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Bangladesh

Executive Summary

Bangladesh is the most densely populated non-city state country in the world, with the world’s eighth largest population (over 165 million) in a territory the size of Iowa.  Bangladesh is situated in the northeastern corner of the Indian subcontinent, sharing a 4,100 km border with India and a 247 km border with Burma. With sustained economic growth over the past decade, a large, young, and hard-working workforce, strategic location between the large South and Southeast Asian markets, and vibrant private sector, Bangladesh will likely attract increasing investment.

Buoyed by a growing middle class, Bangladesh has enjoyed consistent annual GDP growth of more than six percent over the past decade.  Much of this growth continues to be driven by the ready-made garments (RMG) industry, which exported USD 36.66 billion of products in FY 2017-18, second only to China, and continued remittance inflows, reaching nearly USD 15 billion in FY 2017-18.  Forecasts based on the first nine months of the 2018-19 fiscal year estimate Bangladesh is on track to reach USD 40 billion in garment exports for the fiscal year.

The Government of Bangladesh (GOB) actively seeks foreign investment, particularly in the agribusiness, garment/textiles, leather/leather goods, light manufacturing, energy, information and communications technology (ICT), and infrastructure sectors.  It offers a range of investment incentives under its industrial policy and export-oriented growth strategy with few formal distinctions between foreign and domestic private investors. Bangladesh received USD 3.0 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) in FY 2017-18, up from USD 2.45 billion the previous year.  However, the rate of FDI inflows is only around 1 percent of GDP, one of the lowest of rates in Asia.

Bangladesh has made gradual progress in reducing some constraints on investment, including taking steps to better ensure reliable electricity, but inadequate infrastructure, limited financing instruments, bureaucratic delays, and corruption continue to hinder foreign investment.  New government efforts to improve the business environment show promise but implementation has yet to be seen. Slow adoption of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and sluggish judicial processes impede the enforcement of contracts and the resolution of business disputes.

A series of terrorist attacks in 2015-17, including the July 1, 2016 Holey Bakery attack in Dhaka’s diplomatic enclave, resulted in increased security restrictions for many expatriates, including U.S. Embassy staff.  National elections, which were held on December 30, 2018, are prone to instances of political violence. The influx of more than 700,000 Rohingya refugees since August 2017 has also raised security concerns.

International brands and the international community continue to press the GOB to meaningfully address worker rights and factory safety problems in the country.  With support from the international community and the private sector, Bangladesh has made significant progress on fire and workplace safety. Critical work remains on safeguarding workers’ rights to freely associate and bargain collectively, including in the Export Processing Zones (EPZs).  

The GOB has limited resources for intellectual property rights (IPR) protection and counterfeit goods are readily available in Bangladesh.  Government policies in the ICT sector are still under development. Current policies grant the government broad powers to intervene in that sector.

Capital markets in Bangladesh are still developing and the financial sector is still highly dependent on banks.

Table 1

Measure Year Index/Rank Website Address
TI Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 149 of 180 http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview
World Bank’s Doing Business Report “Ease of Doing Business” 2018 176 of 190 http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings
Global Innovation Index 2018 116 of 126 https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/analysis-indicator
U.S. FDI in Partner Country ($M USD, stock positions) 2017 $460 http://www.bea.gov/international/factsheet/
World Bank GNI per capita 2017 $1,470 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD
Investment Climate Statements
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U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future