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Afghanistan

3. Legal Regime

Transparency of the Regulatory System

Afghanistan’s Law on Publication and Enforcement of Legislation requires that official declarations, laws, decrees, and other legislative documents be published in the Official Gazette.  There is no legal requirement or practice for publication and comment for domestic laws, regulations, or other measures of application that will become legally enforceable.

In general, the Afghan government shares draft legislation with interested parties for comment and some ministries publish draft legislation in national newspapers for public comment.  Foreign firms in Afghanistan follow accounting procedures consistent with international norms. The government uses ministerial orders to enforce regulatory compliance. For example, ministries have in the past taken action to freeze accounts or limit travel for companies until they comply with regulations.

International Regulatory Considerations

Afghanistan became a WTO member in 2016.  The government is working to build its capacity to meet the notification requirements of the WTO.

Legal System and Judicial Independence

The legal system of Afghanistan consists of Islamic, statutory, and customary (Shura) rules.  The supreme law of the land is the Constitution. The judiciary system is composed of the Supreme Court, the Courts of Appeal, and the Primary Courts.  There are trial and appellate courts that specialize on commercial disputes. Since 2002, NGOs have been working to strengthen the rule of law in Afghanistan by identifying peaceful means for dispute resolutions and developing partnerships between state and community actors in the hopes of improving access to justice.

Despite these efforts, many legal disputes are still resolved outside the formal justice system by community based tribal leaders.  Contract law in Afghanistan is set out in the Afghanistan Commercial Code 1955 and the Afghanistan Civil Code 1977. Under these codes, parties are generally free to:  a) enter into and perform a contract on any commercial subject matter provided that subject matter or performance is not contrary to law, public policy, or sharia; and b) agree to have the law of a foreign state govern their contract.

According to credible contacts, civil cases in the commercial court system can sometimes take more than 18 months for parties to obtain resolutions.  Cases are frequently resolved more quickly through an informal system or, in some cases, pursuant to negotiations facilitated by formal justice system actors or private lawyers.

Because access to the formal legal system is limited in rural areas, local elders and shuras (consultative gatherings, usually of men selected by the community) are often the primary means of settling both criminal matters and civil disputes, and they are known to levy unsanctioned punishments.  According to the 2018 Asia Foundation Survey of the Afghan People, shuras were used to resolve 45 percent of all disputes and represent the predominant form of dispute resolution employed by Afghans (up from 43 percent in 2017).

Investors should be aware that the 2018 Human Rights Report noted that arbitrary arrests occur in most provinces, and that authorities frequently detain citizens without respecting essential procedural protections.  Local law enforcement officials reportedly detain persons illegally on charges not specified under local criminal law. While the law gives defendants the right to object to his or her pretrial detention and receive a court hearing on the matter, authorities generally do not observe this requirement.

Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment

Under the PIL, investment is defined as currency and contributions in kind, including, without limitation, licenses, leases, machinery, equipment, and industrial and intellectual-property rights provided for the purpose of acquiring shares of stock or other ownership interests in a registered enterprise.  The PIL permits investments in nearly all sectors except nuclear power, gambling, and production of narcotics and intoxicants. There are also limitations on the total value of service transactions or assets with respect to motion pictures, road transport (passenger and freight), and on the total number of people that can be employed in security companies.

Foreign investors have complained of irregularities in the court system, arbitration, and tax disputes.  As a result of the various legal and regulatory challenges, companies operating in Afghanistan may want to seek local legal counsel to help navigate licensing and permitting requirements and conforming to tax regulations.

Competition and Anti-Trust Laws

Afghanistan does not have anti-trust laws.  The Afghan government enacted a law to protect sound competition in markets and prevent unfair competition in 2010.

Expropriation and Compensation

The PIL allows for expropriation of investments or assets by the government on a non-discriminatory basis for the purposes of public interest.  The law stipulates that the government shall provide prompt, adequate, and effective compensation in conformity with the principles of international law.

In cases of investment in a foreign currency, the law requires compensation to be made in that currency.  The government may also confiscate private property to settle debts. According to the PIL, investors with an ownership share of more than 25 percent may challenge the expropriation.  There have been no reports of government expropriation of foreign assets.

The Ministry of Finance may freeze assets to collect taxes.

Dispute Settlement

ICSID Convention and New York Convention

In 2005, Afghanistan became a signatory to the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention).  Under the New York Convention, Afghanistan has agreed to (a) recognize and enforce awards made in another contracted state, and (b) apply the convention to commercial disputes.

Under the PIL and the Commercial Arbitration Law of 2007, (a) parties can agree to have foreign law govern their contract and agree to have their disputes resolved through arbitration or other mechanisms inside or outside of Afghanistan, and (b) Afghan courts must enforce any resulting award or agreement.

Afghanistan has been a member state to the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID convention) since 1966.

Investor-State Dispute Settlement

Afghanistan does not have a Bilateral Investment Treaty or Free Trade Agreement with the United States.  There are several disputes between the government and investors, typically about tax assessments and license requirements.

International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts

Since 2005, Afghan law has expressly recognized alternative dispute resolution provisions.  In 2014, the Afghanistan Centre for Dispute Resolution (ACDR), whose decisions are non-binding, was established with support from USAID and the Department of Commerce Commercial Law Development Program (CLDP).  The ACDR offers mediation, expert witness services, and award calculation services in a limited number of cases referred by the commercial courts and plans to expand its services to include arbitration.

Bankruptcy Regulations

Provisions in the Banking Law provide special procedures for bank insolvency.  The Afghan government enacted a new insolvency law in 2018 to provide a uniform and fair procedure for the payment of debts to creditors.  The text of the law can be found at https://www.ahg.af/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Draft-Insolvency-Law-English.pdf .

Albania

3. Legal Regime

Transparency of the Regulatory System

Albania’s legal, regulatory, and accounting systems have improved in recent years, but challenges remain.  Uneven enforcement of legislation, cumbersome bureaucracy, and a lack of transparency all hinder the business community.

Albanian legislation includes rules on disclosure requirements, formation, maintenance, and alteration of capital, mergers and divisions, takeover bids, shareholders’ rights, as well as corporate governance principles.  The Law on Accounting and Financial Statements includes reporting provisions related to international financial reporting standards for large companies, and national financial reporting standards for small and medium enterprises.  Albania meets minimum standards on fiscal transparency, and debt obligations are published by the Ministry of Finance and Economy. Albania’s budgets are publicly available, substantially complete, and reliable.

The law on notification and public consultation requires that the GOA publish draft laws and regulations for public consultation or notification.  Such draft laws and regulations are published at the following page: http://www.konsultimipublik.gov.al/. However, the business community frequently complains that final versions of laws and regulations fail to incorporate their comments and concerns.

All laws, by-laws, regulations, decisions by the Council of Ministers, decrees, and any other regulatory acts are published at the National Publication Center at the following site: https://qbz.gov.al/  

Other independent agencies and bodies, including, but not limited to, the Energy Regulator (ERE), Telecom Regulator (AKEP), Natural Resources Bureau (AKBN), and Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), oversee transparency in specific sectors.

State-owned oil company Albpetrol retains some regulatory authority over legacy oilfields and is a consistent source of reports of corruption, malign interpretation of regulations, and inefficiency in the hydrocarbons sector.  Major foreign investors in this sector report difficulties in complying with often overlapping regulatory requirements, and inconsistent and often conflicting interpretations of Albanian legislation and regulations governing oil exploration and extraction.

International Regulatory Considerations

Albania acceded to the World Trade Organization in 2000, and the country notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade of all draft technical regulations.

Albania signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) with the EU in 2006, and currently seeks to open accession talks with the EU.  The country has embarked on a gradual process of legislation approximation with the EU.

Legal System and Judicial Independence

The Albanian legal system is based on the continental judicial system.  The Albanian constitution provides for the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial branches, thereby supporting the independence of the judiciary.  The Civil Procedure Code, enacted in 1996, governs civil procedure in Albania. The civil court system consists of district courts, appellate courts, and the Supreme Court.  The district courts are organized in specialized sections according to the subject of the claim, including civil, family, and commercial disputes.

The administrative courts of first instance, the Administrative Court of Appeal, and the Administrative College of the High Court, now adjudicate administrative disputes.  Administrative courts aim to adjudicate administrative cases quickly. The Constitutional Court reviews whether laws or subsidiary legislation comply with the Constitution, and in limited cases protects and enforces the constitutional rights of citizens and legal entities.

Parties may appeal the judgment of the first instance courts within 15 days, while appellate court judgments must be appealed to the Supreme Court within 30 days.  A lawsuit against an administrative action is submitted to the administrative court within 45 days from notification and the law stipulates short procedural timeframes enabling faster adjudication of administrative disputes.

Albania does not have a specific commercial code, but defines commercial legislation through a series of relevant commercial laws including, Foreign Investment Law, Commercial Companies Law, Bankruptcy Law, Environmental Law, Law on Corporate and Municipal Bonds, Transport Law, Maritime Code, Secured Transactions Law, Employment Law, Taxation Procedures Law, Banking Law, Insurance and Reinsurance Law, Concessions Law, Mining Law, Energy Law, Water Resources Law, Waste Management Law, Excise Law, Oil and Gas Law, Gambling Law, Telecommunications Law, Value Added Law, Sports Law, etc.

Corruption is endemic in the Albanian judicial system and U.S. investors are advised to include binding international arbitration clauses in agreements with Albanian counterparts.  While the government has historically respected decisions by international arbitration courts, the GOA ignored a 2016 injunction from such a court in a high-profile investment dispute (a decision that was later reversed.)  Albania is a signatory to the New York Convention and foreign arbitration awards may be enforced in local courts.

Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment

The Law on Foreign Investments seeks to create a hospitable legal climate for foreign investors and stipulates the following:

  1. No prior government authorization is needed for an initial investment;
  2. Foreign investment may not be expropriated or nationalized directly or indirectly, except for designated special cases, in the interest of public use and as defined by law;
  3. Foreign investors enjoy the right to expatriate all funds and contributions in kind from their investments;
  4. Foreign investors receive most favored nation treatment according to international agreements and Albanian law.

There are limited exceptions to this liberal investment regime, most of which apply to the purchase of real estate.  Agricultural land cannot be purchased by foreigners and foreign entities but may be leased for up to 99 years. Investors can buy agricultural land if registered as a commercial entity in Albania.  Commercial property may be purchased, but only if the proposed investment is worth three times the price of the land. There are no restrictions on the purchase of private residential property.

To boost investments in strategic sectors, the government approved a new law on strategic investments in May 2015.  Under the new law, a “strategic investment” as deemed by the government benefits from either “assisted procedure” or “special procedure” assistance by the government to help navigate the permitting and regulatory process.  To date, no major foreign investors have taken advantage of the law. Several projects proposed by domestic companies or consortiums of local and foreign partners have been designated as strategic investments, mostly in the tourism sector.

Major Laws Governing Foreign Investments:

  • Law 55/2015, “On Strategic Investments”: Defines procedures and rules to be observed by government authorities when reviewing, approving and supporting strategic domestic and foreign investments in Albania;
  • Law 7764/1993 “On the Foreign Investments” amended by the Law 10316/2010.
  • Law 9901/2008 “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies”: Outlines general rules and regulations on the merger of commercial companies;
  • Law 110/2012 “On Cross-Border Mergers”: Determines rules on mergers when one of the companies involved in the process is a foreign company;
  • Law 9121/2003 “On Protection of Competition”: Stipulates provisions for the protection of competition, and the concentration of commercial companies;
  • Law 10198/2009 “On Collective Investment Undertakings”: Regulates conditions and criteria for the establishment, constitution, and operation of collective investment undertakings and of management companies;

Authorities responsible for mergers, change of control, and transfer of shares include, the Albanian Competition Authority (ACA; http://www.caa.gov.al/laws/list/category/1/page/1) which monitors the implementation of the competition law and approves mergers and acquisitions when required by the law; and, the Albanian Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA; http://www.amf.gov.al/ligje.asp  ) which regulates and supervises the securities market and approves the transfer of shares and change of control of companies operating in this sector.

Investors in Albania are entitled to judicial protection of legal rights related to their investments.  Foreign investors have the right to submit disputes to an Albanian court. In addition, parties to a dispute may agree to arbitration.  Albania is a signatory to the New York Arbitration Convention and foreign arbitration awards are typically recognized by Albania, although the government refused to recognize an injunction from a foreign arbitration court in one high profile case, in 2016, calling into question the government’s commitment to arbitration (this refusal was later reversed).  The Albanian Civil Procedure Code outlines provisions regarding domestic and international commercial arbitration. Many foreign investors complain that endemic judicial corruption and inefficient court procedures undermine judicial protection in Albania and seek international arbitration to resolve disputes.

Albania’s tax system does not distinguish between foreign and domestic investors.  Informality in the economy, which may represent as much as 40 percent of the formal economy, presents challenges for tax administration.

Visa requirements to obtain residence or work permits are straightforward and do not pose an undue burden on potential investors.  The only potential complication to obtaining a work permit is the requirement that a foreign employer maintain a certain number of local employees.  The Law on Foreigners states that a foreign employer will be granted a work permit only if the number of foreign employees did not exceed 10 percent of the total number of employees on the payroll over the preceding 12 months.

The Law on Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies sets guidelines on the activities of companies and the legal structure under which they may operate.  The government adopted the law in 2008 to conform Albanian legislation to the EU’s Acquis Communitaire. The most common type of organization for foreign investors is a limited liability company.

The Law on Concessions establishes the framework for promoting and facilitating the implementation of privately financed concessionary projects.  Concessions may be identified by central or local governments or through third party unsolicited proposals. In the case of unsolicited proposals, the proposing company is entitled to receive a bonus of up to 10 percent of total points based on the technical and financial proposal.  The GOA is in the process of approving changes to the law that would restrict third party unsolicited proposals in certain sectors.

Competition and Anti-Trust Laws

The Albanian Competition Authority (http://www.caa.gov.al/?lng=en  ) is the agency that reviews transactions for competition- related concerns.  The Law on Protection of Competition governs incoming foreign investment whether through mergers, acquisitions, takeovers, or green field investments, irrespective of industry or sector.  In the case of particular share transfers in insurance and banking industries, the Financial Supervisory Authority (http://amf.gov.al/  ) and/or the Bank of Albania (https://www.bankofalbania.org/  )  may require additional regulatory approvals.  Transactions between parties outside Albania, including foreign-to-foreign transactions, are covered by the competition law, which explicitly states that the transactions apply to all activities, domestic or foreign, that directly or indirectly affect the Albanian market.

Expropriation and Compensation

The Albanian Constitution guarantees the right of private property.  According to Article 41, expropriation or limitation in the exercise of a property right can occur only if it serves the public interest and with fair compensation.  During the post-communist period, expropriation has been limited to land for public interest, mainly infrastructure projects such as roads, energy infrastructure, water works, airports, and other facilities.  Compensation has generally been below market value and owners have complained that the compensation process is slow and unfair. Civil courts are responsible for resolving such complaints.

Change of government can also be of concern to foreign investors.  Following the 2013 elections and peaceful transition of power, the new government revoked or attempted to renegotiate numerous concession agreements, licenses, and contracts signed by the previous government with both domestic and international investors.  This practice has occurred in years past, as well.

There are many ongoing disputes regarding properties confiscated during the communist regime.  Identifying ownership is a longstanding problem in Albania that makes restitution for expropriated properties difficult.  The restitution and compensation process started in 1993, but has been slow and marred by corruption. Many U.S. citizens of Albanian origin have suffered from long-running restitution disputes.  Court cases drag on for years without a final decision, forcing many to refer their case to the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in Strasbourg, France. As of December 2018, the Court had issued around 31 decisions in favor of Albanian citizens in civil cases involving protection of property, with financial bill in the millions of euros for the GOA.  A significant number of applications are pending for consideration before the ECHR. Even after settlement in Strasbourg, enforcement remains slow.

To address the situation, the GOA approved new property compensation legislation in 2018 that aims to provide a solution to the pending claims for restitution and compensation.  The 2018 law reduces the burden on the state budget by changing the cash compensation formula. The legislation presents three methods of compensation for confiscation claims: restitution; compensation of property with similarly valued land in a different location; or financial compensation.  It also set a 10-year timeframe for the completion of the entire process.

The GOA has generally not engaged in expropriation actions against U.S. investments, companies, or representatives.  There have been limited cases in which the government has revoked licenses, especially in the mining and energy sectors, based on contract violation claims.

Dispute Settlement

ICSID Convention and New York Convention

Under the Albanian Constitution, ratified international agreements prevail over domestic legislation.  Albania is a member state to the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention).  It also is a signatory to the convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention).  Albania has ratified the 1927 Convention and the European Convention on Arbitration (Geneva Convention).

Investor-State Dispute Settlement

For an arbitration award to be locally recognized, the claimant must enforce the award before the Court of Appeals.  The procedure to recognize a foreign arbitral award typically lasts around one month and either party may appeal the Court’s decision to the Supreme Court.  The appeal must be filed within 30 days from the date of decision or notification of the other party (if absent).

The possibility of bringing an action before the local court to avoid arbitration proceedings is remote.  According to explicit provisions in the Albanian Code of Civil Procedure, if a party brings actions before local courts despite the parties’ agreement to arbitrate, the court would, upon motion of the other party, dismiss the case without entertaining the merits of the case.  The decision of the court to dismiss the case can be appealed to the Supreme Court, which has 30 days to consider the appeal.

An alternative to dispute settlement via the courts is private arbitration or mediation.  Parties can engage in arbitration when they have agreed to such a provision in the original agreement, when there is a separate arbitration agreement, or by agreement at any time when a dispute arises.  Legislation distinguishes arbitration of international disputes from arbitration of domestic disputes in that the parties involved in an international dispute may agree to settle through either a domestic or foreign arbitration tribunal.  Mediation is also applicable in resolving all civil, commercial, and family disputes and is regulated by the law “On Dispute Resolution through Mediation.” Arbitral awards are final and enforceable and can be appealed only in cases foreseen in the Code of Civil Procedure.  Mediation is final and enforceable in the same way.

There are no consolidated institutions for dispute resolution through arbitration and arbiters are appointed ad hoc in compliance with the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure.  The law provides for the National Chamber of Mediators and Chambers of Mediators as institutions to perform mediation. Mediators are licensed and registered at the Mediators Register at the Ministry of Justice, which maintains a list of mediators from which the parties can choose.

The provisions for arbitration procedures and the recognition and enforcement of foreign awards are stipulated in the Albanian Code of Civil Procedure.  Albania does not have a separate law on arbitration. Although the arbitration chapter of the Code of Civil procedure stipulates only the rules for domestic arbitration, the country is signatory to the 1958 New York Convention, and as such, recognizes the validity of written arbitration agreements and arbitral awards in a contracting state.

The Albanian Code of Civil Procedure requires the courts to reach a judgment within a reasonable amount of time, but does not provide for a specific deadline to decide on commercial disputes.  Reaching a final judgment in a commercial litigation may take several years to exhaust all stages of the process.

The procedure for the recognition of a foreign arbitral award should take on average approximately one month; however, in certain cases this decision may be appealable.  An appeal against a court decision that recognizes a foreign arbitral award does not automatically suspend the effects of the enforcement.

International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts

Over the past ten years, there have been six investment disputes between the GOA and U.S. companies, four of which resulted in international arbitration.  Despite a stated desire to attract and support foreign investors, U.S. investors in disputes with the GOA report a lack of productive dialogue with government officials, who frequently display a reluctance to settle the disputes before they are escalated to the level of international arbitration, or before the international community exerts pressure on the government to resolve the issue.  U.S. investors in Albania are encouraged to include strong binding arbitration clauses in any agreements with Albanian counterparts.

Bankruptcy Regulations

Albania maintains adequate bankruptcy legislation, though corrupt and inefficient bankruptcy court proceedings make it difficult for companies to reorganize or discharge debts through bankruptcy.  A law on bankruptcy that entered into force in May 2017 aimed to address loopholes in the insolvency regime, decrease unnecessary market exit procedures, reduce fraud, and ease collateral recovery procedures.  The Bankruptcy Law governs the reorganization or liquidation of insolvent businesses. It sets out non-discriminatory and mandatory rules for the repayment of the obligations by a debtor in a bankruptcy procedure.  The law establishes statutory time limits for insolvency procedures, professional qualifications for insolvency administrators, and an Agency of Insolvency Supervision to regulate the profession of insolvency administrators.

Debtors, creditors, or tax authorities can initiate a bankruptcy procedure.  Debtors and creditors can file for either liquidation or reorganization. Tax authorities can request a bankruptcy procedure when the subject reports losses three years consecutively.  Bankruptcy proceedings may also be invoked when the debtor is unable to pay the obligations at maturity date or will be unable to pay in the near future.

According to the provisions of the Bankruptcy Law, the initiation of bankruptcy proceedings would suspend the enforcement of claims by all creditors against the debtor subject to bankruptcy.  Creditors of all categories should submit their claims to the bankruptcy administrator to be treated under the bankruptcy proceeding. The Bankruptcy Law provides specific treatment for different categories, including, secured creditors, unsecured creditors, and unsecured creditors of lower ranking (i.e. those whose claims would be paid after all the secured and unsecured creditors were satisfied).  The claims of the secured creditors will be satisfied by the assets of the debtor, which secure such claims under security agreements. The claims of the unsecured creditors will be paid out of bankruptcy estate excluding the assets used for payment of the secured creditors, following the priority ranking described under the Albanian Civil Code.

Pursuant to the provisions of the Bankruptcy Law, the creditors have the right to establish a creditors committee and the creditors’ assembly.  The creditors’ committee is appointed by the Commercial Section Courts, before the first meeting of the creditors’ assembly. The creditors’ committee represents the secured creditors, the unsecured creditors with larger claims, and creditors with small claims.  The committee has the right: (a) to support and supervise the activities of the insolvency administrator; (b) to request and receive information about the insolvency proceedings; c) to inspect the books and records; and, d) to order an examination of the revenues and cash balances.

If the creditors and administrator agree that reorganization is the company’s best option, the bankruptcy administrator prepares a reorganization plan and submits it to the court for authorizing implementation.

According to the insolvency procedures, only creditors whose rights are affected by the proposed reorganization plan enjoy the right of vote and the dissenting creditors in reorganization receive at least as much as what they would obtain in a liquidation.  Creditors are divided into classes for the purposes of voting on the reorganization plan and each class votes separately and creditors of the same class are treated equally.

The insolvency framework allows for the continuation of contracts supplying essential goods and services to the debtor, the rejection by the debtor of overly burdensome contracts, the avoidance of preferential or undervalued transactions, and the possibility of the debtor obtaining credit after commencement of insolvency proceedings.  No priority is assigned to post-commencement creditors.

The creditor has the right to object to decisions accepting or rejecting creditors’ claims and should approve the sale of substantial assets of the debtor.  The creditor does not have the right to request information from the insolvency representative and the law does not require approval by the creditor for the selection of appointment of insolvency representative.

According to the law on bankruptcy, foreign creditors have the same rights as domestic creditors with respect to the commencement of, and participation in, a bankruptcy proceeding.  The claim is valued as of the date the insolvency proceeding is opened. Claims expressed in foreign currency are converted into Albanian currency according to the official exchange rate applicable to the place of payment at the time of the opening of the proceeding.

The Albanian Criminal Code provides for several criminal offenses in bankruptcy such as: (i) the bankruptcy was provoked intentionally; (ii) concealment of bankruptcy status; (iii) concealment of assets after bankruptcy; and, (iv) failure to comply with the obligations arising under bankruptcy proceeding.

According to the World Bank’s 2019 “Doing Business” Report, Albania ranked 39th out of 190 countries in the insolvency index.  A reference analysis of ‘resolving insolvency’ can be found at the following link: http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/albania#resolving-insolvency  

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The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future