Albania is an upper middle-income country with a GNI per capita of USD 4,300 (2015) and a population of approximately 2.8 million people, more than half of who live in rural areas. Real GDP grew by 3.3 percent through the third quarter of 2016, and growth is projected to reach 3.8 percent in 2017 on public spending increases. Albania received EU candidate status in June 2014 and is working to implement reforms necessary to open EU accession negotiations. In November 2016, Albania received a European Commission recommendation to open EU accession negotiations conditioned primarily upon implementation of a judicial reform package passed earlier the same year.
Despite the government’s stated desire to attract foreign direct investment, corruption in Albania is endemic, particularly in the judiciary, and sanctity of contract and respect for private property remain low. The implementation of the reform of the judicial system has recently begun, but the investment climate remains problematic and Albania is perceived as a difficult place to do business.
Investors report ongoing concerns that regulators use difficult-to-interpret or inconsistent legislation and regulations as tools to dissuade foreign investors and favor politically connected companies. Regulations and laws governing business activity change frequently and without meaningful consultation with the business community. Major foreign investors report pressure to hire specific, politically connected subcontractors and express concern about compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act while operating in Albania. Reports of corruption in government procurement are commonplace. Several U.S. companies complained last year that they were disqualified from public tenders despite offering the lowest qualified bid, only to see the government award the contract to a local company.
Property rights remain another challenge in Albania, as clear title is difficult to obtain. Some factors include unscrupulous actors who manipulate the corrupt court system to obtain title to land not their own. Compensation for land confiscated by the former communist regime is difficult to obtain and inadequate. Meanwhile, the agency charged with removing illegally constructed buildings often acts without full consultation and fails to follow procedures.
To attract FDI, the GOA approved a new Law on Strategic Investments in 2015. The new law outlines investment incentives and offers fast-track administrative procedures to strategic foreign and domestic investors, depending on the size of the investment and number of jobs created. The government also passed legislation creating Technical Economic Development Areas (TEDAs), similar to free trade zones, but the tender to develop the first TEDA failed and the process stalled. The tender has since reopened for the third time.
Albania climbed 36 notches in the World Bank’s 2017 Doing Business report, ranking 58th out of 190 countries, up from 90th in 2016. The lifting of a moratorium on building permits, which the government froze in 2013 to combat illegal construction, explained much of the improvement. While Albania fared well in the “Dealing with Construction Permits” category, jumping 80 places from 2016, the country lost points or improved only marginally in every other variable measured by the index. Albania continued to score poorly for enforcing contracts and registering property, ranking 116th and 106th, in the overall global rankings.
The Albanian legal system ostensibly does not discriminate against foreign investors. The U.S.—Albanian bilateral investment treaty entered into force in 1998 and ensures that U.S. investors receive most-favored-nation treatment. The Law on Foreign Investment outlines specific protections for foreign investors and allows 100 percent foreign ownership of companies except in the areas of international air passenger transport, electric power transmission, and television broadcasting.
Energy and power, water supply and sewerage, road and rail, mining, and information communication technology represent the best prospects for foreign direct investment in Albania over the next several years.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2016||83 of 176||http://www.transparency.org/
|World Bank’s Doing Business Report “Ease of Doing Business”||2017||58 of 190||doingbusiness.org/rankings|
|Global Innovation Index||2016||92 of 128||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)||2014||$116 million||Bank of Albania https://www.bankofalbania.org
(2014 data U.S. stock FDI in Albania – USD 116 million)
|World Bank GNI per capita||2015||$4,280||http://data.worldbank.org/
3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
Albania’s regulatory system has improved in recent years, but faces challenges. Uneven enforcement of legislation, cumbersome bureaucracy, and a lack of transparency are all hindrances to the business community.
Albanian legislation includes rules on disclosure requirements, formation, maintenance, and alteration of capital, mergers and divisions, takeover bids, shareholders’ rights, as well as corporate governance principles. The Law on Accounting and Financial Statements includes reporting provisions related to international financial reporting standards for large companies, and national financial reporting standards for small and medium enterprises.
Other independent agencies and bodies, including the Energy Regulator (ERE), Telecom Regulator (AKEP), Natural Resources Bureau (AKBN), and other major institutions operate to ensure transparency in specific sectors.
State-owned oil company AlbPetrol retains some regulatory authority over legacy oilfields and is a consistent source of reports of corruption, predatory interpretation of regulations, and inefficiency in the hydrocarbons sector. Major foreign investors in this sector report difficulties in complying with often overlapping regulatory requirements and inconsistent and often conflicting interpretation of Albanian legislation and regulations governing oil exploration and extraction.
International Regulatory Considerations
Albania acceded to the WTO in 2000, and the country notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade of all draft technical regulations.
The Albania legal system is based on the continental judicial system. The Albanian Constitution provides for the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial branches, thereby supporting the independence of the judiciary. The Civil Procedure Code enacted in 1996 governs civil procedure in Albania. The civil court system consists of district courts, appellate courts, and the Supreme Court. The district courts are organized in specialized sections according to the subject of the claim, including civil disputes, family disputes, and commercial disputes.
The administrative courts of first instance, the Administrative Court of Appeal, and the Administrative College of the High Court, now adjudicate administrative disputes. Administrative courts aim to adjudicate administrative cases quickly. The Constitutional Court reviews whether laws or subsidiary legislation comply with the Constitution, and in limited cases protects and enforces the constitutional rights of citizens and legal entities.
Parties may appeal the judgment of the first instance courts within 15 days; while appellate court judgments must be appealed to the Supreme Court within 30 days. A lawsuit against an administrative action is submitted to the administrative court within 45 days from notification and the law stipulates short procedural timeframes enabling faster adjudication of administrative disputes.
Albania does not have a specific commercial code, but defines commercial legislation through a series of relevant commercial laws including, the Foreign Investment Law, Commercial Companies Law, Bankruptcy Law, Environmental Law, Law on Corporate and Municipal Bonds, Transport Law, Maritime Code, Secured Transactions Law, Employment Law, Taxation Procedures Law, Banking Law, Insurance and Reinsurance Law, Concessions Law, Mining Law, Energy Law, Water Resources Law, Waste Management Law, Excise Law, Oil and Gas Law, Gambling Law, Telecommunications Law, Value Added Law, and Sports Law.
Corruption is endemic in the Albanian judicial system and U.S. investors are advised to include binding international arbitration clauses in agreements with Albanian counterparts. While the government has historically respected decisions by international arbitration courts, as noted above, the GoA recently ignored an injunction from such a court in a high-profile investment dispute (a decision that was later reversed). Albania is a signatory to the New York Convention and foreign arbitration awards may be enforced in local courts.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
The Law on Foreign Investments seeks to create a hospitable legal climate for foreign investors and stipulates the following:
- No prior government authorization is needed for an initial investment;
- Foreign investment may not be expropriated or nationalized directly or indirectly, except for designated special cases, in the interest of public use and as defined by law;
- Foreign investors enjoy the right to expatriate all funds and contributions in kind from their investments;
- Foreign investors receive most favored nation treatment according to international agreements and Albanian law.
There are limited exceptions to this liberal investment regime, most of which apply to the purchase of real estate. Agricultural land cannot be purchased by foreigners and foreign entities, but may be rented for up to 99 years. Investors can buy agricultural land if registered as a commercial entity in Albania. Commercial property may be purchased, but only if the proposed investment is worth three times the price of the land. There are no restrictions on the purchase of private residential property.
In an effort to boost investments in strategic sectors, the government approved a new law on strategic investments in May 2015. Under the new law, a “strategic investment” as deemed by the government benefits from either “assisted procedure” or “special procedure” assistance by the government to help navigate the permitting and regulatory process. To date, no major investors have taken advantage of the law.
Major Laws Governing Foreign Investments:
- Law 55/2015, “On Strategic Investments”: Defines procedures and rules to be observed by government authorities when reviewing, approving and supporting strategic domestic and foreign investments in Albania;
- Law 9901/2008 “On Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies”: Outlines general rules and regulations on the merger of commercial companies;
- Law 110/2012 “On Cross-Border Mergers”: Determines rules on mergers when one of the companies involved in the process is a foreign company;
- Law 9121/2003 “On Protection of Competition”: Stipulates provisions for the protection of competition, and the concentration of commercial companies;
- Law 10198/2009 “On Collective Investment Undertakings”: Regulates conditions and criteria for the establishment, constitution, and operation of collective investment undertakings and of management companies;
- Law 7764/1993 “On the Foreign Investments” amended by the Law 10316/2010.
Authorities responsible for mergers, change of control, and transfer of shares include, the Albanian Competition Authority (ACA) which monitors the implementation of the competition law and approves mergers and acquisitions when required by the law; and, the Albanian Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) which regulates and supervises the securities market and approves the transfer of shares and change of control of companies operating in this sector.
Investors in Albania are entitled to judicial protection of legal rights related to their investments. Foreign investors have the right to submit disputes to an Albanian court. In addition, parties to a dispute may agree to arbitration. Albania is a signatory to the New York Arbitration Convention and foreign arbitration awards are typically recognized by Albania, although the government refused to recognize an injunction from a foreign arbitration court in one high profile case, in 2016, calling into question the government’s commitment to arbitration (this refusal was later reversed). The Albanian Civil Procedure Code outlines provisions regarding domestic and international commercial arbitration. Many foreign investors complain that endemic judicial corruption and inefficient court procedures undermine judicial protection in Albania and seek international arbitration to resolve disputes.
Albania’s tax system does not distinguish between foreign and domestic investors. Informality in the economy (as high as 50 percent) presents challenges for tax administration.
Visa requirements to obtain residence or work permits are straightforward and do not pose an undue burden on potential investors. The only potential complication to obtaining a work permit is the requirement that a foreign employer maintain a certain number of local employees. The Law on Foreigners states that a foreign employer will be granted a work permit when the number of foreign employees does not exceed 10 percent of the total number of employees on the payroll over the 12 proceeding months.
The Law on Entrepreneurs and Commercial Companies sets guidelines on the activities of companies and the legal structure under which they may operate. The government adopted the law in 2008 to conform Albanian legislation to the European Union’s Acquis Communitaire. The most common type of organization for foreign investors is a limited liability company.
The Law on Concessions establishes the framework for promoting and facilitating the implementation of privately financed concessionary projects. Concessions may be identified by central or local governments or through third party unsolicited proposals. In the case of unsolicited proposals, the proposing company is entitled to receive a bonus of up to 10 percent of total points based on the technical and financial proposal.
Competition and Anti-Trust Laws
The Law on Protection of Competition governs incoming foreign investment whether through mergers, acquisitions, takeovers, or green field investments, irrespective of industry or sector. In the case of particular share transfers in insurance and banking industries, additional regulatory approvals may also be necessary. Transactions between parties outside Albania–foreign-to-foreign transactions–are covered by the competition law, which explicitly states that the transactions apply to all activities, domestic or foreign, that directly or indirectly affect the Albanian market.
Expropriation and Compensation
The Albanian Constitution guarantees the right of private property. According to Article 41, expropriation or limitation in the exercise of a property right can occur only if it serves the public interest and with fair compensation. During the post-communist period, expropriation has been limited to land for public interest, mainly infrastructure projects such as roads, energy infrastructure, water works, airports, and other facilities. Compensation has generally been below market value and owners have complained that the compensation process is slow and unfair. Civil courts are responsible for resolving such complaints.
Change of government can also be of concern to foreign investors. Following the 2013 elections and peaceful transition of power, the new government revoked or attempted to renegotiate numerous concession agreements, licenses, and contracts signed by the previous government with both domestic and international investors. This practice has occurred in years past, as well.
There are many ongoing disputes regarding properties confiscated during the communist regime. Identifying ownership is a longstanding problem in Albania that makes restitution for expropriated properties difficult. The restitution and compensation process started in 1993, but has been slow and marred by corruption. Many U.S. citizens of Albanian origin have suffered from long-running restitution disputes. Court cases drag on for years without a final decision, forcing many to refer their case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France. To date, the Court has issued approximately 29 decisions in favor of Albanian citizens in civil cases involving protection of property with an assessed financial cost of approximately $50 million. Reportedly, there are approximately 400 applications pending for consideration. Even after settlement in Strasbourg, enforcement of the decision is often slow or nonexistent.
The GOA has recently approved new property compensation legislation that aims to provide a solution to the pending claims for restitution and compensation. The legislation presents three methods of compensation for confiscation claims: restitution; compensation of property with similarly valued land in a different location; and cash settlement/financial compensation. The legislation sets a 10-year timeframe for the completion of the entire process.
The Albanian government has generally not engaged in expropriation actions against U.S. investments, companies, or representatives. There have been limited cases in which the government has revoked licenses, especially in the mining and energy sectors, based on contract violation claims.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Under the Albanian Constitution, ratified international agreements prevail over domestic legislation. Albania is a member state to the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID Convention). It also is a signatory to the convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention). Albania has ratified the 1927 Convention and the European Convention on Arbitration (Geneva Convention).
For an arbitration award to be locally recognized, the claimant must enforce the award before the Court of Appeals. The procedure to recognize a foreign arbitral award typically lasts around one month and either party may appeal the Court’s decision to the Supreme Court. The appeal must be filed within 30 days from the date of decision or notification of the other party (if absent).
The possibility of bringing an action before the local court to avoid arbitration proceedings is remote. According to explicit provisions in the Albanian Code of Civil Procedure, if a party brings actions before local courts despite the parties’ agreement to arbitrate, the court would, upon motion of the other party, dismiss the case without entertaining the merits of the case. The decision of the court to dismiss the case can be appealed to the Supreme Court, which has 30 days to consider the appeal.
An alternative to dispute settlement via the courts is private arbitration or mediation. Parties can engage in arbitration when they have agreed to such a provision in the original agreement, when there is a separate arbitration agreement, or by mutual agreement at any time when a dispute arises. Legislation distinguishes arbitration of international disputes from arbitration of domestic disputes in that the parties involved in an international dispute may agree to settle through either a domestic or foreign arbitration tribunal. Mediation is also applicable in resolving all civil, commercial, and family disputes and is regulated by the law “On Dispute Resolution through Mediation.” Arbitral awards are final and enforceable and can be appealed only in cases foreseen in the Code of Civil Procedure. Mediation is final and enforceable in the same way.
There are no consolidated institutions for dispute resolution through arbitration and arbiters are appointed ad hoc in compliance with the provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure. The law provides for the National Chamber of Mediators and Chambers of Mediators as institutions to perform mediation. Mediators are licensed and registered at the Mediators Register at the Ministry of Justice, which maintains a list of mediators from which the parties can choose.
The provisions for arbitration procedures and the recognition and enforcement of foreign awards are stipulated in the Albanian Code of Civil Procedure. Albania does not have a separate law on arbitration. Although the arbitration chapter of the Code of Civil procedure stipulates only the rules for domestic arbitration, the country is signatory to the 1958 New York Convention, and as such, recognizes the validity of written arbitration agreements and arbitral awards in a contracting state.
The Albanian Code of Civil Procedure requires the courts to reach a judgment within a reasonable amount of time, but does not provide for a specific deadline to decide on commercial disputes. Reaching a final judgment in a commercial litigation may take several years to exhaust all stages of the process.
The procedure for the recognition of a foreign arbitral award should take on average approximately one month; however, in certain cases this decision may be appealable. An appeal against a court decision that recognizes a foreign arbitral award does not automatically suspend the effects of the enforcement.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
Over the past ten years, there have been six investment disputes between the Albanian government and U.S. companies, four of which resulted in international arbitration. Despite a stated desire to attract and support foreign investors, U.S. investors in disputes with the Albanian government report a lack of productive dialogue with government officials, who frequently display a reluctance to settle the disputes before they are escalated to the level of international arbitration, or before the international community exerts pressure on the government to resolve the issue. U.S. investors in Albania are encouraged to include strong binding arbitration clauses in any agreements with Albanian counterparts.
Albania maintains adequate bankruptcy legislation, though actual bankruptcies are rare in practice. Corrupt and inefficient bankruptcy courts make it difficult for companies to reorganize or discharge debts through bankruptcy.
The Bankruptcy Law governs the reorganization or liquidation of insolvent businesses. It sets out non-discriminatory and mandatory rules for the repayment of the obligations by a debtor in a bankruptcy procedure. The law establishes statutory time limits for insolvency procedures, professional qualifications for insolvency administrators, and an Agency of Insolvency Supervision to regulate the profession of insolvency administrators.
A bankruptcy procedure can be initiated by debtors, creditors, or tax authorities. Debtors and creditors can file for either liquidation or reorganization. Tax authorities can request a bankruptcy procedure when the subject reports losses three years consecutively. Bankruptcy proceedings may also be invoked when the debtor is unable to pay the obligations at maturity date or will be unable to pay in the near future.
According to the provisions of the Bankruptcy Law, the initiation of bankruptcy proceedings would suspend the enforcement of claims by all creditors against the debtor subject to bankruptcy. Creditors of all categories should submit their claims to the bankruptcy administrator in order to be treated under the bankruptcy proceeding. The Bankruptcy Law provides specific treatment for different categories, including, secured creditors, unsecured creditors, and unsecured creditors of lower ranking (i.e. those whose claims would be paid after all the secured and unsecured creditors were satisfied). The claims of the secured creditors will be satisfied by the assets of the debtor, which secure such claims under security agreements. The claims of the unsecured creditors will be paid out of bankruptcy estate excluding the assets used for payment of the secured creditors, following the priority ranking described under the Albanian Civil Code.
Pursuant to the provisions of the Bankruptcy Law, the creditors have the right to establish a creditors committee and the creditors’ assembly. The creditors’ committee is appointed by the Commercial Section Courts, before the first meeting of the creditors’ assembly. The creditors’ committee represents the secured creditors, the unsecured creditors with larger claims, and creditors with small claims. The committee has the right: (a) to support and supervise the activities of the insolvency administrator; (b) to request and receive information about the insolvency proceedings; c) to inspect the books and records; and, d) to order an examination of the revenues and cash balances.
In the event that the creditors and administrator agree that reorganization is the company’s best option, the bankruptcy administrator prepares a reorganization plan and submits it to the court for authorizing implementation.
According to the insolvency procedures, only creditors whose rights are affected by the proposed reorganization plan enjoy the right of vote and the dissenting creditors in reorganization receive at least as much as what they would obtain in a liquidation. Creditors are divided into classes for the purposes of voting on the reorganization plan and each class votes separately and creditors of the same class are treated equally.
The insolvency framework allows for the continuation of contracts supplying essential goods and services to the debtor, the rejection by the debtor of overly burdensome contracts, the avoidance of preferential or undervalued transactions, and the possibility of the debtor obtaining credit after commencement of insolvency proceedings. No priority is assigned to post-commencement creditors.
The creditor has the right to object to decisions accepting or rejecting creditors’ claims, and should approve the sale of substantial assets of the debtor. The creditor does not have the right to request information from the insolvency representative and the law does not require approval by the creditor for the selection of appointment of insolvency representative.
According to the law on bankruptcy, foreign creditors have the same rights as domestic creditors with respect to the commencement of, and participation in, a bankruptcy proceeding. The claim is valued as of the date the insolvency proceeding is opened. Claims expressed in foreign currency are converted into Albanian currency according to the official exchange rate applicable to the place of payment at the time of the opening of the proceeding.
The Albanian Criminal Code provides for several criminal offences in bankruptcy such as: (i) the bankruptcy was provoked intentionally; (ii) concealment of bankruptcy status; (iii) concealment of assets after bankruptcy; and, (iv) failure to comply with the obligations arising under bankruptcy proceeding.
The number of bankruptcy requests in Albania is growing; as of November 2016, 132 companies had navigated through bankruptcy based on the register of the Taxation Department.
Corruption is a continuing problem in Albania, undermining the rule of law and jeopardizing economic development. Albania ranked 83 out of 176 countries in Transparency International’s 2016 Corruption Perception Index (CPI). Albania’s score improved from 2013 and 2014, when it ranked 116 and 110. Nevertheless, Albania remains one of the most corrupt countries in Europe, according to the CPI. The passage by Parliament of constitutional amendments in July 2016 to reform the judicial system was a major step forward, and reform, once implemented, should make the country more attractive to international investors.
Judicial reform has been described as the most significant development in Albania since the end of communism, and nearly one-third of the constitution was rewritten, as a result. The reform also entails the passage of laws to ensure implementation of the constitutional amendments. Judicial reform’s new vetting process will ensure that prosecutors and judges with unexplained wealth, insufficient training, or who have issued questionable past decisions are removed from the system. The reform will also establish an independent prosecutor and specialized investigation unit to investigate and prosecute corruption and organized crime. If fully implemented, judicial reform will discourage corruption, promote foreign and domestic investment, and allow Albania to compete more successfully in the global economy.
UN Anticorruption Convention, OECD Convention on Combatting Bribery
The government has ratified several corruption-related international treaties and conventions and is a member of major international organizations and programs dealing with corruption and/or organized crime. Albania has ratified the Civil Law Convention on Corruption (Council of Europe), the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (Council of Europe), the Additional Protocol to Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (Council of Europe), and the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). Albania has also ratified a number of key conventions in the broader field of economic crime, including the Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation of the Proceeds from Crime (2001); and the Convention on Cybercrime (2002). Albania has been a member of the Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) since the ratification of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, in 2001, and is a member of the Stability Pact Anti-Corruption Network (SPAI). Albania is not a member of the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in international Business Transactions.
Resources to Report Corruption