Executive Summary

Mauritius is a multiparty democracy governed by the prime minister, the Council of Ministers, and the National Assembly. International and local observers judged elections for the prime minister and legislators in 2019 to be free and fair. The coalition headed by the incumbent prime minister won a majority of seats.

The national police are responsible for law enforcement and maintenance of order within the country. A police commissioner heads the police force and has authority over all police and other security forces, including the Coast Guard and Special Mobile Forces, a paramilitary unit that shares responsibility with police for internal security. The national police report to the Ministry of Defense. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.

Significant human rights issues included credible reports of: arbitrary arrest; arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy; serious restrictions on free expression and media, including censorship and the existence of criminal libel laws; serious government corruption; lack of investigation of and accountability for gender-based violence; and crimes involving violence or threats of violence targeting members of racial or ethnic minority groups.

The government took steps to prosecute and punish officials who committed abuses, whether in the security services or elsewhere in the government. Enforcement of prosecution and punishment was inconsistent and sometimes politically influenced, resulting in impunity.

The government took steps to investigate officials accused of corruption, but cases rarely resulted in convictions, implying impunity.


Executive Summary

The Federated States of Micronesia is a constitutional republic composed of four states: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap. Individual states enjoy significant autonomy, and their traditional leaders retain considerable influence, especially in Pohnpei and Yap. In 2019 the Congress selected the new president, David Panuelo, to serve a four-year term. In March national elections were held for two-year term congressional seats, in which all 10 members retained their seats. Observers considered the March elections generally free and fair, and the seating of the new Congress was uneventful.

The national police are responsible for enforcing national laws, and the Department of Justice oversees them. On September 13, the government established the Cyber Security and Intelligence Bureau, a new division in the Department of Justice. State police forces are responsible for law enforcement in their respective states and are under the jurisdiction of each state’s director of public safety. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over national and state police forces. Members of the security forces were not reported to have committed abuses.

There were no reports of significant human rights abuses.

The government sometimes took steps to identify, investigate, prosecute, and punish officials, but impunity was a problem, particularly for corruption.

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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future