The Republic of San Marino is a multiparty democracy. Twice yearly, the popularly elected unicameral Great and General Council (parliament) selects two of its members to serve as captains regent (coheads of state). They preside over meetings of the Council and of the Congress of State (cabinet), which has no more than 10 other members (secretaries of state), selected by the Council. Parliamentary elections were held in 2019, and observers considered them generally free and fair.
The Civil Police operates under the authority of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The captains regent oversee the Gendarmerie (national police force) and National Guard (military) when they are performing duties related to public order and security. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs exercises control over such administrative functions as personnel and equipment, and the courts exercise control over the Gendarmerie when it acts as judicial police. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
There were no reports of significant human rights abuses.
The government had mechanisms in place to identify, investigate, and prosecute officials who commit human rights abuses or engage in corruption.