Estonia is a multiparty, constitutional democracy with a unicameral parliament, a prime minister as head of government, and a president as head of state. The prime minister and cabinet generally represent the party or coalition of parties with a majority of seats in the parliament. The most recent parliamentary elections took place on March 3. The new coalition is composed of the Center Party, the Estonian Conservative People’s Party (EKRE), and Pro Patria, and is headed by Prime Minister Juri Ratas, who took office on April 29. Observers considered the elections free and fair.
The Police and Border Guard Board and the Internal Security Service maintain internal security. The army is responsible for external security but also has some domestic security responsibilities. The Police and Border Guard Board and the Internal Security Service report to the Ministry of the Interior. The Defense Forces report to the Ministry of Defense. The Police and Border Guard Board and the Internal Security Service investigate civilian cases, while military police investigate defense force cases. The government has effective mechanisms to investigate and punish abuse and corruption. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
There were no reports of significant human rights abuses.
The government took steps to investigate, prosecute, and punish officials who committed violations. There were no reports of impunity for abuses committed by members of the security forces during the year.