7. State-Owned Enterprises
Several electricity, water and sewage, bank, and oil companies remain state-owned and state-operated. The GOP wholly owns 35 SOE’s, 34 of which are under the parastatal conglomerate FONAFE. The list of SOE’s under FONAFE can be found here: .
The most notable area of SOE activity pertains to the petroleum sector, where the state-owned petroleum company PetroPeru is an oil refiner and operator of an oil pipeline. Over the last two decades, PetroPeru has experienced significant attrition in managerial and technical expertise. This, coupled with limited financial resources, cast into doubt the company’s ability to implement its long-held plans to expand and upgrade its aging Talara refinery – which continues to produce dirty gasoline and diesel fuel, a situation the government permits by not enforcing regulatory standards. Limited resources and expertise also downplay expectations following repeated announcements from its leadership regarding entrance to upstream, and participation in a proposed gas pipeline and petrochemical complex in southern Peru. In November 2015, Peru’s Congress overrode a Presidential veto, adopting a law that allowed Peru’s oil and gas promotion agency, PeruPetro, to sign a contract directly with PetroPeru to operate Lot 192, Peru’s largest oil concession, following a failed bidding process for the claim. Critics note the prescriptive nature of the legislation conflicts with Peru’s competition and concession laws, and that PetroPeru lacks the financial and technical resources to serve as an operator.
Peru is not party to the Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) within the framework of the World Trade Organization.
The GOP’s role as an enterprise owner is specified through several publically available laws and regulations. Ownership practices are generally consistent with OECD guidelines, although not all guideline subsections are specifically addressed. Central entity FONAFE ( ) exercises ownership of SOEs with the exception of those considered intangible under the Peruvian constitution (including public university services). FONAFE appoints an independent board of directors for each SOE using a transparent selection process. There is no notable third party analysis on SOEs’ ties to the government.
The GOP initiated an extensive, but not yet complete, privatization program in 1991, in which foreign investors were encouraged to participate. Since 2000, the GOP has promoted multi-year concessions as a means of attracting investment in major projects. In 2000, the government granted a 30-year concession to a private group (Lima Airport Partners) to operate the Lima airport. In 2006, the government granted a 30-year concession to Dubai Ports World to build and operate a new container terminal in the Port of Callao. The terminal’s first phase became operational in May 2010. In 2006, the Swiss-Spanish-Peruvian consortium Swissport received a 25-year concession to manage nine of Peru’s northern airports. In 2011, the GOP awarded the Argentine-Peruvian consortium Aeropuertos Andinos a 25-year concession to manage six of Peru’s southern airports. Also in 2011, the government granted a 30-year concession to a Danish-Peruvian consortium led by the Danish-based A.P. Moller-Maersk Group to operate and modernize the multipurpose northern terminal at the Port of Callao. On June 2, 2015, the GOP awarded Spanish construction company Sacyr a 25-year concession to maintain 875 kilometers of the Andean Longitudinal Highway. The concession for Line Three of Lima’s metro, expected to be awarded in late 2016, was delayed due to corruption allegations in the Line Two project. The GOP established a single transportation authority for the city of Lima and Callao in January 2019 that will take on overall planning and issue tenders for the remaining Lima metro lines 3 and 4. The Urban Transportation Authority (ATU) will become operational in 2019.
The concessions process is challenging for U.S. and other international companies interested in bidding on projects. ProInversion, the government agency responsible for drawing up and completing PPP concession projects, has come under considerable criticism over the years for its bidding process, deadlines, and unrealistic timetables. Despite the criticism, ProInversion is actively working to improve management of the PPP process. The agency hired an international consulting firm to develop standard PPP contracting guidelines and has implemented internal reforms to streamline its processes and ensure better project management. ProInversion re-designed its website to provide project listings in both Spanish and English and is holding outreach events to increase competition.
The GOP increased its use of government-to-government (G2G) contracting for infrastructure projects, especially as it sought to expedite and facilitate procurement and priority projects following the Odebrecht scandal. The Organizing Committee of the Lima 2019 Pan American Games under the Ministry of Transportation and Communications (MTC) contracted with the United Kingdom government in 2017 to organize and deliver infrastructure for the Lima 2019 Pan American Games, and the MTC is pursuing a G2G contract for construction of the Chinchero Airport in Cusco. The G2G mechanism poses limitations for U.S. government involvement and could potentially limit the ability of U.S. firms to compete.