3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
In 2018, the Government of Bahrain issued competition, a personal data protection, bankruptcy, and health insurance laws to enhance the country’s investment ecosystem. The so-called Law of Commerce (Legislative Decree No. 7, passed in 1987) addresses the concept of unfair competition and prohibits acts that would have a damaging effect on commercial competition. Companies also are forbidden from undertaking practices detrimental to their competitors or from attracting the customers of their competitors. There is no official competition authority in Bahrain and the country has yet to institute comprehensive anti-monopoly laws or an independent anti-corruption agency.
Bahrain’s industrial sector exhibits dominance by state-controlled companies such as Aluminum Bahrain (ALBA) and Gulf Petrochemical Industries Company (GPIC). De facto monopolies also exist in some industries led by individuals or family-run businesses.
The GOB uses International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as part of its implementation of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). IFRS are used by domestic listed and unlisted companies in their consolidated financial statements for external financial reporting.
Bahrain adopted International Accounting Standard 1 (IAS 1) in 1994 in the absence of other local standards. Non-listed banks and other business enterprises use IASs in the preparation of financial statements.
The 2001 Bahrain Commercial Companies Law requires each registered entity to produce a balance sheet, a profit-and-loss account and the director’s report for each financial year. All branches of foreign companies, limited liability companies and corporations must submit annual audited financial statements to the Directorate of Commerce and Company Affairs at the MoICT, along with the company’s articles and /or articles of association.
Depending on the company’s business, financial statements may be subject to review by other regulatory agencies such as the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) and the Bahrain Stock Exchange (banks and listed companies).
Bahrain encourages firms to adhere to both the IFRS and Bahrain’s Code of Corporate Governance. Bahrain-based companies by and large remain in compliance with IAS 1 disclosure requirements.
There are no informal regulatory processes managed by non-governmental organizations or private sector associations.
According to the World Bank, the GOB does not have the legal obligation to publish the text of proposed regulations before they are implemented and there is no period of time set by law for the text of the proposed regulations to be publicly available. Bahrain, therefore, ranks among the countries the World Bank identifies with low rule-making transparency.
Laws and regulatory actions can be proposed by legislators, the government, or the King and are normally drafted under the Cabinet’s guidance prior to being transferred back to the Council of Representatives (COR). If the bill or legislation is approved by a majority of the COR, the legislation advances to the Shura Council. If approved by a majority in the Shura Council, legislation is referred back to the Cabinet for the King’s ratification. If the COR advances a version that the Shura Council disagrees with, a revised draft goes back to the COR. If the two houses cannot agree, they meet in what is known as the National Assembly, where both chambers meet to reconcile differences on a specific bill. The publication of the regulatory action in the Official Gazette is the final legislative step. The implementation of any laws takes place the day following its publication. The media sometimes publishes the draft laws and offers commentary on various legal interpretations.
Commercial regulations can be proposed by the EDB, MoICT, the Cabinet, or the COR. Draft regulations are debated within the COR’s Finance and Economic Committee. The Bahrain Chamber of Commerce board of directors may raise concerns over draft legislation at committee meetings or send written comments for review by Members of Parliament, but the bills are otherwise not available for public comment. The Cabinet issues final approval of regulations.
The e-Government portal and the Legislation and Legal Opinion Commission website list laws by category and date of issuance. Some laws are translated into English. The National Audit Office publishes results of its annual audits of government ministries and parastatals.
International Regulatory Considerations
Bahrain is a member of the GCC. The GOB has agreed to enforce GCC standards and regulations where they exist, and not to create any domestic rules that contradict established GCC-wide standards and regulations. In certain cases, the GOB applies international standards where domestic or GCC standards have not been developed. For example, the GOB mandates that imported vehicles meet either the U.S. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards or the so-called “1958 Agreement” standards developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Bahrain is a member of the WTO and notifies all draft technical regulations to the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade. Bahrain ratified the Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) in September 2016 through Law No. 17 of 2016. Bahrain Customs and MoICT have begun working toward implementing the TFA’s requirements.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
Bahrain’s Constitution defines the Kingdom as a sovereign, independent, Arab Muslim State. Although Article 2 of the Constitution states that Islamic Sharia (Islamic) law is the main source of legislation, general matters and private transactions are governed mainly by laws derived from modern legislation. Three types of courts are present in Bahrain – civil, criminal, and family (Sharia) courts. The civil court system consists of lower courts, courts of appeal, and the Court of Cassation — the highest appellate court in the Kingdom, hearing a variety of civil, criminal and family cases. Civil courts deal with all administrative, commercial, and civil cases, as well as disputes related to the personal status of non-Muslims. Family courts deal primarily with personal status matters, such as marriage, divorce, custody, and inheritance.
Many of the high-ranking judges in Bahrain come from the ruling family, prominent families, or are non-Bahrainis (mainly Egyptians). Bahraini law borrows a great deal from other Arab states, particularly Egyptian legal codes.
Bahrain has a long-established framework of commercial law. English is widely used, and a number of well-known international (including U.S.) law firms, working in association with local partners, are authorized to practice law in Bahrain and provide expert legal services, both nationally and regionally. Fees are charged according to internationally accepted practices. Non-Bahraini lawyers can represent clients in Bahraini courts. In April 2007, the government permitted international law firms to be established in Bahrain. These firms provide services such as commercial and financial consultancy in legal matters.
Entrenched local business interests with government influence can sometimes cause problems for foreign companies. Interpretation and application of the law sometimes varies by ministry and may be dependent on the stature and connections of an investor’s local partner. These departures from the consistent, transparent application of regulations and the law are not common, and investors report general satisfaction with government cooperation and support.
The GOB is eager to develop its legal framework further. The U.S. Department of Commerce’s Commercial Law Development Program (CLDP) has conducted training and capacity-building programs in Bahrain for several years, in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and Islamic Affairs, the Higher Supreme Council for Judges, and the Judicial and Legal Studies Institute.
Judgments of foreign courts are recognized and enforceable under local courts. Article nine of the U.S.-Bahrain Bilateral Investment Treaty outlines how problems with U.S. investments should be handled within the Bahraini legal system. The most common source of investment-related problems in Bahrain is slow or incomplete application of the law. In general, the judicial process is fair and cases are appealable.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
The U.S.-Bahrain BIT provides benefits and protection to U.S. investors in Bahrain, such as most-favored nation and national treatment, the right to make financial transfers freely and immediately, the application of international legal standards for expropriation and compensation cases, and access to international arbitration. The BIT guarantees national treatment for U.S. investments across most sectors, with exceptions only for ownership of television, radio or other media, fisheries, and dredging or oil exploration. Bahrain also provides most-favored nation or national treatment status to U.S. investments in air transportation, the purchase or ownership of land, and the purchase or ownership of shares traded on the Bahrain Bourse.
The national treatment clause in the BIT ensures American firms interested in selling products exclusively in Bahrain are no longer required to appoint a commercial agent, though they may opt to do so. A commercial agent is any Bahraini party appointed by a foreign party to represent the foreign party’s product or service in Bahrain.
With few exceptions, Bahrain permits 100 percent foreign-ownership of new industrial entities and the establishment of representative offices or branches of foreign companies without local sponsors. Wholly foreign-owned companies may be set up for regional distribution services and may operate within the domestic market as long as they do not exclusively pursue domestic commercial sales. Private investment (foreign or Bahraini) in petroleum extraction is permitted only under a production-sharing agreement with the Bahrain Petroleum Company (BAPCO), the state-owned petroleum company.
Expatriates may own land in designated areas in Bahrain. Non-GCC nationals, including Americans, may own high-rise commercial and residential properties, as well as properties used for tourism, banking, financial and health projects, and training centers.
Bahrain issued Bankruptcy Law No. 22 in May 2018 governing corporate reorganization and insolvency. The law is based on U.S. Chapter 11 insolvency legislation and provides companies in financial difficulty with an opportunity to restructure under court supervision.
Competition and Anti-Trust Laws
The GOB issued Competition Law No. 31 in July 2018 to prevent the formation of monopolies or the practice of anti-competitive behavior. This law makes it easier for new businesses to enter existing markets and compete with significant players.
MoICT’s Consumer Protection Directorate is responsible for ensuring that the law determining price controls is implemented and that violators are punished. There are general restrictions on FDI in some sectors, including the oil and gas and petrochemicals sectors, in which all companies are government-owned.
Expropriation and Compensation
There have been no expropriations in recent years, and there are no cases in contention. The U.S.-Bahrain BIT protects U.S. investments by banning all expropriations (including “creeping” and “measures tantamount to”) except those for a public purpose. Such transactions must be carried out in a non-discriminatory manner, with due process, and prompt, adequate, effective compensation.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Bahrain uses multiple international and regional conventions to enhance its commercial arbitration legal framework. Bahrain is a party to the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, the New York Convention, the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), and the GCC Convention for Execution of Judgments, among others. These conventions and international agreements established the foundation for the GCC Arbitration Centre, and the Bahrain Chamber for Disputes & Resolution (BCDR). Bahrain’s Constitution stipulates international conventions and treaties have the power of law.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
The U.S.-Bahrain BIT provides for three dispute settlement options:
- Submitting the dispute to a local court;
- Invoking dispute-resolution procedures previously agreed upon by the national or company and the host country government; or,
- Submitting the dispute for binding arbitration to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) or any other arbitral institution agreed upon by both parties.
In 2010, the Ministry of Justice established the Bahrain Chamber for Dispute Resolution (BCDR). In partnership with the American Arbitration Association (AAA), the BCDR specializes in alternative dispute resolution services. The jurisdiction of the BCDR-AAA is twofold: Jurisdiction by Law (Section 1 cases), and Jurisdiction by Party Agreement (arbitration, also referred to as Section 2 cases).
Jurisdiction by Law (Section 1 Cases)
Disputes exceeding BD 500,000 (approximately USD 1.3 million) which involve either an international commercial dispute or a party licensed by the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) are referred to the BCDR-AAA. Prior to the creation of the BCDR, these cases fell within the jurisdiction of the courts of Bahrain.
From the establishment of the BCDR-AAA through December 2018, 231 cases were filed under Section 1, with claims totaling over USD 3.9 billion. Of these cases, 29.4 percent were decided or settled within 6 months; 41.1 percent were decided/settled within 6–12 months; 11.3 percent were decided or settled within 12–18 months; 6.1 percent were decided or settled within 18–24 months; 3.0 percent were decided or settled after 24 months; and 9.1 percent were ongoing.
Arbitration (Section 2 Cases)
As of April 2018, ten cases have been filed: one in 2013, one in 2015, three in 2016, and five in 2017. Of these cases only three of the cases filed in 2017 as of April 2018 were ongoing and the rest were awarded or settled.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) reported that Bahrain faced its first known Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) claim in 2017. The case involves investor claims over the Central Bank of Bahrain’s 2016 move to close the Manama branch of Future Bank, a commercial bank whose shareholders include Iranian banks. Bahrain and Iran are party to a BIT.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
Arbitration procedures are largely a contractual matter in Bahrain. Disputes historically have been referred to an arbitration body as specified in the contract, or to the local courts. In dealings with both local and foreign firms, Bahraini companies have increasingly included arbitration procedures in their contracts. Most commercial disputes are resolved privately without recourse to the courts or formal arbitration. Resolution under Bahraini law is generally specified in all contracts for the settlement of disputes that reach the stage of formal resolution but is optional in those designating the BCDR. Bahrain’s court system has adequately handled occasional lawsuits against individuals or companies for nonpayment of debts.
Bahrain Law No. 9 of 2015 promulgating the Arbitration Law (the “New Arbitration Law”) came into effect on August 9, 2015. The law provides that the UNCITRAL 1985 Model Law, with its 2006 amendments on international commercial arbitration (the “UNCITRAL Law”), will apply to any arbitration, taking place in Bahrain or abroad, if the parties to the dispute agreed to be subject to the UNCITRAL Law.
The GCC Commercial Arbitration Center, established in 1995, serves as a regional specialized body providing arbitration services. It assists in resolving disputes among GCC countries or between other parties and GCC countries. The Center implements rules and regulations in line with accepted international practice. Thus far, few cases have been brought to arbitration. The Center conducts seminars, symposia, and workshops to help educate and update its members on any new arbitration-related matters.
GCC Commercial Arbitration Center
P.O. Box 2338
Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
Arbitration Boards’ Secretariat
Telephone: + (973) 17278000
The GOB enacted its original bankruptcy and insolvency law as a Decree by Law No. 11 in 1987. On May 30, 2018, the GOB issued and ratified Law No. 22 /2018, updating the original legislation. Modeled on U.S. Chapter 11 legislation, the law introduces reorganization whereby a company’s management may continue business operations during the administration of a case. The Bankruptcy Law also includes provisions for cross-border insolvency, and special insolvency provisions for small and medium-sized enterprises.
The Bahrain credit reference bureau, known as “BENEFIT,” is licensed by the Central Bank of Bahrain (CBB) and operates as the credit monitoring authority in Bahrain.
4. Industrial Policies
The GOB offers a variety of incentives to attract FDI. The Bahrain Logistics Zone, Bahrain Economic Development Board (EDB), Bahrain Development Bank (BDB), Bahrain International Investment Park (BIIP), and Tamkeen all offer incentives to encourage FDI. Some examples of incentives include assistance in registering and opening business operations, financial grants, exemption from import duties on raw materials and equipment, and duty-free access to other GCC markets for products manufactured in Bahrain.
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation
Khalifa bin Salman Port, Bahrain’s primary commercial seaport provides a free transit zone to facilitate the duty-free import of equipment and machinery. The Government of Bahrain has developed two main industrial zones, one to the north of Sitra and the other in Hidd. The Hidd location, known as the Bahrain International Investment Park (BIIP), is adjacent to a logistics zone, known as the Bahrain Logistics Zone. Foreign-owned firms have the same investment opportunities in these zones as Bahraini companies.
Bahrain’s Ministry of Industry, Commerce and Tourism (MoICT) operates the BIIP, a 2.5 million square-meter, tax-free zone located minutes from Bahrain’s main Khalifa bin Salman port. Many U.S. companies operate out of this park. BIIP is most suited to manufacturing and services companies interested in exporting from Bahrain. The park offers manufacturing companies the ability to ship their products duty free to countries in the Greater Arab Free Trade Area. BIIP has space available for potential investors, including some plots of vacant land designated for new construction, and some warehouse facilities for rental.
A 1999 law requires that investors in industrial or industry-related zones launch a project within one year from the date of receiving the land, and development must conform to the specifications, terms, and drawings submitted with the application. Changes are not permitted without approval from the MoICT.
Performance and Data Localization Requirements
Companies in Bahrain are obliged to comply with so-called “ , under which the Labour Market Regulatory Authority (LMRA) mandates that a certain percentage of each company’s employees are Bahraini. Companies may contact LMRA to determine their Bahrainization rate, which differs based on the sector of the economy in which they work, or use a calculator available at . The applicable s are mandatory across the board in the company structure, applying equally to senior management and line workers. Per Cabinet Resolution Number 27 of 2016, LMRA announced that companies that are unable to comply with the Bahrainization rates would only be eligible to apply for new work permits and sponsorship transfers by paying an additional annual fee of BD 500 (roughly USD 1,329) per non-Bahraini worker. LMRA may apply fines to companies that do not comply with Bahrainization requirements.
The GOB issued Law 1/2019 in March 2019 amending Article 14 of the Private Health Establishments Law, which gives priority to recruiting qualified Bahraini physicians, technicians, and nursing staff in private health establishments.
There are no excessively onerous visa, residence, work permit, or similar requirements inhibiting the mobility of foreign investors or their employees in Bahrain. Americans and citizens of many other countries can obtain a two-week visa with relative ease upon arrival in Bahrain or online. Bahrain also offers a multiple-entry visa that lasts for five years, if required.
Bahrain has a liberal approach to foreign investment and actively seeks to attract foreign investors and businesses; no product localization is forced and foreign investors are not obliged to use domestic content in goods or technology. There are no government-imposed conditions on permission to invest, including tariff and non-tariff barriers, on American investments.
There are no special performance requirements imposed on foreign investors. The U.S.-Bahrain Bilateral Investment Treaty forbids mandated performance requirements as a condition for the establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, or operation of a covered investment. Foreign and Bahraini-owned companies must meet the same requirements and comply with the same environmental, safety, health, and labor requirements. Officials at the Ministry of Labour and Social Development, LMRA and the MoICT supervise companies operating in Bahrain on a non-discriminatory basis.
The Central Bank of Bahrain regulates financial institutions and foreign exchange offices. Foreign and locally owned companies must comply with the same rules, policies, and regulations.
There are no requirements for foreign IT providers to turn over source code and/or to provide access to surveillance.
Bahrain enacted Law No. 30 of 2018 with respect to Personal Data Protection on July 12, 2018. The nationwide Data Protection Law, which goes into force on August 1, 2019, promotes the efficient and secure processing of big data for commercial use and provides guidelines for the effective transfer of data across borders.
13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment Statistics
Table 2: Key Macroeconomic Data, U.S. FDI in Host Country/Economy
Table 3: Sources and Destination of FDI
|Direct Investment From/in Counterpart Economy Data|
|From Top Five Sources/To Top Five Destinations (US Dollars, Millions)|
|Inward Direct Investment||Outward Direct Investment|
|Total Inward||$26,574||100%||Total Outward||$19,233||100%|
|United Arab Emirates||$2,282||9%||Cayman Islands||$1,251||7%|
|“0” reflects amounts rounded to +/- USD 500,000.|
Table 4: Sources of Portfolio Investment
|Portfolio Investment Assets|
|Top Five Partners (Millions, US Dollars)|
|Total||Equity Securities||Total Debt Securities|
|All Countries||$39,501||100%||All Countries||$8,261||100%||All Countries||$31,239||100%|
|United States||$5,145||13%||United States||$1,511||18%||Turkey||$4,072||13%|
|Turkey||$4,089||10%||Saudi Arabia||$708||9%||United States||$3,633||12%|
|Cayman Islands||$3,252||9%||UAE||$565||7%||Not Specified||$2,508||8%|