Mongolia is a multiparty parliamentary democracy governed by a democratically elected government. The June 9 presidential election and 2020 parliamentary elections were peaceful and generally considered free and fair, although some observers expressed concern regarding allegations of vote buying.
The National Police Agency and the General Authority for Border Protection, which operate under the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs, are primarily responsible for internal security. The General Intelligence Agency, whose director reports to the prime minister, assists these two agencies with internal security. The armed forces report to the Ministry of Defense and assist internal security forces in providing domestic emergency assistance and disaster relief. Civilian authorities maintained control over the security forces. There were credible reports that members of the security forces committed some abuses.
Significant human rights issues included credible reports of the use of criminal libel laws; serious government corruption; crimes involving violence or threats of violence targeting lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or intersex persons; and forced child labor.
Government efforts to punish officials who committed human rights abuses or acts of corruption were inconsistent.