The Italian Republic is a multiparty parliamentary democracy with a bicameral parliament consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The constitution vests executive authority in the Council of Ministers, headed by a prime minister whose official title is president of the Council of Ministers. The president of the Republic is the head of state and nominates the prime minister after consulting with political party leaders in parliament. Parliamentary elections in March 2018 were considered free and fair.
The National Police and Carabinieri (Gendarmerie or Military Police) maintain internal security. The Carabinieri report to the Ministry of Defense but are also under the coordination of the Ministry of Interior. They are primarily a domestic police force organized along military lines, with some overseas responsibilities. The National Police reports to the Ministry of Interior. The army is responsible for external security, but also has specific domestic security responsibilities such as guarding public buildings. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
Significant human rights issues included: violence or threats of violence targeting members of national/racial/ethnic minorities, including violence and threats of violence; refoulement; and the use of forced or compulsory or child labor.
The government investigated, prosecuted, and punished officials who committed human rights abuses.
The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is a constitutional democracy governed by a president and a unicameral legislature. Observers considered the presidential election in 2017 and legislative elections in 2016 free and fair. Moon Jae-in was elected president in an early election following the impeachment of former president Park Geun-hye. The government held free and fair local elections in June 2018.
The Korean National Police Agency (KNPA), under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior and Safety, is responsible for internal security. The National Intelligence Service (NIS) investigates suspected criminal activity related to national security. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over security forces, and the government utilized effective mechanisms to investigate and punish abuse of power.
Significant human rights issues included: the existence of criminal libel laws; laws criminalizing consensual same-sex sexual conduct between adults in the military; and corruption.
In December the National Assembly passed legislation outlining alternative service options for conscientious objectors. The government ceased detaining, charging, or imprisoning conscientious objectors, but prosecutors continued to appeal “not guilty” verdicts of some Jehovah’s Witnesses, and the disposition of trials of 935 conscientious objectors was undetermined as of December 30.
The government took steps to prosecute officials who committed abuses.