Section III. Status of Societal Respect for Religious Freedom
On May 17, a Hindu group in the Mewat region of Haryana stopped the car in which Muslim Asif Khan was riding, verbally abused Khan and the other passengers, yelled “kill Muslims,” forced Khan to chant Hindu prayers and killed him when he tried to escape, according to media reporting. Police opened an investigation but made no arrests by the year’s end.
On June 20, media reported that a Hindu mob killed four Muslim men in the Khowai District of Tripura on suspicion of being cattle thieves. According to media, the men were killed when they were intercepted at Maharanijur transporting five cows in a truck. Police arrested three persons in connection with the killing and two others for spreading communal hatred on social media. There were no further developments in this case reported by year’s end.
On June 21, Muslim Aijaz Dar was beaten to death in Rajouri District of Jammu and Kashmir. He was returning home after buying a buffalo when suspected cow vigilantes attacked him with stones and sticks, according to media reports. Police arrested five suspects, but there were no further developments reported by year’s end.
According to media reports, on September 28, Muslim Arbaaz Aftab Mullah was decapitated in Khanapur village in the Belgavi District of Karnataka due to his relationship with a Hindu woman. Police arrested 10 individuals, including members of the Hindu organization Sri Rama Sene, described as radical, the woman’s parents, and the man hired to kill Mullah. There were no further developments by year’s end.
On April 3, police in Mangaluru, Karnataka arrested four Hindu activists and members of the Hindu nationalist group Bajrang Dal who were accused of stabbing to death a Muslim man traveling with a Hindu woman. The woman who filed the police complaint against the assailants stated the victim was her friend for many years and was accompanying her on a bus to a job interview when he was killed. She said the assailants stopped the bus, then attacked her and the other victim. After police made the arrests, local Bajrang Dal members reportedly defended the attack claiming that they wanted to save the woman from “falling prey to love jihad.” One local Bajrang Dal leader told media, “Our responsibility is to rescue girls from our community.”
According to EFI, a group of Hindus killed Pastor Alok Rajhans in the Balangir District of Odisha on May 20. Police opened a case and arrested two suspects, but they were released shortly thereafter, according to Irish NGO Church in Chains.
On May 20, according to ICC, a group of Hindu nationalists attacked the family of Pastor Ramesh Bumbariya at his home in the Bansawra District in Rajasthan, killing the pastor’s father and beating the pastor and other family members when they refused to renounce their Christian faith. The police arrested seven persons for the killing and the investigation continued at year’s end, according to Church in Chains.
Terrorist groups Lashkar-e-Taiyaaba and Hizbul Mujahideen killed several civilians and migrant laborers belonging to the minority Hindu and Sikh communities in the Muslim-majority Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir during the year. In October, 11 civilians including two schoolteachers – Supinder Kour and Deepak Chand – were killed in targeted attacks. Kour, a Sikh, and Chand, a Hindu, were killed on October 7 after terrorists forcefully entered their school in Srinagar and identified them as belonging to minority communities. On October 5, local businessman Makhan Lal Bindroo, a member of the Hindu Pandit caste, was fatally shot at his pharmaceutical shop. According to media reports, the killings caused widespread fear among Hindus and Sikhs in the Kashmir valley, leading hundreds to depart Jammu and Kashmir.
On October 15, Sikh farm laborer Lakhbir Singh was killed, and his mutilated body tied to a barricade. In several videos released on social media, Nihang Sikhs claimed responsibility for the killing, saying Singh insulted the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh holy book. Police arrested four members of the Nihang Sikh community and charged them with murder.
On December 19, an unidentified man was reportedly beaten to death by a group of Sikhs at a gurudwara (temple) in Kapurthala, Punjab, on suspicion that he had insulted the Nishan Sahib, the Sikh flag. Police and Punjab Chief Minister Charanjit Singh Channi stated that there was no evidence that the victim had committed sacrilege. Police arrested gurudwara caretaker Amarjit Singh on charges of murder.
On September 23, two Muslim men in Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, were beaten for carrying meat in their vehicle. According to media reports, members of a cow-vigilante group attacked the two and posted video of the assault on social media. The attackers claimed the Muslim men were carrying beef in violation of the state’s anti-cow slaughter law and the state government’s order banning the sale and transport of any meat in Mathura. Police arrested the victims under the anti-cow slaughter law and violation of the meat ban order. None of the attackers were arrested. A Mathura council member said the two lacked the permit and refrigerator required to transport perishable goods such as meat. He also said the two men had been jailed. There was no further information available on the case by year’s end.
In September, the BBC reported views from freelance journalists and political opposition members that the number of attacks against the country’s Muslim community had increased in recent years as well as their views that the government often declined to condemn such attacks.
According to UCF, the number of violent attacks against Christians in the country rose to 486 during the year, from 279 in 2020. According to UCF, most of the incidents were reported in states ruled by the BJP and included attacks on pastors, disruptions of Christmas celebrations, and vandalism. A joint report entitled Christians under Attack in India, drafted by NGOs United Against Hate, the Association for Protection of Civil Rights, and the UCF, noted that more than 500 incidents of violence against Christians were reported to the UCF hotline during the year. The report stated that 333 of 486 incidents were recorded in Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Karnataka States. The report stated that only 34 FIRs were filed against the perpetrators through the year. At the end of the year, 19 cases were pending against Christians in nine states under the conversion restriction laws, although no Christian had been convicted in the country for illegal religious conversion during the year, according to the report.
In a December New York Times article, Hindu nationalist Dilip Chouhan, who was recorded on video breaking into a church in Madhya Pradesh with a gun strapped to his back, said that senior police officials told him authorities would not pursue charges against him. Instead, several local pastors were arrested on charges of illegal conversions. Chouhan said his organization has more than 5000 members. BJP youth leader Gaurave Tiwari said opposing forced conversion was an important issue for the party. In Chhattisgarh State, BJP youth conducted several anti-Christian marches. In September, a group of young BJP workers from the same chapter entered a Chhattisgarh police station, hurled shoes at two pastors and beat them up, reportedly in front of police officers. Rahul Rao, an office holder in the BJP youth cell, was charged with assault by police and released on bail. The article also quoted a leaked letter from a top police official in Chhattisgarh ordering police to “keep a constant vigil on the activities of Christian missionaries.” Media reported the Chhattisgarh government transferred the senior police official from the station hours after the incident. The investigation continued at the end of the year.
On September 18, media reported police arrested Christian pastor Ravi Gupta from Bihar’s Supaul District was arrested for converting 30 Hindu families to Christianity in his native village. Members of Vishna Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu nationalist organization affiliated with the RSS, detained Gupta and handed him over to police. There were no further developments on this case reported by year’s end.
On September 21, according to media reports, a village council in Mangapat Sirsai in the West Singhbhum District of Jharkhand ostracized three tribal families who converted to Christianity. In the presence of local police officials, the council reportedly asked the families to convert back to the local tribal Sarna religion and subsequently barred them from free movement inside the village when they refused to do so. According to the district president, the council took the action to counter the influence of Christian missionaries, whom he said had been quite active in the area, luring tribe members with land and money to convert them.
On June 30, approximately 20 members of the Hindu organization Bajrang Dal allegedly attacked Pastor Hemant Meher in the Jajpur District of Odisha, according to a July 10 report from ICC. The report said the group filmed the incident and beat the pastor before handing him over to the police and saying he had been forcibly converting people to Christianity. According to ICC, police released Meher without charge, urging him to file a complaint against his assailants. ICC said Bajarang Dal members attacked Meher again on July 1, forcing him to flee the area.
In April, media reported that a Muslim man posed as a Hindu to marry a Hindu woman in the Fatehabad District of Haryana. The man allegedly revealed his religious identity seven years into the marriage and attempted to forcibly convert her to Islam. When his wife refused, he forced her and their child out of their home. She pressed the local police to take action. Initially they took no action, but later, according to media reports, police opened an investigation and promised to take action against the police personnel who refused to register her original complaint. There was no further action reported on this case by year’s end.
The Union of Catholic Asian News service and major international media reported that on January 26, approximately 100 Hindu activists attacked a prayer service at the Satprakashan Sanchar Kendra, a Catholic media center in Indore in Madhya Pradesh, accusing the center of conducting religious conversions. The pastor told media the assailants beat worshippers and yelled at them. He said when police arrived, they only jailed the pastors and other church elders for violating Madhya Pradesh’s new law outlawing conversions. The pastor said he and eight other church leaders were jailed for two months before being released, and still faced charges. According to national media, police pressed trespassing charges against 15 persons and opened investigations into the incident. Their cases were pending in court at year’s end.
On January 5, according to media sources, members of the Hindu nationalist group Bajrang Dal disrupted a Christian prayer meeting in Uttar Pradesh. The pastor told media the group beat them and forced them to chant Hindu prayers, threatening to kill them if they did not. The Hindus turned the pastor and four others over to police, who charged them with forced conversion, based on the comments of one of the Hindus. Police also seized copies of the Bible and musical equipment, according to media reports. On January 6, the pastor and eight others filed a police report. There were no further developments reported on the case during the year.
On January 6, a Christian group in Uttar Pradesh filed a complaint against members of VHP for disrupting a prayer meeting. The Christians said 20 VHP members, including one police officer, entered their meeting uninvited, beat some worshippers, and damaged the facility. Police charged five of the Christians with illegal conversion, according to media reports, but there were no further developments on this case reported by year’s end.
Media reported that on August 29 a group of more than 100 individuals targeted a Christian pastor for alleged religious conversion in Polmi village in Kabirdham District of Chhattisgarh. The reports stated that the group physically abused the pastor and vandalized his residence during a prayer service. Police opened an investigation into the incident.
On October 3, according to Catholic news agency Agenzia Fides, there were 13 instances of violence and threats committed by Hindus against Christian communities in Uttarakhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh states, and in New Delhi. Drawing on reporting from EFI, Agenzia Fides said these incidents included disrupting worship services and prayer meetings and beating worshippers; police arresting pastors for forced conversion, based on complaints filed by Hindus; and Hindu groups vandalizing Christian places of worship.
In October, Giani Harpreet Singh, leader of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, a Sikh religious organization, and head priest of the Sikh community, said that Christian missionaries were “running a campaign for forced conversions in border areas of Punjab.”
NGO Sabrang reported that in Uttarakhand on October 3, 200 local members of Hindu organizations Bajarang Dal, VHP, and the youth wing of the BJP disrupted a worship service in Roorkee, shouting Hindu slogans, beating worshippers, and ransacking their meeting room. According to media, police charged the assailants with rioting, vandalism, trespassing, and deliberately injuring others.
In September, Vellappally Natesan, a prominent Hindu Ezhava leader and patron of the Bharat Dharma Jana Sena political organization in Kerala, stated it was not the Muslim community but Christians who were at the forefront of conversions and “love jihad” in the country.
According to media, Hindu nationalist groups disrupted nine Christmas prayer meetings, six in Uttar Pradesh, two in Haryana, and one in Assam, vandalizing church property in some of the incidents. In Agra, Uttar Pradesh, the regional general secretary of Bajrang Dal told the media that Christian missionaries used the season to “allure children by making Santa Claus distribute gifts to them and attract them towards Christianity.”
The investigation continued into the September 2020 killing of Hindu woman Priya Soni. Soni was beheaded reportedly for refusing to convert to Islam after marrying Muslim Ajaz Ahmed in a civil ceremony, in Sonbhadra, Uttar Pradesh. Police arrested Ahmed and Shoaib Akhtar, also a Muslim, for the crime and they remained in custody at year’s end.
In June, the Sikh minority community in Jammu and Kashmir protested over allegations of the forced conversion of two Sikh women, who subsequently married Muslim men. A Sikh delegation met national Home Minister Amit Shah and requested passage of a conversion restriction law “similar to the one in Uttar Pradesh” in Jammu and Kashmir.
On August 6, according to The Christian Post, a Sikh family in Punjab attacked a Christian woman, her sister, and mother for their beliefs. The report said that the attackers choked one victim unconscious. Police opened an investigation, but there were no further developments by the end of the year.
On October 6, Sikh leaders in Punjab started a campaign in rural areas to counter the potential conversion of lower income Sikhs to Christianity. The head priest of the Punjab Sikh community said, “Christian missionaries have been running a campaign in the border belt for forced conversions over the past few years. Innocent people are being cheated or lured to convert. We have received many such reports.” He also called forced conversions [to Christianity] “a dangerous attack on the Sikh religion.”
In its Freedom in the World 2021 report, Freedom House downgraded the country from free to partly free due to “rising violence and discriminatory policies affecting the Muslim population” and crackdowns on dissent.
A Pew Research study “Religion in India: Tolerance and Segregation,” released in July and based on interviews conducted in 2019 and 2020, found that 84 percent of those surveyed across different faiths said that “respecting all religions was very important to truly being Indian”; 80 percent said that “respecting other religions was very important to their religious identity”; and 91 percent said they were “very free to practice their own religion.” These numbers ranged from highs of 93 percent of Buddhists and 91 percent of Hindus, and lows of 82 percent of Sikhs and 85 percent of Jains saying they are very free to practice their religion, with Christians and Muslims at 89 percent. The survey also showed, however, that 83 percent of all respondents believed communal violence between religious groups was “a problem” for the country. The study’s overview stated that Indians’ commitment to tolerance was accompanied by a strong preference for keeping religious communities segregated, which was true even for religious minority communities. Large majorities of those surveyed said they did not have much in common with members of other religious groups, and large majorities in the six major religious groups said their close friends came mainly or entirely from their own religious community. Nearly two-thirds of Hindus (64 percent) said it was very important to be Hindu to be truly Indian. According to the report, Hindus who strongly link Hindu and Indian identities were more likely to also support religious segregation.
In its report covering the year, Christian NGO Open Doors said that overall violence against Christians and pressure against Christians “in all spheres of life” remained “very high.” The NGO said the persecution of Christians had intensified as Hindu nationalists “aim to cleanse the country of their presence and influence.” This led to the targeting of Christians and other religious minorities, including the use of social media to spread disinformation and stir up hatred.
On December 17-19, during a gathering in Haridwar, Uttarakhand, several Hindu leaders and activists called publicly for violence against religious minorities. Yati Narasinghanand, characterized as a Hindu extremist, announced a reward of 10 million rupees ($135,000) for any Hindu leader who would lead a militant movement against Islam and Christianity. Narasinghanand also called upon Hindus to “take up weapons” against Muslims and wage a war against “Islamic jihad” for the protection of Hindus. Another Hindu religious leader, Sadhvi Annapurna, called for creation of a nation exclusively for Hindus and for raising an army against Muslims. Uttarakhand police subsequently booked seven persons including Narasinghanand and Annapurna, on multiple charges under the criminal code, including promoting enmity between religious groups, deliberately intending to outrage religious feeling by insulting religious groups, and acting prejudicial to social harmony. The spokesperson for the Uttarakhand government and director general of police condemned the statements and said that police would “take required action” against those responsible. On December 26, a group of attorneys, including a former judge on the Patna High Court, wrote the Supreme Court urging action in the case, and stating that the speeches made at the event in Haridwar were not merely hate speeches but “an open call for the murder of an entire community” which not only posed “a grave threat to the unity of the country, but also endangered the lives of millions of Muslim citizens.”
According to media reports, on October 1, Hindu nationalists held a rally in the Surguja District of Chhattisgarh to protest a perceived spike in forced conversion of Hindus to Christianity in the area. Media reported that World Hindu Congress leader Swami Parmatmanand attended the protest and called for those who engage in forced conversions to be beheaded. Police took no action against him, according to the Chhattisgarh-based Christian community.
On August 8, a video was widely circulated on social media of a group shouting threats to kill Muslims and demanding that Muslims convert to Hinduism to remain in the country. The incident took place during a demonstration near parliament in New Delhi in which the crowd was protesting colonial-era laws still in force, according to media reports. MP Asaduddin Owaisi, a Muslim, stated in parliament that “genocidal slogans” were used against Muslims during the incident. Media reported that several prominent Hindu activists took part. Police officials told the media they were viewing video to identify suspects and had filed an FIR against “unknown persons” for shouting the threats.
On June 29, Hindu religious leader Mahamandaleshwar Yatindra Nath Giri in New Delhi stated that parliament should adopt a new constitution banning madrassahs, declaring religious conversion a crime, and punishing couples that have more than two children.
On October 15, Muslim cleric Abbas Siddiqui said persons who insulted the Quran should be “beheaded.” Siddiqui’s comments were aired in a video shown by media.
Media and one NGO reported that on October 20, Hindu groups affiliated with the RSS, Hindu Jagran Manch, and the VHP attacked and vandalized at least six mosques and more than a dozen shops and houses belonging to Muslim communities across Tripura State, reportedly in retaliation for attacks on minority Hindus in Bangladesh during the Durga Puja festival there. The NGO Centre for Study of Society and Secularism reported that attackers damaged 11 mosques, six shops, and two homes. The NGO also said that the authorities took stronger action against the journalists and activists who were reporting the violations than on the rioters themselves. The government rejected this claim and stated that action was taken against journalists for their “inflammatory social media posts” about the event. Tripura police registered a case against Ranu Das, a leader from the Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (the youth wing of the BJP) who allegedly threw stones at a mosque and burned Muslim properties, for provocation to cause riot, intent to hurt religious feelings, and causing public enmity. The suspect fled and had not been arrested by year’s end.
According to media reports, on October 2, unidentified individuals vandalized a Hindu temple in the Anantnag District of Jammu and Kashmir. Police opened an investigation into the incident.
EFI said that on January 20, members of the Bajrang Dal demolished the boundary wall of a church in the Mahabubabad District of Telangana, saying the church building was too close to a Hindu temple.
According to Pastor Upajukta Singh, in June Hindu villagers destroyed the homes of eight Christian families, expelling them from Ratagaya village. The victims filed a police complaint.
In May, Hindu Jatav Dalit community villagers of the Muslim-majority Noorpur village in Aligarh District of Uttar Pradesh stated to media that Muslims were harassing them and discriminating against them. The villagers also said Muslims stopped a marriage procession from passing in front of a mosque in the village.