Djibouti, a country with few resources, recognizes the crucial need for foreign direct investment (FDI) to stimulate economic development. The country’s assets include a strategic geographic location, free zones, an open trade regime, and a stable currency. Djibouti has identified a number of priority sectors for investment, including transport and logistics, real estate, energy, and tourism. Djibouti’s investment climate has improved in recent years, which has led to interest by U.S. and other foreign firms. There are, however, a number of reforms still needed to promote investment.
In 2019, according to the UN Conference of Trade and Development, FDI stock represented 52.5% of GDP, up slightly from 52.2% in 2018. Real GDP growth has remained between 5% and a little over 8% per year for the last five years. Inflation decreased to 0.1 % in 2018 then peaked at an estimated 3.3% in 2019 and decreased to 2.9% in 2020. In recent years, Djibouti undertook a surge of foreign-backed infrastructure loans to posture themselves as the “Singapore of Africa.” Major projects have included a new gas terminal and pipeline to Ethiopia, a new port, free zones, improved road systems, a railroad connecting Djibouti and Addis Ababa, and a water pipeline from Ethiopia. Djibouti launched the first phase of an ambitious port and free zone project, Djibouti Damerjog Industrial Development (DDID) free-trade zone, scheduled to be built in three phases of five years each. The project includes a multipurpose port, a liquefied natural gas terminal, a livestock terminal, dry docks and a ship repair area, a power plant and a factory that will produce construction materials. DDID which is expected to attract foreign investors, will offer all the preferential policies guaranteed by the free zone authority, such as tax exemption, minimized restrictions on foreign labor and competitive water and electricity rates. In April 2018, the Government of Djibouti enacted tax, labor, and financial reforms to improve its investment climate.
Djibouti remains below regional and world averages in the World Bank’s “Doing Business” reports but has been steadily improving in recent years from 171 in 2017 to 112 (of 190 countries) in the 2020 ranking. Various business climate reforms were introduced in 2020 with the objectives of improving competitiveness both regionally and internationally. These reforms included starting online registration for companies and the creation of Djibouti Port Community System platform which is a portal that provides a comprehensive set of online services to the business community.
Economic development and foreign investment are hindered by high electricity costs, high unemployment, an unskilled workforce, a large informal sector, regional instability, opaque business practices, compliance risks, corruption, and a weak financial sector. The World Bank estimated the government’s public debt-to-GDP ratio was 66.7% in 2019 with a projection of 69.9% in 2020 which will gradually decrease over the years. The majority of the debt is owed to Chinese entities.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2020||147 of 180||http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview|
|World Bank’s Doing Business Report||2020||112 of 190||https://www.doingbusiness.org/
|Global Innovation Index||2019||N/A||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/analysis-indicator|
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, historical stock positions)||2018||N/A||https://apps.bea.gov/international/factsheet/|
|World Bank GNI per capita||2019||USD 3,540||http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD|
1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment
Djibouti’s laws encourage FDI, with state-run media providing favorable coverage of projects funded by foreign entities. The government sees FDI as a driving force behind Djibouti’s economic growth. Faced with a high unemployment rate of over 47%, FDI is expected to generate jobs.
There are no laws, practices, or mechanisms that discriminate against foreign investors. Navigating the bureaucracy, however, can be complicated. Certain sectors, most notably public utilities, are state-owned and are not open to investors. The state-owned enterprise (SOE) Djibouti Electricity (EDD) had a monopoly on electricity production for decades, however in July 2015, the Djiboutian government approved a bill liberalizing the production of electricity. The energy sector is now open to competition through Power Purchase Agreements, however EDD retains all rights to the transmission and distribution of electricity. The liberalization of production has resulted in the private development of wind, solar, and waste to energy resources.
Djibouti’s National Investment Promotion Agency (NIPA), created in 2001 under the Ministry of Finance, promotes private-sector investment, facilitates investment operations, and works to modernize the country’s regulatory framework. NIPA assists foreign and domestic investors by disseminating information and streamlining administrative procedures. In March 2017, NIPA’s one-stop-shop was officially inaugurated. The NIPA is the main coordinator of the one-stop-shop which houses several agencies. NIPA has identified several priority sectors for investment, including infrastructure and renewable energy.
A new Minister of Investment position was created in 2016 to further attract and reach out to potential investors. The Minister reports directly to the presidency.
Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
Foreign and domestic private entities have equal rights in establishing and owning business enterprises and engaging in all forms of remunerative activity. Furthermore, foreign investors are not required by law to have a local partner except in the insurance industry, and there, only if the company is registered as a local company and not a branch of an existing foreign company. There is no established screening process for FDI; it is encouraged and given favorable tax status. Specific terms are negotiated on a case-by-case basis. Many companies therefore have a unique status created by agreement with varying preferences and advantages. Some foreign companies choose to have a local partner to help them better navigate the local bureaucracy and cultural sensitivities.
Other Investment Policy Reviews
The OECD, WTO, and the UNCTAD have not conducted an investment policy review (IPR) for Djibouti in the last three years. Post is not aware of any other multilateral organization having an IPR for Djibouti in the last three years.
The government of Djibouti has facilitated the registration of business by reducing the capital needed for investment, simplifying the formalities needed to register with the Intellectual Property office, and simplifying certain tax procedures. The most important result is the finalization of a one-stop shop, called Guichet Unique, managed by NIPA. The Guichet Unique ( ) brings together all the agencies with which a company must register.
Typically, a company registers with the following Djiboutian offices: Office of Intellectual Property, Tax office, and the Social Security office. Online registration is not possible; the normal registration process takes 14 days, according to the World Bank. In Djibouti, new businesses must have every document notarized to begin operations.
The government neither promotes nor restricts outward investment.
2. Bilateral Investment Agreements and Taxation Treaties
Djibouti does not have a bilateral investment treaty (BIT), nor does it have a bilateral taxation treaty with the United States. However, Djibouti is eligible to benefit from the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), of which Djibouti is a member, signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) with the United States in 2001.
In March 2018, Djibouti signed the trade agreement for the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), paving the way for a liberalized market for goods and services across the continent. A total of 54 countries have signed the agreement and Djibouti is one of 30 countries to have ratified the agreement. Djibouti has signed bilateral investment treaties with several countries. There is no publicly available list of these treaties, and the terms are not standardized from one treaty to the next. Other treaties to which Djibouti is a party include ESA (Eastern and South Eastern Africa)-EU Interim Economic Partnership Agreement, COMESA, Agreement for the Promotion, Protection and Guarantee of Investment among Member States of the Organization of Islamic Conference, Cotonou Agreement, AU Treaty, League of Arab States Investment, Arab League Investment Agreement, and Arab Economic Unity Agreement.
Business tax exoneration is given to all newly registered foreign and Djiboutian companies for the first three years of operations for those operating in Classes V through VIII (110,000 DJF (621 USD) to 513,000 DJF (worth of annual business taxes). For those above Class VIII (>513,000 DF (2,898) worth of annual business taxes) and for all banks, they are exonerated from the “proportional” business tax which is equivalent to 20% of their business revenues. Business value added tax (VAT) and consumption tax exoneration is provided to foreign and domestic businesses working in the hospitality, heavy- and light-industrial, real estate and land development sectors during the construction and onboarding phases of the project. As soon as the project begins operations, then the tax exoneration ends. For example, a hotel that is undergoing construction may receive VAT and consumption tax exonerations until the hotel opens for business.
Real estate and sales tax reduction from 10% to 3% is provided for all sales and purchases of land, buildings, and homes for all transactions made by any entity including individuals, foreign or domestic businesses, organizations, schools, etc. Previously, only businesses could receive a tax break of paying 5% sales or purchase tax on land and buildings in their first purchase.
Corporate (profit) tax exoneration is provided for all businesses that enter the market with an initial investment of 50 million DJF (282,486 USD) or more, for up to seven years.
3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
Government policies are sometimes not transparent, and do not foster competition on a non-discriminatory basis. Likewise, the legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are not always transparent nor are they consistent with international norms. Rule-making and regulatory authority exists at the state level.
The Djiboutian accounting system is loosely based on the French accounting system as it existed at independence (1977) and has been updated since that time. Legal and regulatory procedures are complex and unevenly enforced. Draft bills are initiated in a process of public consultation in which stakeholders participate. Regulatory actions including laws and decrees are available online at the following site: .
The State General Inspection (SGI) is tasked with ensuring human and material resources in the public sector are properly utilized. It also acts as the enforcement mechanism.
The regulatory regime is written in a way that promotes open competition, at least in the sectors that are open to private investment. Implementation of the law is sometimes not transparent, and public functions such as licensing and issuing permits are not always done in a systematic fashion. Application of the rules is not always consistent. The laws are proposed by the ministry, and then debated and passed by the parliament. The promulgation by the president is the last stage. Public finances and the terms of debt obligations are opaque. Ministries and regulatory agencies do not develop forward regulatory plans – that is, a public list of anticipated regulatory changes or proposals intended to be adopted/implemented within a specified time frame
International Regulatory Considerations
Djibouti is a member of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). The regulatory systems in these countries are not yet harmonized. European norms and standards, especially French, are referenced in Djibouti. Djibouti is a member of the WTO.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
Djibouti’s legal system is based on Civil law, inherited from the French Napoleonic Code. It consists of three courts: a Court of First Instance presided over by a single judge; a Court of Appeals, with three judges; and the Supreme Court. In addition, Islamic law (shariah) and traditional law is practiced. Djibouti has a written commercial code and specialized courts, including commercial, criminal, administrative, and civilian courts.
The court system is de jure independent from executive power. However, this is not always the case in practice so most investors in the market request the right to counsel, including agreements for arbitration, in a recognized international court. International lawyers practicing in Djibouti have reported effective application of maritime and other commercial laws, but in the past, foreign companies operating in Djibouti have reported that court deliberations were biased or delayed.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
The country’s legal system has no discriminatory policy against foreign investment, and frequently negotiates extended tax breaks and other incentives to attract larger investments. The NIPA website has useful information and acts as a guide for investors: . The agency oversees the “guichet unique”, which acts as the one stop shop for investing in Djibouti: .
Competition and Antitrust Laws
In 2008, Djibouti adopted a law on competition and consumer protection, which does not cover state-owned enterprises. Under this law, the Government of Djibouti regulates prices in areas where competition remains limited. For example, the government regulates postal services, telecommunications, utilities, and urban transport services. Djibouti does not have an agency that specifically promotes competition and does not have a comprehensive strategy to restrict market monopolies
Expropriation and Compensation
Foreign companies enjoy the same benefits as domestic companies under Djibouti’s Investment Code. The Investment Code stipulates that “no partial or total, temporary or permanent expropriation will take place without equitable compensation for the damages suffered.” There are no known recent cases of U.S. companies in Djibouti being subject to expropriation. There have been cases of foreign companies facing de facto expropriation via fines, while other companies have had their concession to run a public service unilaterally revoked. The government may expropriate land when it is needed for public utility. In that case, the government will compensate the landowner by providing land at a different location or by cash settlement.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Djibouti recently became a member state of ICSID. On April 12, 2019, Djibouti signed the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (ICSID Convention, also known as the Washington Convention). Djibouti made its deposit of ratification on June 9, 2020 for an entry into force on July 9, 2020.
Djibouti is a contracting member of the New York Convention of 1958 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
Djibouti’s government has had only a few investment disputes in the past several years, none with U.S. businesses. In some cases, the disputes have been settled in international arbitration courts and the government has abided by those decisions. In other cases, there has been de facto expropriation through large fines. As in any country, a strong, enforceable contract is important.
The government passed a law in November 2017 permitting the government to unilaterally alter or terminate contracts. Using this law, in February 2018, Djibouti’s president issued a decree abrogating the government’s contract with the Emirati company, DP World, concerning the Doraleh Container Terminal, later nationalizing the equipment, physical assets, and land. DP World continued to hold 33.33% of shares until July 2018, when the government terminated the shareholders’ agreement with DP World and later nationalized all shares. Throughout, DP World has continued to claim that the 30-year 2006 Doraleh Container Terminal concession agreement remains in force.
In January 2020, the London Court of International Arbitration decided Djibouti should restore DP World’s rights to operate Doraleh Container Terminal for 25 years, in line with the original deal. It was the court’s fifth ruling in favor of DP World since Djibouti nationalized the port. In response, Djibouti’s president released an official communiqué rejecting the court ruling, stating “As the Republic of Djibouti has consistently indicated since the termination of the concession, the only possible outcome is allocation of fair compensation in accordance with international law.”
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
There is no domestic arbitration body within the country. In February 2014, the IGAD countries agreed to set up an international Business Arbitration Center in Djibouti. This institution provides a mechanism for resolving business disputes and helps create a more transparent business environment in the region by reinforcing the principles of contract law and increasing the number of lawyers practicing commercial and contract law in Djibouti. Djibouti’s rule of law is weak as it relates to business disputes involving non-Djiboutian. Investment dispute cases are not made public.
Djibouti has bankruptcy laws, and bankruptcy is not criminalized. Insolvency laws are a bright spot in Djibouti’s investment climate, as the country ranked 44 out of 190 by the World Bank in 2020 in this area.
4. Industrial Policies
Tax benefits and incentives fall under two categories detailed in the investment code. Investments greater than DJF 50 million (USD 282,486) that create several permanent jobs may be exempted from license and registration fees, property taxes, taxes on industrial and commercial profits, and taxes on the profits of corporate entities. Imported raw materials used in manufacturing are exempted from the internal consumption tax. These exemptions apply for up to a maximum of ten years after companies start producing materials in Djibouti. Incentives are often unique to an individual company or investment and are agreed upon with relevant ministries. Projects can be delayed if all relevant ministries are not consulted during negotiations. To promote exports, Djibouti has multiple free zones where companies enjoy full exemption from direct and indirect taxes for a period of up to ten years.
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation
The Djibouti Free Zone (DFZ) is located on 40 hectares and offers office space, warehouses, light industrial units, and hangars. Businesses located in the Free Zone do not pay corporate taxes, have a simplified registration process, and receive other benefits such as assistance obtaining work permits and visas. Currently, 180 companies from more than 30 countries operate out of the Free Zone. In December 2013, the DAM Commercial Free Zone opened in the Damerjog region, south of Djibouti City. In March 2018, the Djibouti Ports and Free Zone Authority and China Merchants Group began construction on a large free zone called Djibouti International Free Trade Zone (DIFTZ). The first phase, a 240-hectare pilot zone is currently operational. It consists of four industrial clusters which will focus on trade and logistics, export processing, business, and financial support services, as well as manufacturing and duty-free merchandise retail. When complete it will cover 4,800 hectares and offer office space, warehouses, industrial units, and will be connected directly with the ports in later phases. It will be the largest free zone in Africa.
Performance and Data Localization Requirements
The government mandates local employment as long as the qualifications or expertise is available locally. However, these schemes are not equally applied to senior management and board of directors where foreign employment is more readily accepted. The process for visas, work permits, and other requirements in order to operate as a foreign employee is not onerous and is easily accessible through Djibouti’s Guichet Unique. Work permits follow a graduated fee schedule: 200,000 Djibouti francs (USD 1,124), 100,000 Djibouti francs (USD 563) and 50,000 Djibouti francs (USD 281) according to the qualifications required for a position.
The government does not follow “forced localization.” The Djiboutian investment code guarantees investors the right to freely import all goods, equipment, products, or material necessary for their investments; display products and services; determine and run marketing policy and production; choose customers and suppliers; and set prices. Performance requirements are not a pre-condition for establishing, maintaining, or expanding foreign direct investments. Incentives do, however, increase with the size of the investment and the number of jobs created.
There are no measures that prevent or unduly impede companies from freely transmitting customer or other business-related data outside the economy/country’s territory. However, there are no mechanisms that are used to enforce rules on local data storage within Djibouti.
5. Protection of Property Rights
Intellectual Property Rights
Djibouti’s legal structure for protecting and enforcing IPR within Djibouti is weak but developing. There are few existing protections. However, the government passed a law that protects artists’ copyrights.
Djibouti ratified the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Convention, the Paris Convention on the Protection of Industrial Rights, and the Berne Convention on the Protection of Literature and Art Works. The Ministry of Communication and the Djibouti Office for Intellectual Property Rights are responsible for safeguarding intellectual property after registering products. Counterfeit products are commonly available in Djibouti’s markets. Infringing products include clothing, watches, electronics, and bags. Because of the nascent nature of IPR protections, counterfeit products are rarely seized, and no statistics on seizures are published. There have been reports of seizures of counterfeit money; however, statistics are unavailable.
Djibouti is not listed in the U.S Trade Representative (USTR) Special 301 report or the Notorious Markets List. Compared to other industries, the sale of counterfeit goods does not appear to be at higher risk of labor rights violations, including child labor, forced labor, and dangerous working conditions. For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at .
6. Financial Sector
Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment
In recent years, Djibouti has relied heavily on foreign investment, and the government is open and receptive to foreign investors. Portfolio investment in Djibouti is primarily done through private equity. Some multinational companies with investments in Djibouti are publicly traded. Investments in Djibouti are inherently illiquid for that reason, and the purchase or sale of any sizeable investment in Djibouti affects the market accordingly. Djibouti does not have its own stock market. Existing policies facilitate the free flow of financial resources into the product and factor markets.
Credit is allocated on market terms, and foreign companies do not face discrimination in obtaining it. Generally, however, only well-established businesses obtain bank credit, as the cost of credit is high. Credit is available to the private sector, whether foreign or domestic. Where credit is not available, it is primarily due to the associated risk and not structural factors.
Money and Banking System
Three large banks, Bank of Africa, Bank for Commerce and Industry – Mer Rouge, and CAC bank dominate Djibouti’s banking sector. While these 3 banks account for the majority share of deposits in-country, there are 13 total banks, all established in the last 14 years. In 2011 a new banking law went into effect, fixing the minimum capital requirement for financial institutions at DJF 1 billion (USD 5,651,250) and extended the scope of the law to include financial auxiliaries, such as money transfer agencies and Islamic financial institutions. In addition to the three names banks above, foreign banks include Silkroad Bank, Bank of China the Burkina Faso-based International Business Bank.
The banking sector suffers from a lack of consistent supervision, but it has been improving. Non-performing loans decreased from 16.26% in 2019 to 13.31% in 2020. The total assets of all the banks were estimated to be USD 3.1 billion in 2020, of which 80% were held by the 4 largest banks. The country has a Central Bank, which is in charge of delivering licenses to banks and supervising them. Foreign banks or branches are allowed to establish operations in the country. They are subject to the same regulations as local banks. Djibouti has not announced that it intends to implement or allow the implementation of blockchain technologies in its banking transactions. Some banks have begun to provide mobile and e-banking services. In June 2020, Djibouti Telecom launched D-Money, a new Digital Mobile Money service which allows users to make digital money transfers and payments directly from mobile phones.
Foreign Exchange and Remittances
Djibouti has no foreign exchange restrictions. Businesses are free to repatriate profits. There are no limitations on converting or transferring funds, or on the inflow and outflow of cash. The Djiboutian franc, which has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1949, is stable. The fixed exchange rate is 177.71 Djiboutian francs to the U.S. dollar. Funds can be transferred by using banks or international money transfer companies such as Western Union, all monitored by the Central Bank.
There are no recent changes or plans to change investment remittance policies. There are no time limitations on remittances. The government does not issue bonds on the open market, and cash-like instruments are not in common use in Djibouti, so direct currency transfers are the only practical method of remitting profits.
Sovereign Wealth Funds
In mid-2020 the Djiboutian government announced the creation of a Sovereign Wealth Fund. According to a government statement, the state-owned fund will target investments locally and in neighboring countries in the Horn of Africa. It will focus on industries including telecommunications, technology, energy, and logistics. The fund will act as a long-term investor and is required to reinvest the entire net profits of its activity. The government aims to fund it to $1.5 billion within ten years. Article 12 of Law N° 75/AN/20/8th L creating the Sovereign Fund of Djibouti states the fund adopts and implements best practice in terms of transparency and performance reporting in accordance with the Santiago Principles. As of mid-2021, the fund was not yet operational.
- Law No. 75/AN/20/8th L establishing the Sovereign Fund of Djibouti – https://www.presidence.dj/texte.php?ID=75&ID2=2020-03-29&ID3=Loi&ID4=6&ID5=2020-03-31&ID6=n
- Decree No. 2020-127/PRE approving the statutes and determining certain initial resources of the Sovereign Fund of Djibouti – https://www.presidence.dj/texte.php?ID=2020-127&ID2=2020-06-30&ID3=D%E9cret&ID4=12&ID5=2020-06-30&ID6=n
- Decree No. 2020-111/PRE appointing the members of the Board of Directors and the Director General of the Sovereign Fund of Djibouti – https://www.presidence.dj/texte.php?ID=2020-111&ID2=2020-06-24&ID3=D%E9cret&ID4=12&ID5=2020-06-30&ID6=n
7. State-Owned Enterprises
Wholly owned SOEs control telecommunications, water, and electricity distribution in Djibouti. Major print, television, and radio outlets are also state-run. Additionally, Djibouti’s ports, airport, and free zones are managed by an SOE. There is a state-owned national airline that is wholly managed by the ports and free zones authority. SOEs are required by law to publish an annual report. The Court of Auditors is charged with auditing SOEs, but they have not yet released assets, income, employment, or other details about the SOEs. There is no publicly available list of SOEs.
State-run services, such as municipal garbage collection and real estate, do not hold legal monopolies, but are afforded material advantages by the government, e.g., government-backed loan guarantees for the real estate sector. Djibouti is not party to the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) within the framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
In order to exercise ownership in SOEs, the government uses several laws and decrees, most of which were promulgated in the 1990s. The established practices are not consistent with OECD guidelines. No centralized ownership entity exists. SOE senior management reports directly to the relevant line ministry. There is also an independent board of directors whose members are chosen from other ministries
A few SOEs have been privatized, such as a milk factory several years ago and a water bottling plant in 2015. No particular sector is targeted. The bidding process is not clear and transparent, which makes the participation of foreign investors difficult.
8. Responsible Business Conduct
There is nascent but growing awareness among both companies and consumers in Djibouti of Responsible Business Conduct (RBC). Businesses which might harm the environment are, in general, obligated to conduct studies on the environmental impact before proceeding with their project. The government does not promote RBC in a systematic way, although it does acknowledge good corporate social responsibility and covers it favorably in state media. However, the government does not factor RBC policies or practices into its procurement decisions. There are no corporate governance, accounting, or executive compensation standards to protect stakeholders. The government does not adhere to OECD guidelines in RBC matters. There have been reports that the government does not effectively and fairly enforce domestic laws relating to labor rights, environmental protections, consumer protections, and human rights. There are no independent NGOs, investment funds, worker organizations, or associations that monitor RBC in Djibouti. Djibouti has a salt extraction industry, but it does not participate in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative or the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights.
Department of State
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices;
- Trafficking in Persons Report;
- Guidance on Implementing the “UN Guiding Principles” for Transactions Linked to Foreign Government End-Users for Products or Services with Surveillance Capabilities and;
- North Korea Sanctions & Enforcement Actions Advisory
Department of Labor
Resources to Report Corruption
Djibouti has several laws to combat corruption by public officials. These laws were either passed by the government or contained in the Penal Code. However, there have been no records of cases to combat corruption by public officials. Corruption laws are extended to all family members of officials and across political parties, but they have not been applied in a non-discriminatory manner. Djibouti does not have laws or regulations to counter conflict-of-interest in awarding contracts or government procurement.
Djibouti is a party to the UN Convention against Corruption. There are two government entities responsible for investigating corruption and enforcing the regulations. The State General Inspection (SGI) is tasked with ensuring human and material resources in the public sector are properly utilized. The Court of Auditors is mandated to verify and audit all public establishments for transparency and accountability, and to implement necessary legal sanctions. Both institutions are mandated to produce annual corruption reports. Despite the legal mandates, both institutions lack the authority to push for meaningful reform. The National Commission for Anti-Corruption is also mandated to enforce the laws on combatting corruption and provide safe haven for whistleblowers. This Commission launched a program in March 2018 to urge high-ranking government officials to publicly declare all of their assets. However, its effectiveness has not been proven so far. The contracting code and other laws passed by Djibouti contain provisions to counter conflict-of-interest contracts or government procurement.
According to a law passed in 2013, the government requires private and public companies to establish internal codes of conduct that prevent and prohibit bribery of public officials. However, these codes have not been implemented. Likewise, the government requirement that private companies use internal controls, ethics, and compliance to detect and prevent bribery of government officials is not enforced. Djibouti is not party to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Djibouti is a signatory country of the UN Convention against Corruption. Djibouti ranked 147 out of 180 countries in the 2020 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International.
U.S. firms have not specifically noted corruption as an obstacle to foreign direct investment in Djibouti, but there were allegations of foreign companies having to meet requirements such as renting houses owned by senior officials or hiring certain employees as a condition of receiving government procurement contracts. In addition, one company reported harassment of employees by local competitors. Prosecution and punishment for corruption is rare.
Resources to Report Corruption
Contact at government agency responsible for combating corruption is listed below:
No “watchdog” organization is present in Djibouti.
10. Political and Security Environment
Djibouti has seen only very limited episodes of political violence over the last two decades. In the last ten years, there have been no known incidents of political violence leading to damage to foreign investments. Both the ruling coalition party and the recognized opposition parties favor foreign direct investment into Djibouti and local attitudes towards foreigners are positive.
Djibouti held presidential elections April 09, 2021, with President Ismael Omar Guelleh winning a fifth consecutive term with 98% of the vote. His 22-year reign has contributed to stability and economic growth, but questions of succession and subsequent instability remain. The country unilaterally seized, in February 2018, DP World’s 33% stake in the Doraleh Container Terminal, a case DP World continues to pursue in international courts.
Djibouti was recently awarded the International Peace Award by the journal Jeune Afrique for its secure environment, despite being surrounded by countries facing instability. According to data acquired by the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, Djibouti’s instances of violence and disordered has significantly declined in the past three years.
11. Labor Policies and Practices
Djibouti’s official unemployment rate is 47%. Youth unemployment, defined locally as the share of the labor force between age 15 and 24 without work but is available and actively seeing employment, has remained between 11% and 12% in the past three decades. Estimates of a sizeable informal labor market of up to 75% exist in Djibouti, with a larger informal market outside of the capital city of Djibouti. The formal labor market is heavily service- or government-oriented with growing markets in construction, logistics, and transportation. Skilled Djiboutian workers, especially in high-demand trades such as construction, are in short supply.
Djibouti has complicated labor laws that favor the employee, especially in the areas of disputes and termination. Vocational and professional training facilities remain limited. The World Bank, the Ministry of Finance, USAID, and other entities are working on a variety of initiatives to address the shortage of workforce development programs. The government has promoted entrepreneurship as a means of stimulating the economy. The government, in partnership with the World Bank and European Union, recently opened the entrepreneurship and leadership center (CLE – ) to assist start-up companies.
Foreign workers are legally allowed to work in Djibouti only if their qualifications or expertise are not available among the nationals. In January 2017, the cost for a work permit was reviewed and classified in three different categories based on the type of profession with respective annual fees of 50,000 Djibouti francs (USD 281), 100,000 Djibouti francs (USD 563) and Djibouti francs 200,000 (USD 1,125). The National Agency for Employment, Training, and Professional Integration (ANEFIP) maintains a database of Djiboutian job-seekers and issues work permits to foreign workers.
Employers have to abide by the Labor Code. Workers who are laid off get more compensation than employees who are fired. No unemployment insurance or other social safety net programs exist for workers laid off for economic reasons. Only those workers who contributed to the social insurance for 25 years and are sixty years of age are entitled to retirement benefits.
Minimum wage is DJF 45,000 (USD 254) per month. By law, all employers are obligated to make social security payments on behalf of their employees, through the National Council for Social Security. Two large labor unions exist in Djibouti, but only the Djiboutian Workers Union is recognized by international organizations.
Labor laws are not waived to attract investment, but the investment code and free zones have separate legal provisions to attract investment. By law, labor unions are independent of the government and employers. In practice they can be influenced by the government and/or employers. In case of labor disputes, the Labor Inspector will bring together the employer and the employee to settle the case acting as a mediator. If the mediation fails, then the case will be sent to the Court. The process is opaque and the results are not publicized.
In November 2020, the National Assembly amended the Labor Code to require companies employing 11 or more employees to report annually on the status of its workforce. This report aims to prevent companies from hiring foreigners illegally, not respecting the legally allowed pregnancy leave, and/or illegally firing employees.
13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment Statistics
|Host Country Statistical source*||USG or international statistical source||USG or International Source of Data: BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other|
|Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($M USD)||2019||$3,346||2019||$3,319||www.worldbank.org/en/country|
|Foreign Direct Investment||Host Country Statistical source||USG or international statistical source||USG or international Source of data: BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other|
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||BEA data available at https://www.bea.gov/international/
|Host country’s FDI in the United States ($M USD, stock positions)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||BEA data available at https://www.bea.gov/international/
|Total inbound stock of FDI as % host GDP||N/A||N/A||2019||52.5%||UNCTAD data available at|
* Ministry of Finance and Economy
Table 3: Sources and Destination of FDI
Data not available.
Table 4: Sources of Portfolio Investment
Data not available.