Sierra Leone is a constitutional republic with a directly elected president and a unicameral legislature. In 2018 the opposition Sierra Leone People’s Party candidate, Julius Maada Bio, won the presidential elections. After the 2018 parliamentary elections, the Sierra Leone People’s Party and the All People’s Congress each held 58 seats. Observers found these elections to be largely free and fair.
The Sierra Leone Police, which reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, is responsible for law enforcement and maintains security within the country. The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces are responsible for external security but also have some domestic security responsibilities to assist police upon request in extraordinary circumstances. The armed forces report to the Ministry of Defense. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces. There were credible reports that members of the security forces committed some abuses.
Significant human rights issues included credible reports of: unlawful or arbitrary killings by the government; cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment by government or on behalf of government; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; arbitrary arrest or detention; serious government corruption; existence of laws criminalizing consensual same-sex sexual conduct between adults, although the laws were not enforced; and existence of the worst forms of child labor.
The government took some steps to investigate, prosecute, and punish officials who committed abuses or engaged in corruption, but impunity persisted.
Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person
a. Arbitrary Deprivation of Life and Other Unlawful or Politically Motivated Killings
There were several credible reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. In April the Sierra Leone Police (SLP) shot and killed an unarmed youth in the capital city of Freetown during a student protest. Authorities arrested and dismissed the four police officers allegedly involved in the killing, and as of September they were standing trial.
In April 2020 a riot broke out at Freetown Male Correctional Center, resulting in numerous injuries and 31 fatalities, including one corrections officer and 30 inmates. Following an independent investigation, Sierra Leone Correctional Services (SLCS) reported that the riot was sparked by several problems, including overcrowding, suspension of court hearings, and COVID-19 health restrictions. In response the government established grievance mechanisms for inmates to report complaints to correction facility management boards.
The Independent Police Complaints Board (IPCB) is the body responsible for investigating police misconduct. The IPCB is an independent civilian oversight mechanism with a mandate within the security sector to receive and investigate complaints from the public and advise the leadership of the SLP.
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
The law prohibits such practices, but there was one reported instance where government officials employed them. The Human Rights Commission of Sierra Leone (HRCSL) called for an investigation of SLP use of excessive force during a student protest at the Institute of Public Administration and Management in April. Officers stripped a female student and arrested her, fired teargas and smoke bombs into the crowd of students, arrested several protesters, and held them without bail. Authorities began an investigation, but no results were available as of September.
Impunity remained a significant problem in the security forces, notably in the SLP. Amnesty International noted improvements in police leadership’s enforcement of disciplinary measures, but other observers reported continuing lack of crowd control and human rights training. The IPCB investigates police misconduct.
Prison and Detention Center Conditions
Prison and detention center conditions were harsh and sometimes life threatening due to food shortages, gross overcrowding, an inefficient justice system, lack of sufficient correctional facilities and personnel, physical abuse, lack of clean water, inadequate sanitary conditions, and a lack of proper medical care in prison facilities. In contrast with 2020, there were no significant prison riots or violent incidents that raised human rights concerns.
Physical Conditions: As of August the country’s 21 prisons, designed to hold 2,375 inmates, held 4,430, including 1,289 convicted prisoners. The most severe example of overcrowding was in the Freetown Male Correctional Center, designed to hold 324 inmates, which instead held 1,573 individuals. Some prison cells measuring six feet by nine feet held nine or more inmates. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) Prison Watch and the SLCS reported that 13 prisons and detention centers were moderately overcrowded, and one inmate jailed in 2007 had yet to appear in court.
In most cases pretrial detainees were held with convicted prisoners. As of August the HRCSL, SLCS, and Prison Watch Sierra Leone reported that no prison or detention center facility held male and female inmates together. Conditions in detention centers, including lighting, space, and ventilation, were generally better for female inmates than for male inmates.
According to the SLCS, there were no juveniles in correctional facilities across the country. Nonetheless, it was often difficult to confirm the ages of inmates due to the pervasive lack of official documentation, which resulted in some juveniles being treated as adults and detained in adult correctional facilities.
Authorities sent most offenders younger than 18 to “approved schools” or reformatory institutions. According to the SLCS, although authorities made some efforts to avoid detaining juveniles with adults immediately after arrest, they frequently detained minors with adults in police holding cells while waiting to transfer the youths to one of three juvenile facilities. Authorities acknowledged these juvenile facilities lacked resources to function properly.
As of August the SLCS reported eight deaths in prisons and detention facilities due to malaria, respiratory and skin infections, and typhoid fever. The HRCSL and Amnesty International reported the causes of death were related to prison conditions, such as overcrowding and poor hygienic conditions.
The HRCSL and SLCS reported a shortage of prison staff, which resulted in a lack of security that endangered inmates’ safety. There was no report of prisoner-on-prisoner violence or authorities’ failure to maintain control.
Amnesty International and Prison Watch Sierra Leone reported overcrowding, unhygienic conditions, and insufficient medical services. Conditions in police station holding cells were poor, especially in small stations outside Freetown, and in Moyamba and Bo correctional centers. Lack of adequate physical facilities created life-threatening conditions for detainees. Holding cells in some facilities were often dark with little ventilation, and inmates slept on mattresses on bare floors. HRCSL reported poor toilet facilities in some correctional centers.
Cells often lacked proper lighting, space, bedding, ventilation, and protection from infectious diseases and mosquitoes. For example, the electricity at Moyamba Correctional Center was powered by a diesel generator, although management rarely had the funds to procure fuel, resulting in a lack of proper lighting. For security reasons authorities refused to allow inmates to sleep under mosquito nets, requiring inmates to use chemical repellents instead. Most prisons did not have piped water, and some inmates lacked sufficient access to potable water.
Officials referred inmates to local government hospitals for special care, which largely accepted the inmates as patients. At Bo Correctional Center, the medical officer reported that the Bo Government Hospital had stopped accepting inmate referrals requiring surgical operations until the SLCS provided funds to cover their medical expenses.
Correctional service authorities and the HRCSL reported there was no discrimination against inmates with disabilities. The HRCSL and Prison Watch Sierra Leone reported they had no information regarding abuse of inmates with disabilities.
Administration: There was no prison ombudsman, but senior prison officials were available to respond to complaints. Amnesty International reported that SLCS authorities generally investigated credible allegations of mistreatment of inmates.
Authorities permitted regular family visits and provided some correctional centers with a telephone for inmates to communicate with their relatives. The UN Development Program provided other correctional facilities with cellphones and credits for inmates to use to communicate with their families under supervision.
Independent Monitoring: The government permitted monitoring by independent nongovernmental observers. International monitors had unrestricted access to the detention centers and police holding cells. The HRCSL, Amnesty International, and Prison Watch Sierra Leone monitored prisons frequently, especially after 2019 violence in Bo Correctional Center. The SLCS also allowed other NGOs such as Humanist Watch to monitor prison conditions on a regular basis.
Improvements: Authorities constructed latrines and shower facilities in the Port Loko, Bo, Magburaka, and Moyamba district correctional facilities. Several correctional facilities also implemented prison industries, such as bread baking, agriculture, and carpentry, and established inmate earning schemes, creating bank accounts for participating inmates and regularly depositing earnings from work activities. Prison authorities issued new bedding and pillows to several correctional centers. Nationwide, SLCS authorities established mechanisms for receiving prisoner complaints (see section 1.a.). The SLCS painted signs listing inmate visitation hours and phone numbers outside correctional facility walls and publicized visits as free of charge.
d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, but human rights groups such as Amnesty International and the HRCSL indicated that the SLP and chiefdom police occasionally arrested and detained persons arbitrarily, including members of opposition parties.
Arrest Procedures and Treatment of Detainees
The law requires warrants for searches and arrests of persons taken into custody on criminal grounds, but arrests without warrants were common. The Campaign for Human Rights and Development International and Amnesty International reported some arrests were made without warrants and that the SLP did not follow proper arrest procedures in some instances.
The law requires authorities to inform detainees of the reason for their arrest within 24 hours and charge them in court within 72 hours for suspected misdemeanors or within 10 days for suspected felonies. Detainees, however, were not always informed promptly of charges brought against them.
The judiciary applied the bail system inconsistently and sometimes demanded excessive bond fees.
Detainees have the right to access family members and to consult with an attorney in a timely manner. Lawyers generally were allowed unrestricted access to detainees. According to the director of Public Prosecution, an estimated 70 percent of inmates received legal representation, while Amnesty International reported 30 percent of accused persons received legal representation. Only defendants in the military justice system had automatic access to attorneys, whose fees were paid by the Ministry of Defense. Although there were 50 active state counsels (public defenders), the majority worked in the capital and were often overburdened, poorly paid, and available only for more serious criminal cases.
Arbitrary Arrest: There were reports of individuals held for questioning without being promptly informed of the reason for the arrest. The SLP and the chiefdom police held suspects in detention cells without explanation for up to three days for suspected misdemeanors and up to 10 days for suspected felonies. Chiefs sometimes subjected both adults and children to arbitrary detention and imprisoned them unlawfully in their homes or “chiefdom jails.” The Human Rights Commission reported cases of illegal detentions at several police stations and the Freetown Male Correctional Center.
On July 2, police arrested opposition All People’s Congress politician and member of parliament Emmanuel Saidu Conteh and three others, after customs officials detected firearms and ammunition impounded in a vehicle recently imported by them. Prosecutors charged the suspects with conspiracy to commit a felony and illegal importation and unlawful possession of arms and ammunition. At July court appearances, the presiding judge denied bail for Conteh and his three alleged accomplices and detained all four at the Freetown Male Correctional Facility. On August 2, the Freetown Magistrate Court released Conteh and other detainees on bail.
Pretrial Detention: Lengthy pretrial detention remained a significant problem. As of August, 46 percent of the persons held in prisons and detention centers were convicted and 54 percent were in pretrial detention or on remand. The SLCS attributed the high percentage of pretrial detainees to a severe shortage of legal professionals and to the chief justice’s suspension of court sittings in 2020 due to COVID-19. A donor-funded program identified other specific reasons for extensive pretrial detention, such as magistrates and judges not consistently granting bail when warranted, the Ministry of Justice often failing to bring indictments, and inadequate information exchange and case management across the criminal justice system. Pretrial and remand detainees spent an average of three to five years in pretrial detention before courts examined their cases or filed formal charges. In extreme cases the wait could be as long as 14 years.
A notable case of lengthy pretrial detention was that of Mohamed Kamaraimba Mansaray, the 2018 Alliance Democratic Party presidential candidate, detained without bail since July 2020 under child abuse charges. Following reports of his deteriorating health, Kamaraimba’s representatives requested bail to seek medical attention. The presiding judge initially refused Kamaraimba’s requests, citing the seriousness of the crime, but after broad news and social media reporting, the judge released Kamaraimba on September 7.
Section 2. Respect for Civil Liberties
Section 4. Corruption and Lack of Transparency in Government
The law provides criminal penalties for corruption by officials, and the government generally implemented the law effectively. There were numerous reports of government corruption.
Corruption: In 2019 the judiciary assigned five high court justices to a new Anti-Corruption Court to deal with corruption cases brought by the Anti-Corruption Commission. The Anti-Corruption Commission indicted and charged 31 persons, convicted nine individuals, and recovered more than three billion leones ($300,000) from corrupt government officials, excluding court fines and other assets. On May 26, the High Court convicted Salihu Sheku Nyallay, former acting principal accountant of the judiciary, on three counts of corruption, and required repayment of stolen funds.
On May 29, the Anti-Corruption Commission announced an investigation into the country’s permanent mission to the United Nations for the alleged misappropriation of four million dollars earmarked for the renovation of the chancery in New York City. According to the Anti-Corruption Commission, charges were pending against five persons, including two former heads of chancery, two financial attaches, and a contractor. Separately, the Anti-Corruption Commission investigated the country’s embassies in Nairobi and Beijing for alleged corruption and mismanagement of funds from 2015 forward. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation suspended staff pending investigations, and the Anti-Corruption Commission made two arrests.
On May 31, the Anti-Corruption Commission indicted Paul Soba Massaquoi, the executive director of the Sierra Leone Maritime Administration, and five others on procurement-related corruption charges.
The Anti-Corruption Commission also investigated the Office of the First Lady, the Sierra Leone Maritime Authority, the National Mineral Agency, the National COVID-19 Emergency Response Centre, the Electricity Distribution and Supply Authority, and other government organizations, with varying degrees of success. While the Anti-Corruption Commission increased the number of corruption investigations, the commission often failed to indict the most senior officials involved in corruption, charging lower-level officials instead. Media and opposition party members questioned the objectivity and independence of the Anti-Corruption Commission.
On November 17, President Bio announced the convening of a tribunal to investigate widely respected Auditor General Lara Taylor-Pearce and her deputy, Tamba Momoh, officially triggering their suspension due to allegations of misconduct. Several civil society organizations condemned the suspensions, stating the move was intended to forestall the impending release of an auditor general report allegedly accusing the administration of corruption and the president and his wife of fraudulent spending during international trips.
According to an Afrobarometer 2020 survey, citizens perceived corruption to be increasing among the judiciary, parliament, and police since 2018. In the same survey, 46 percent of respondents reported paying bribes for public services (education, health care, identity documents, and police services) in 2020, essentially unchanged from the 2018 survey result of 47 percent.
Some police, guards, and forest rangers exacted bribes at checkpoints, falsely charged motorists with violations, impounded vehicles to extort money, and accepted bribes from suspects to drop charges or to arrest their rivals and charge them with crimes. In exchange for kickbacks, police reportedly arrested persons for civil disputes, such as alleged breach of contract or failure to satisfy a debt.
Section 6. Discrimination and Societal Abuses
Systemic Racial or Ethnic Violence and Discrimination
There were laws to protect racial or ethnic minorities from violence or discrimination. Authorities enforced these laws.
Strong ethnic loyalties, biases, and stereotypes existed among all ethnic groups. Ethnic loyalty was an important factor in the government, armed forces, and business. Complaints of ethnic discrimination in government appointments and contract assignments were common. Little ethnic segregation was apparent in urban areas, where interethnic marriage was common.
Residents of non-African descent faced some institutionalized discrimination, particularly in the areas of citizenship and nationality.
The government made some efforts to address discrimination, such as equal access to education, medical care, employment, and credit. The government made limited efforts to address discrimination and bias against lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or intersex (LGBTQI+) persons and members of the Rastafarian religious sects.