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Canada

Executive Summary

Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a federal parliamentary government. In a free and fair multiparty federal election held in 2015, the Liberal Party, led by Justin Trudeau, won a majority of seats in the federal parliament, and Trudeau formed a government at the request of the governor general.

Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.

Human rights issues included reports of deadly violence against women, especially indigenous women, which authorities investigated and prosecuted.

There was no impunity for officials who committed violations, and the government took steps to identify, investigate, prosecute, and punish them.

Japan

Executive Summary

Japan has a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy. Shinzo Abe, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, became prime minister in 2012. Lower House elections in October 2017, which Prime Minister Abe’s party won with a large majority, were considered free and fair.

Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.

A human rights concern was criminal libel laws, although there was no evidence the government abused these laws to restrict public discussion during the reporting.

The government enforced laws prohibiting human rights abuses and prosecuted officials who committed them.

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future