifications and Article 12 of the Law on Arbitration requires impartiality and independence of arbitrators. Croatia recognizes binding international arbitration, which may be defined in investment agreements as a means of dispute resolution.
The Arbitration Act covers domestic arbitration, recognition and enforcement of arbitration rulings, and jurisdictional matters. Once an arbitration decision has been reached, the judgment is executed by court order. If no payment is made by the established deadline, the party benefiting from the decision notifies the Commercial Court, which becomes responsible for enforcing compliance. Arbitration rulings have the force of a final judgment, but can be appealed within three months.
In regard to implementation of foreign arbitral awards, Article 19 of the Act on Enforcement states that judgments of foreign courts may be executed only if they “fulfill the conditions for recognition and execution as prescribed by an international agreement or the law.” The Act on Enforcement serves to decrease the burden on the courts by passing responsibility for the collection of financial claims and seizures to the Financial Agency (FINA), which is responsible for paying claimants once the court has rendered a decision ordering enforcement. FINA also has the authority to seize assets or directly settle the claim from the bank account of the person or legal entity that owes the claim. More information can be found at www.fina.hr.
Article Ten of the U.S.-Croatia BIT sets forth mechanisms for the resolution of investment disputes, defined as any dispute arising out of or relating to an investment authorization, an investment agreement, or an alleged breach of rights conferred, created, or recognized by the BIT with respect to a covered investment.
Croatia has no history of extra-judicial action against foreign investors. There are currently two known cases regarding U.S. investor claims before Croatian courts. The cases are in regard to privatization related or in the real estate sector and have been pending for years.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
Alternative dispute resolution is implemented at the High Commercial Court, at the Zagreb Commercial Court, and at the six municipal courts around the country. In order to reduce the backlog, non-disputed cases are passed to public notaries.
Both mediation and arbitration services are available through the Croatian Chamber of Economy. The Chamber’s permanent arbitration court has been in operation since 1965. Arbitration is voluntary and conforms to UNCITRAL model procedures. The Chamber of Economy’s Mediation Center has been operating since 2002 – see .
There are no major investment disputes currently underway involving state-owned enterprises, other than a dispute between the Croatian government and a Hungarian oil company over implementation of a purchase agreement with a Croatian oil and gas company. There is no evidence that domestic courts rule in favor of state-owned enterprises.
Croatia’s Bankruptcy Act corresponds to the EU regulation on insolvency proceedings and United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency. All stakeholders in the bankruptcy proceeding, foreign and domestic are treated equally in terms of the Bankruptcy Act. The World Bank Ease of Doing Business 2020 rating for Croatia in the category of resolving insolvency was 63 out of 190 countries. Bankruptcy is not considered a criminal act.
The Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlement Act helps expedite proceedings and establish timeframes for the initiation of bankruptcy proceedings. One of the most important provisions of pre-bankruptcy is that it allows a firm that has been unable to pay all its bills to remain open during the proceedings, thereby allowing it to continue operations and generate cash under financial supervision in hopes that it can recover financial health and avoid closure.
The Commercial Court of the county in which a bankrupt company is headquartered has exclusive jurisdiction over bankruptcy matters. A bankruptcy tribunal decides on initiating formal bankruptcy proceedings, appoints a trustee, reviews creditor complaints, approves the settlement for creditors, and decides on the closing of proceedings. A bankruptcy judge supervises the trustee (who represents the debtor) and the operations of the creditors’ committee, which is convened to protect the interests of all creditors, oversee the trustee’s work and report back to creditors. The Act establishes the priority of creditor claims, assigning higher priority to those related to taxes and revenues of state, local and administration budgets. It also allows for a debtor or the trustee to petition to reorganize the firm, an alternative aimed at maximizing asset recovery and providing fair and equitable distribution among all creditors.
In April 2017, the Croatian government passed the “Law on Extraordinary Appointment of Management Boards for Companies of Systematic Importance to the Republic of Croatia,” when it became clear that Croatia’s largest corporation, Agrokor, was in crisis and would likely go bankrupt. The Law allowed the Government, in this instance, to install an Emergency Commissioner to restructure the company.
6. Financial Sector
Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment
Croatia’s securities and financial markets are open equally to domestic and foreign investment. Foreign residents may open non-resident accounts and may do business both domestically and abroad. Specifically, Article 24 of the Foreign Currency Act states that non-residents may subscribe, pay in, purchase, or sell securities in Croatia in accordance with regulations governing securities transactions. Non-residents and residents are afforded the same treatment in spending and borrowing. These and other non-resident financial activities regarding securities are covered by the Foreign Currency Act, available on the central bank website (www.hnb.hr).
Securities are traded on the Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE), established in 1991. Regulations that govern activity and participation in the ZSE can be found (in English) at: . There are three tiers of securities traded on the ZSE. The Capital Markets Act regulates all aspects of securities and investment services, and defines the responsibilities of the Croatian Financial Services Supervisory Agency (HANFA). The Capital Market Act was amended in 2019 and went into force on February 22, 2020. The amendments include the increase from USD 5.4 million to USD 8.7 million for mandatory publication of share prospectus, changes to administrative obligations, and a decrease in fees for issuing securities. These amendments also give HANFA more authority over corporate management of those companies listed on the capital market. All legislation associated with the Capital Market act can be found (in English) at: .
There is sufficient liquidity in the markets to enter and exit sizeable positions. There are no policies that hinder the free flow of financial resources. There are no restrictions on international payments or transfers. As such, Croatia is in accordance with IMF Article VIII. The private sector, both domestic and foreign owned, enjoys open access to credit and a variety of credit instruments on the local market, on market terms.
Money and Banking System
The banking sector is now overwhelmingly privatized, consolidated, highly developed, competitive, and increasing the diversity of products available to businesses (foreign and domestic) and consumers. French, German, Italian or Austrian companies own over 90 percent of Croatia’s banks. In 2016, Addiko Bank became the first U.S. bank registered in Croatia by taking over all of Hypo Bank’s holdings in Croatia. The banking sector suffered no long-term consequences during the 2008 global banking crisis. More than 90 percent of total banking sector assets are foreign-owned. As of December 2019, there were 20 commercial banks and three savings banks, with assets totaling USD 65.11 billion. The largest bank in Croatia is Italian-owned Zagrebacka Banka, with assets of USD 17.8 billion, for a market share of 27.3 percent of total banking assets in Croatia. The second-largest is Italian-owned Privredna Banka Zagreb, with USD 13.2 billion, or 20.3 percent of total banking assets. The third largest is Austrian Erste Bank, with assets of USD 9.7 billion, with a 14.893 percent market share in Croatia. The country has a central bank system and all information regarding the Croatian National Bank can be found at .
Non-residents are able to open bank accounts without restrictions or delays. The Croatian government has not introduced or announced any current intention to introduce block chain technologies in banking transactions.
Foreign Exchange and Remittances
The Croatian Constitution guarantees the free transfer, conversion, and repatriation of profits and invested capital for foreign investments. Article VI of the U.S.-Croatia Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) additionally establishes protection for American investors from government exchange controls. The BIT obliges both countries to permit all transfers relating to a covered investment to be made freely and without delay into and out of each other’s territory. Transfers of currency are additionally protected by Article VII of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) Articles of Agreement (http://www.imf.org/External/Pubs/FT/AA/index.htm#art7).
The Croatian Foreign Exchange Act permits foreigners to maintain foreign currency accounts and to make external payments. The Foreign Exchange Act also defines foreign direct investment (FDI) in a manner that includes use of retained earnings for new investments/acquisitions, but excludes financial investments made by institutional investors such as insurance, pension and investment funds. The law also allows Croatian entities and individuals to invest abroad. Funds associated with any form of investment can be freely converted into any world currency.
The exchange rate is determined by the Croatian National Bank through “managed floating.” The National Bank intervenes in the foreign exchange market to ensure the Euro-Croatian kuna rate remains stable as an explicit and longstanding policy. The exchange rate of the Croatian kuna, while floating and not pegged freely, is more tightly linked to the euro than the U.S. dollar. Any risk of currency devaluation or significant depreciation is generally low.
No limitations exist, either temporal or by volume, on remittances. The U.S. Embassy in Zagreb has not received any complaints from American companies regarding transfers and remittances.
Sovereign Wealth Funds
Croatia does not own any sovereign wealth funds.
8. Responsible Business Conduct
There is a general awareness of societal expectations regarding responsible business conduct which is regulated by law. The Croatian Financial Services Supervisory Agency has established a Corporate Governance Code of Ethics for all Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE) participants, and the Company Act, Audit Law, Accounting Law and Credit Institutions law are the sources for corporate governance provisions. Publicly listed companies are required to upload their annual corporate governance reports on the ZSE website. The existing code, drafted in 2007 by ZSE in cooperation with the Croatian Financial Services Supervisory Agency (HANFA) for companies listed on the ZSE, was updated in a project between the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, ZSE, and HANFA, and was implemented in October 2019. It introduces significant progress on transparency of business operations, avoidance of conflicts of interest, efficient internal control, and effective division of responsibilities.
No high profile or controversial instances of private sector labor rights violations have occurred in Croatia. The government effectively implements and enforces domestic laws in order to maintain consumer and environmental protection and avoid infringement of human and labor rights. Sometimes these regulations even exceed European Union standards. Croatia implements all EU legislation which requires a due diligence approach to responsible business conduct. Labor unions are considered watchdogs for responsible business conduct and draw attention to issues that they find to be impeding on labor, environmental, or consumer rights in the business sector.
Although Croatia is not a member, Croatia supports the OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Afflicted and High Risk Areas and considers minerals from conflict affected areas to be illegal. Croatia does not participate in the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative. Various laws related to forest and water management, concessions, and environmental protection are implemented in extractive and mining businesses to maintain high environmental and human rights standards. All procedures for mining or extraction tenders are publicly available and transparent.
Croatia has a suitable legal framework, including regulations and penalties, to combat corruption. The Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Act define the tools available to the investigative authorities to fight corruption. The criminal code also provides for asset seizure and forfeiture. In terms of a corruption case, it is assumed that all of a defendant’s property was acquired through criminal offences unless the defendant can prove the legal origin of the assets in question. Financial gain in such cases is also confiscated if it is in possession of a third party (e.g. spouse, relatives, or family members) and was not acquired in good faith. Croatian laws and provisions regarding corruption apply equally to domestic and foreign investors, to public officials, their family members and political parties. The Croatian Criminal Code covers such acts as trading in influence, abuse of official functions, bribery in the private sector, embezzlement of private property, money laundering, concealment and obstruction of justice. The Act on the Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized crime provides broad authority to prosecute tax fraud linked to organized crime and corruption cases.
The Law on Public Procurement is entirely harmonized with EU legislation and prescribes transparency and fairness for all public procurement activities. Government officials use public speeches to encourage ethical business. The Croatian Chamber of Economy created a Code of Business Ethics which it encourages all companies in Croatia to abide by, but it is not mandatory. The Code can be found at: .
Additional laws for the suppression of corruption include: the State Attorney’s Office Act; the Public Procurement Act; the Act on Procedure for Forfeiture of Assets Attained Through Criminal Acts and Misdemeanors; the Budget Act; the Conflict of Interest Prevention Act; the Corporate Criminal Liability Act; the Money Laundering Prevention Act; the Witness Protection Act; the Personal Data Protection Act; the Right to Access Information Act; the Act on Public Services; the Code of Conduct for Public Officials; and the Code of Conduct for Judges. The Labor Act contains whistleblower protections, which as yet remain unproven.
Croatia has not signed but has requested to join the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, but it is a member and currently chairs the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), a peer monitoring organization that allows members to assess anticorruption efforts on a continuing basis. Croatia has been a member of INTERPOL since 1992. Croatia cooperates regionally through the Southeast European Co-operative Initiative (SECI), the Southeast Europe Police Chiefs Association (SEPCA), and the Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative (RAI). Croatia is a member of Eurojust, the EU’s Judicial Cooperation Unit, and is a signatory to the UN Convention Against Corruption.
Croatian legislation provides protection for NGOs involved in investigating or drawing attention to corruption. GONG, a non-partisan citizens’ organization founded in 1997, which also acts as a government watchdog, monitors election processes, educates citizens about their rights and duties, encourages communication between citizens and their elected representatives, promotes transparency within public services, manages public advocacy campaigns, and assists citizens in self-organizing initiatives. The Partnership for Social Development is another nongovernmental organization active in Croatia dealing with the suppression of corruption.
Historically, the business community has identified corruption in healthcare, public procurement, and construction, and continues to raise it as an obstacle to FDI. During the years ahead of EU accession, Croatia invested considerable efforts in establishing a wide-ranging legal and institutional anti-corruption framework. The Strategy for Combatting Corruption from 2015-2020 is currently being implemented, and the Ministry of Justice published an action plan in April 2019 for 2019-2020 to complement it. Croatian prosecutors have secured corruption convictions against a number of high-level former government officials, former ministers, other high-ranking officials, and senior managers from state-owned enterprises, although many such convictions have later been overturned.
Resources to Report Corruption
The State Prosecutor’s Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (USKOK) is tasked with directing police investigations and prosecuting cases. USKOK is headquartered in Zagreb, with offices in Split, Rijeka and Osijek. In addition, the National Police Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (PN-USKOK) conducts corruption-related investigations and is based in the same cities. Specialized criminal judges are situated in the four largest county courts in Croatia, again in Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek, and are responsible for adjudicating corruption and organized crime cases. The cases receive high priority in the justice system, but still encounter excessive delays. The Ministry of Interior, the Office for Suppression of Money Laundering, the Tax Administration, and the Anti-Corruption Sector of the Ministry of Justice, all have a proactive role in combating and preventing corruption. GONG is a civil society organization founded in 1997 to encourage citizens to actively participate in the political process.
Contact information below:
Office of the State Attorney of the Republic of Croatia
Gajeva 30, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4591 855
Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime
Gajeva 30a, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4591 874
Trg Bana Josipa Jelacica 15/IV, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4825 444
10. Political and Security Environment
The risk of political violence in Croatia is low. Following the breakup of Yugoslavia and the subsequent wars in the region, Croatia has emerged as a stable, democratic country and is a member of NATO and the EU. Relations with neighboring countries are generally fair and improving, although some disagreements regarding border demarcation and residual war-related issues persist.
11. Labor Policies and Practices
Croatia has an educated, highly skilled, and relatively high-value labor force as compared to regional averages, but remains relatively low cost as compared to the entire EU. Employment is regulated by the constitution, international conventions, treaties, labor law, collective agreements, and employment agreements.
The World Bank estimates the grey economy accounts for 35 percent of GDP. Unemployment rates are falling; Croatia ranked 10th among EU member states in January 2020, though the COVID-19 crisis may significantly impact this position.
The Labor Law is the main piece of legislation that governs employment and prescribes general labor regulations. Among other items, the Labor Law prohibits discrimination, defines various types of leave including maternity, and provides terms for striking, salaries and other labor related issues. The government is committed to increasing jobs, especially for youth, through various programs funded by the EU. Companies report that Croatia’s labor law makes it relatively expensive to hire and dismiss employees in comparison to the United States and other countries in Europe at the same level of development.
There are currently labor shortages reported in the construction, food production, and tourism sectors. Foreign or migrant workers do not play a significant role in any field and the government has increased quotas for foreign workers to address labor shortages. Croatia continues to experience a brain drain, with an estimated 60,000 Croatians (mostly young and educated) leaving the country annually. The Government maintains the website with information regarding measures to keep workers in Croatia. These measures are divided into nine categories and include financial support for employers and the self-employed, and for training and seasonal work programs. A large portion of the funding is intended to be directed at policies for active employment, while a portion will fund specialized programs for groups that have a harder time entering the labor market.
Croatian law does not require the hiring of Croatian nationals. Employers are bound by law to offer severance pay to individuals laid off due to restructuring or down-sizing. The labor law defines the conditions and amounts of severance pay. To be eligible for severance: 1) the employer must terminate the employee, 2) the termination must not be the result of behavioral issues, and 3) the employee must have been employed for two consecutive years. The Croatian Employment Agency provides unemployment payments for those laid off due to economic reasons.
Labor laws are strictly implemented and not waived to retain or attract investment. Collective bargaining is a common tool, mostly implemented by unions, which overwhelmingly represent workers associated with government spending and state owned enterprises. The baza.kolektivni-ugovori.info website provides an updated database of collective agreements signed in 1995 to date.
13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment Statistics
|Direct Investment From/in Counterpart Economy Data|
|From Top Five Sources/To Top Five Destinations (US Dollars, Millions)|
|Inward Direct Investment||Outward Direct Investment|
|Total Inward||$35,586||100%||Total Outward||$7,722||100%|
|“0” reflects amounts rounded to +/- USD 500,000.|
Table 4: Sources of Portfolio Investment
Data not available.