The Republic of Lithuania is a constitutional, multiparty, parliamentary democracy. Legislative authority resides in the Seimas (a unicameral parliament), and executive authority resides in the prime minister and the cabinet of ministers. Observers evaluated the presidential elections and European parliamentary elections in 2019 and the national parliamentary elections in October 2020 as generally free and fair.
Police and the State Border Guard Service are subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. The Special Investigative Service, the main anticorruption agency, reports to the president and parliament. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over police, the State Border Guards Service, the army, and the Special Investigative Service. Members of the security forces committed some abuses.
Starting in June a surge of irregular migrants began to flow across the border from Belarus. The government announced a nationwide emergency to deal with the influx of irregular migrants, who were detained in camps nationwide.
Significant human rights issues included credible reports of harsh and life-threatening prison conditions.
The government had mechanisms in place to identify and punish officials who may commit human rights abuses.