Croatia has a suitable legal framework, including regulations and penalties, to combat corruption. The Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Act define the tools available to the investigative authorities to fight corruption. The criminal code also provides for asset seizure and forfeiture. In terms of a corruption case, it is assumed that all of a defendant’s property was acquired through criminal offences unless the defendant can prove the legal origin of the assets in question. Pecuniary gain in such cases is also confiscated if it is in possession of a third party (e.g. spouse, relatives, or family members) and was not acquired in good faith. Croatian laws and provisions regarding corruption apply equally to domestic and foreign investors, to public officials, their family members and political parties. The Croatian Criminal Code covers such acts as trading in influence, abuse of official functions, bribery in the private sector, embezzlement of private property, money laundering, concealment and obstruction of justice. The Act on the Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized crime provides broad authority to prosecute tax fraud linked to organized crime and corruption cases.
The Law on Public Procurement is entirely harmonized with EU legislation and prescribes transparency and fairness for all public procurement activities. Government officials use public speeches to encourage ethical business. The Croatian Chamber of Economy created a Code of Business Ethics which it encourages all companies in Croatia to abide by, but it is not mandatory. The Code can be found at .
Additional laws for the suppression of corruption include: the State Attorney’s Office Act; the Public Procurement Act; the Act on Procedure for Forfeiture of Assets Attained Through Criminal Acts and Misdemeanors; the Budget Act; the Conflict of Interest Prevention Act; the Corporate Criminal Liability Act; the Money Laundering Prevention Act; the Witness Protection Act; the Personal Data Protection Act; the Right to Access Information Act; the Act on Public Services; the Code of Conduct for Public Officials; and the Code of Conduct for Judges. The Labor Act contains whistleblower protections, which as yet remain unproven.
Croatia has signed but not ratified the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, but it is a member and currently chairs the Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO), a peer monitoring organization that allows members to assess anticorruption efforts on a continuing basis. Croatia has been a member of INTERPOL since 1992. Croatia cooperates regionally through the Southeast European Co-operative Initiative (SECI), the Southeast Europe Police Chiefs Association (SEPCA), and the Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative (RAI). Croatia is a member of Eurojust, the EU’s Judicial Cooperation Unit, and is a signatory to the UN Convention Against Corruption.
Croatian legislation provides protection for NGOs involved in investigating or drawing attention to corruption. GONG, a non-partisan citizens’ organization founded in 1997, which also acts as a government watchdog, monitors election processes, educates citizens about their rights and duties, encourages communication between citizens and their elected representatives, promotes transparency within public services, manages public advocacy campaigns, and assists citizens in self-organizing initiatives. The Partnership for Social Development is another nongovernmental organization active in Croatia dealing with the suppression of corruption.
Historically, the business community has identified corruption in healthcare, public procurement, and construction, and continues to raise it as an obstacle to FDI. During the years ahead of EU accession, Croatia invested considerable efforts in establishing a wide-ranging legal and institutional anti-corruption framework. The Strategy for Combatting Corruption from 2015-2020 is currently being implemented, and the Ministry of Justice published an action plan in June 2017 to complement the Strategy for 2017-2018. Croatian prosecutors have secured corruption convictions against a number of high-level former government officials, former ministers, other high-ranking officials, and senior managers from state-owned enterprises, although many such convictions have later been overturned.
Resources to Report Corruption
The State Prosecutor’s Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (USKOK) is tasked with directing police investigations and prosecuting cases. USKOK is headquartered in Zagreb, with offices in Split, Rijeka and Osijek. In addition, the National Police Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (PN-USKOK) conducts corruption-related investigations and is based in the same cities. Specialized criminal judges are situated in the four largest county courts in Croatia, again in Zagreb, Rijeka, Split, and Osijek, and are responsible for adjudicating corruption and organized crime cases. The cases receive high priority in the justice system, but still encounter excessive delays. The Ministry of Interior, the Office for Suppression of Money Laundering, the Tax Administration, and the Anti-Corruption Sector of the Ministry of Justice, all have a proactive role in combating and preventing corruption. GONG is a civil society organization founded in 1997 to encourage citizens to actively participate in the political process.
Contact information below:
Office of the State Attorney of the Republic of Croatia
Gajeva 30, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4591 855
Office for the Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime
Gajeva 30a, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4591 874
Trg Bana Josipa Jelacica 15/IV, 10000 Zagreb, Republic of Croatia
+385 1 4825 444