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Cyprus

Executive Summary

Cyprus is situated at the crossroads of three continents – Europe, Africa, and Asia – as such it occupies a strategic place in the Eastern Mediterranean region.  Cyprus is a member of the European Union (EU) and the government’s attitude towards foreign direct investment (FDI) is positive. The Cyprus Investment Promotion Agency (CIPA) aggressively promotes investment in its traditional sectors of shipping, tourism, banking, financial and professional services.  Newer sectors continue to provide opportunities for FDI, especially in energy, film production, investment funds, education, research & development, and information technology. CIPA also focuses heavily on the promotion of company headquartering in Cyprus. However, the island’s divided status remains an impediment to attracting comprehensive island-wide FDI investment from the United States.

The discovery of significant amounts of hydrocarbons in Cyprus’ Exclusive Economic Zone (and in the surrounding Eastern Mediterranean region) continues to generate excitement within the government and private sector, and fosters realization that additional FDI is required for Cyprus to fully realize its potential in hydrocarbons development.  U.S. energy companies Noble Energy’s and ExxonMobil’s exploration and eventual commercialization of Cypriot natural gas present an opportunity for additional U.S. FDI in energy services and associated sectors. Cyprus can also serve as an energy services hub for hydrocarbons projects in the Eastern Mediterranean region – a safe and secure base with shipping and air connectivity, and an EU-connected banking and financial sector conducive to regional projects.  Cyprus – with EU financial support – is the project base and hub for the EuroAsia Interconnector undersea electrical cable which will connect Israel, Cyprus, and Greece to the EU grid, and another similar project connecting Africa through Cyprus to the EU. Other energy projects – within Cyprus and connecting the region – involve pipelines and LNG import and export infrastructure. Both CIPA and the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, and Industry (MECI) prioritize, and help facilitate investment in the energy and energy-related services sectors.

Cyprus established the “Cyprus Filming Scheme” in 2018, which provides a range of financial and tax incentives for film producers to choose Cyprus as a filming destination, in addition to its variety of historic, dramatic, and attractive landscapes.  The first permit given under this scheme was for a U.S. film production, set to begin in 2019. Incentives include cash rebates on eligible expenditures, tax credits, tax allowance for Small to Medium Enterprises (SMEs) investing in film production infrastructure and technological equipment, and VAT refunds on qualifying production expenditures.  Film production companies can apply and receive an approved permit within sixty days of submitting an online application. Categories include feature films, television series or films, digital or analogue animation, creative documentaries, transmedia and crossmedia productions, and reality programs, which directly or indirectly promote Cyprus and its culture.  (http://film.investcyprus.org.cy/)

Cyprus’ sovereign debt regained investment grade rating in 2018, following years of economic recovery after the 2013 financial crisis.  Cyprus has taken steps in 2018 to address recognized regulatory shortcomings in combatting illicit finance in its international banking and financial services sector, tightening controls over non-resident shell companies and bank accounts.  Judicial reform is still needed to address inefficiencies and delays in contract enforcement and commercial litigation. Commercial banks are slowly addressing the high rate of non-performing loans (NPLs), which declined from 42 percent of gross loans in 2017 to 32 percent in 2018.

Table 1: Key Metrics and Rankings

Measure Year Index/Rank Website Address
TI Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 38 of 180 http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview 
World Bank’s Doing Business Report 2019 57 of 190 http://www.doingbusiness.org/en/rankings
Global Innovation Index 2018 29 of 126 https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/analysis-indicator 
U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions) 2017 $1,700  http://www.bea.gov/international/factsheet/ 
World Bank GNI per capita 2017 $23,720 http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD 

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Since 1974, the southern part of Cyprus has been under the control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. The northern part, administered by Turkish Cypriots, proclaimed itself the “Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus” (“TRNC”) in 1983.  The United States does not recognize the “TRNC” as a government, nor does any country other than Turkey. A substantial number of Turkish troops remain in the northern part of the island.  A buffer zone, or “green line,” patrolled by the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), separates the two parts. U.S. citizens can travel to the northern part; U.S. companies can invest and do business in the northern part, but should be aware of legal complications and risks inherently due to the lack international recognition and absence of any political settlement.

Turkish Cypriot businesses are interested in working with American companies in the fields of agriculture, hospitality, renewable energy, and retail franchising.  Significant Turkish aid and investment flows to the “TRNC.” The single greatest catalyst for island-wide Cypriot economic growth and prosperity lies in the efforts of both communities to achieve a political settlement.

1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC has a favorable attitude towards FDI and welcomes U.S. investors.  There is no discrimination against U.S. investment; however there are some ownership limitations and licensing restrictions set by law on non-EU investment in certain sectors, such as private land ownership, media, construction, etc. (see Limits on Foreign Control, below).  The ROC promotes foreign direct investment (FDI) through a dedicated agency, the Cyprus Investment Promotion Agency (CIPA). CIPA’s Invest Cyprus program is the ROC’s dedicated partner tasked to attract and facilitate FDI in key economic sectors of shipping, education, real estate, tourism and hospitality, energy, investment funds, filming, and innovation and startups. (https://www.investcyprus.org.cy/about/invest-cyprus  ).  InvestCyprus is the first point of contact for investors, and provides detailed information on the legal, tax and business regulatory framework.  The ROC and CIPA also promote an ongoing dialogue with investors through a series of promotion seminars each year and a robust Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry (CCCI) with country-specific bilateral chambers dedicated to promoting FDI.

For more information:

Cyprus Investment Promotion Agency, InvestCyprus
9 Makariou III Avenue
Severis Building, 4th Floor
1965 Nicosia, Cyprus
Telephone: +357 22 441133
Fax: +357 22 441134
Email: info@investcyprus.org.cy
Website: https://www.investcyprus.org.cy  

One-Stop-Shop & Point of Single Contact

Ministry of  Energy, Commerce, and Industry (MECI)
13-15 Andreas Araouzos
1421 Nicosia, Cyprus
Telephone: +357 22 409318 or 321
Fax: +357 22 409432
Email 1: onestopshop@mcit.gov.cy
Email 2: psccyprus@mcit.gov.cy
Website: www.businessincyprus.gov.cy  

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Turkish Cypriots welcome FDI and are eager to attract investments, particularly those that will lead to the transfer of advanced technology and technical skills.  Priority is also given to investments in export-oriented industries. There are no laws or practices that discriminate against FDI. The “Turkish Cypriot Investment Development Agency (YAGA)” is a one-stop shop for all investors.  “YAGA’s” investment consultants provide consultancy services, guidance on the legal framework, sector specific advice and information about investor incentives.

“Turkish Cypriot Development Agency” (“YAGA”)
Tel: +90 392 – 22 82317
Website: http://www.investinnorthcyprus.org  

Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC does not have a mandatory foreign investment screening mechanism that grants approval, other than sector-specific licenses granted by relevant ministries.  CIPA does grant approvals for investment under an incentive scheme, e.g., the film production scheme. CIPA often refers projects for review to other agencies. Separately, the ROC’s residency and citizenship investment program is regulated by law, with interagency approvals after a due diligence process.

The following restrictions apply to investing in the ROC:

Non-EU entities (persons and companies) may purchase only two real estate properties for private use (two holiday homes or a holiday home and a shop or office).  This restriction does not apply if the investment property is purchased through a domestic company or as a corporation elsewhere in the EU.

Non-EU entities also cannot invest in the production, transfer, and provision of electrical energy.  Additionally, the Council of Ministers may refuse granting a license for investment in hydrocarbons prospecting, exploration, and exploitation to a third-country national or company if that third country does not provide similar treatment to Cyprus or other EU member states.

Individual non-EU investors may not own more than five percent of a local television or radio station, and total non-EU ownership of a local TV or radio station is restricted to a maximum of 25 percent.

The right to register as a building contractor in Cyprus is reserved for citizens of EU member states.  Non-EU entities are not allowed to own a majority stake in a local construction company. Non-EU physical persons or legal entities may bid on specific construction projects but only after obtaining a special license by the Council of Ministers.

Non-EU entities cannot invest in private tertiary education institutions.

The provision of healthcare services on the island is also subject to certain restrictions, applying equally to all non-residents.

Finally, the Central Bank of Cyprus’ prior approval is necessary before any individual person or entity, whether Cypriot or foreign, can acquire more than 9.99 percent of a bank incorporated in Cyprus.

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

According to the “Registrar of Companies Office,” foreign ownership of construction companies is capped at 49 percent.  Currently, the travel agency sector is closed to foreign investment. Registered foreign investors may buy property for investment purposes but are limited to one parcel or property.  Foreign natural persons also have the option of forming private liability companies, and foreign investors can form mutual partnerships with one or more foreign or domestic investors.

Other Investment Policy Reviews

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC has been a member of World Trade Organization (WTO) since July 30, 1995.  As of May 1, 2004, the Republic of Cyprus is a member state of the EU. Cyprus has not undergone investment policy reviews by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) or United Nations Committee on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).  The WTO published a Trade Policy Review on the EU28, including Cyprus, in July 2015. The text is available at: https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp417_e.htm  .

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

There have not been any third-party investment policy reviews.

Business Facilitation

Republic of Cyprus

The Ministry of Energy, Commerce and Industry (MECI) provides a “One Stop Shop” business facilitation service.  The One-Stop-Shop offers assistance with the logistics of registering a business in Cyprus to all investors, regardless of origin and size.  MECI’s Department of the Registrar of Companies and Official Receiver (DRCOR) provides the following services: Registration of domestic and overseas companies, partnerships, and business names; bankruptcies and liquidations; and trademarks, patents, and intellectual property matters.

Domestic and foreign investors may establish any of the following legal entities or businesses in the ROC:

  • Companies (private or public);
  • General or limited partnerships;
  • Business/trade name;
  • European Company (SE); and
  • Branches of overseas companies.

The registration process takes approximately two working days and involves completing an application for approval/change of name, followed by the steps outlined in the following link: http://www.businessincyprus.gov.cy/mcit/psc/psc.nsf/All/A2E29870C32D7F17C2257857002E18C9?OpenDocument  .

At the end of 2018, there were a total of 216,239 companies registered in the ROC, 14,526 of which had been registered in 2018 (for more statistics on company registrations, please see: http://www.mcit.gov.cy/mcit/drcor/drcor.nsf/company_statistics_en/company_statistics_en?OpenDocument  ).

In addition to registering a business, foreign investors, like domestic business owners, are required to obtain all permits that may be necessary under Cypriot law.  At a minimum, they must obtain residence and employment permits, register for social insurance, and register with the tax authorities for both income tax and Valued Added Tax (VAT).  In order to use any building or premises for business, including commerce, industry, or any other income-earning activity, one also needs to obtain a municipal license. Additionally, town planning or building permits are required for building new offices, or converting existing buildings.  There are also many sector-specific procedures. Information on all of the above procedures is available online at: http://www.businessincyprus.gov.cy/mcit/psc/psc.nsf/eke08_en/eke08_en?OpenDocument  .

The World Bank’s 2019 Doing Business report (http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings  ) ranked Cyprus 57th out of 190 countries for ease of doing business.  Among the ten sub-categories that make up this index, Cyprus performed best in the areas of resolving insolvency (26/190) and protecting minority investors (38/190), and worst in the areas of enforcing contracts (138/190) and dealing with construction permits (126/190).  Cyprus has generally backtracked in most areas compared to 2018, including getting credit and paying taxes, causing it to slip in the overall ranking. However, using another metric, the Global Competitiveness Index, issued by the World Economic Forum, Cyprus climbed 19 spots in the 2017-2018 edition, ranking 64th out of 137 countries.  The two most problematic factors for doing business in Cyprus, according to that report were providing access to financing and an inefficient government bureaucracy.

The Republic of Cyprus follows the EU definition of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs), and foreign-owned MSMEs are free to take advantage of programs in Cyprus designed to help such companies, including the following:

Additionally, foreign investors can take advantage of the services and expertise of the Cyprus Investment Promotion Agency (CIPA), an agency registered under the companies’ law and funded mainly by the state, dedicated to attracting investment.

CIPA
9A Makarios III Ave
Severis Bldg., 4th Flr.
1065 Nicosia
Telephone: +357-22-441133
Fax: +357-22-441134
Email: info@investcyprus.org.cy
Website: http://www.investcyprus.org.cy/  

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Information available on the “Registrar of Companies’” website is available only in Turkish: http://www.rkmmd.gov.ct.tr/  .  An online registration process for domestic or foreign companies does not exist and registration needs to be completed in person.

The “YAGA” was established by Turkish Cypriot authorities with the aim of it becoming a one-stop-shop for both local and foreign investors interested in investing in the “TRNC.”  Its website (http://www.yaga.gov.ct.tr/  ) provides explanations and guides in English on how to register a company in the area administrated by Turkish Cypriots.

As of March 2019, the “Registrar of Companies Office” statistics indicated there were 20,648 registered companies, of which 15,483 were Turkish Cypriot majority-owned limited liability companies; 418 foreign companies; and 456 offshore companies.  In addition, there were 2003 limited partnership companies owned only by Turkish Cypriots.

The area administered by Turkish Cypriots defines MSMEs as entities having less than 250 employees.  There are several grant programs financed through Turkish aid and EU aid targeting MSMEs.

The Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce (KTTO) publishes an annual Competitiveness Report on the Turkish Cypriot economy, based on the World Economic Forum’s methodology.  KTTO’s 2017-2018 report ranked northern Cyprus 109 among 137 economies, dropping five places from its ranking in 2016.

For more information and requirements on establishing a company, obtaining licenses, and doing business visit:

“Turkish Cypriot Development Agency” (“YAGA”)
Telephone: +90 392 – 22 82317
Website: http://www.yaga.gov.ct.tr/  

Turkish Cypriot Chamber of Commerce (KTTO)
Telephone: +90 392 – 228 37 60 / 228 36 45
http://www.ktto.net/english/index.asp  Fax: +90 392 – 227 07 82

Outward Investment

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC does not restrict outward investment, other than in compliance with international obligations, like specific UN Security Council Resolutions.  In terms of programs to encourage investment, businessmen in Cyprus have access to several EU programs promoting entrepreneurship, such as the European Commission’s Investment Plan for Europe (EC IPE), known as the “Juncker Plan” for projects over € 15 million (USD 16.6 million) or the Erasmus program for Young Entrepreneurs, in addition to the European Investment Bank’s guarantee facilities for SMEs for projects under € 4 million (USD 4.4 million).

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Turkish Cypriot “officials” do not incentivize or promote outward investment. The Turkish Cypriot authorities do not restrict domestic investors.

5. Protection of Property Rights

Real Property

Republic of Cyprus

EU nationals and companies domiciled in any EU country are not subject to any restrictions when buying property in the ROC.  By contrast, Cypriot law imposes significant restrictions on the foreign ownership of real estate by non-EU residents. Non-EU persons and entities may purchase a maximum of two real estate properties for private use (defined as a holiday home built on land of up to 4,014 square meters; plus a second home or office of up to 250 square meters, or shop of up to 100 square meters).  Exceptions can be made for projects requiring larger plots of land but are difficult to obtain and rarely granted. This restriction applies to non-EU citizens or non-EU companies. A legal entity is deemed to be controlled by non-EU citizens if it meets any of the conditions listed below:

  • 50 percent or more of its board members are non-EU citizens;
  • 50 percent or more of its share capital belongs to non-EU citizens;
  • Control (50 percent or more) belongs to non-EU citizens; and
  • Either the company’s Memorandum or Articles of Association provides authority to a non-EU citizen securing the company’s activities are conducted based on his/her will during the real estate acquisition period.  In the case that the authority is provided to two or more persons, a legal entity is considered to be controlled by non-EU citizens if 50 percent or more of the people granted such authority are non-EU citizens.

For additional information and application forms for the acquisition of property by non-EU residents, please refer to the Ministry of Interior website: http://www.moi.gov.cy/moi/moi.nsf/index_en/index_en?OpenDocument  .

Legal requirements and procedures for acquiring and disposing of property in Cyprus are complex, but professional help from real estate agents and developers can ease the burden of complying with government requirements.  The ROC Department of Lands and Surveys keeps excellent records and follows internationally-accepted procedures. Non-residents are allowed to sell their property and transfer abroad the amount originally paid, plus interest or profits, without restriction.

The UK government website also offers useful information on buying property in Cyprus: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/how-to-property-in-cyprus  .

Additionally, there are restrictions on investing in Turkish Cypriot property located in the ROC.  The Turkish Cypriot Property Management Service (TCPMS), established in 1991, administers properties of Turkish Cypriot  who are not ordinarily residents of the government-controlled area. This service acts as the temporary custodian for such properties until a comprehensive political settlement is reached.  The TCPMS is mandated to administer properties under its custodianship “in the manner most beneficial for the owner.” Ownership of Turkish Cypriot properties cannot change (except for inheritance purposes) except in exceptional cases when this is deemed beneficial for the owner or necessary for the public interest

The World Bank’s 2018 Doing Business report ranked Cyprus 94th among 190 countries in terms of efficiency and quality for registering property.  For more information, please see: http://www.doingbusiness.org/en/data/exploreeconomies/cyprus#DB_rp  .

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Special Note: Investors are advised to consider the risks associated with investing in immovable property in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.  Potential investors are strongly advised to obtain independent legal advice prior to purchasing or leasing property there. Purchase or use of property in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots is a contentious issue in Cyprus, as per the following note posted on the Republic of Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: http://www.mfa.gov.cy/mfa/properties/occupiedarea_properties.nsf/index_en/index_en?OpenDocument  .

For property in the Turkish Cypriot-administered areas, only pre-1974 title deeds are uncontested.  In response to the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECHR) 2005 ruling that Turkey’s “subordinate local authorities” in Cyprus had not provided an adequate local remedy for property disputes, Turkish Cypriot authorities established an Immovable Property Commission (IPC) to handle property claimed by Greek Cypriots.  In a March 2010 ruling, the ECHR recognized the IPC as a domestic remedy. As of March 19, 2019, the IPC had received 6,518 applications, of which 943 have been concluded through friendly settlements, and 32 through formal hearings. The ROC does not consider the IPC to be a legitimate body. For more information on IPC please visit http://www.tamk.gov.ct.tr/  .

On January 19, 2010, the UK Court of Appeal enforced an earlier court decision taken in the ROC in support of a Greek Cypriot person’s trespassing claim (the Orams case – http://curia.europa.eu/juris/liste.jsf?language=en&num=C-420/07   and http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2010/9.html  ), effectively voiding the transfers of Greek Cypriot property in the Turkish Cypriot-administered areas.  This landmark decision also establishes precedent in cases where foreign investors purchasing disputed properties outside of the ROC-controlled area can be found liable for damages.

There are significant restrictions on the foreign ownership of real estate by non-“TRNC” residents who may purchase only one real estate properties for private use subject to the approval of the “Council of Ministers.”

Intellectual Property Rights

Republic of Cyprus

On the whole, intellectual property rights (IPR) protection in the ROC has improved over time, and Cyprus has not appeared in the United States Trade Representative (USTR) Special 301 Report since 2006, and it is not included in the Notorious Markets List.

Cypriot Law (Law 207(I) (2012)) places the burden of proof on the defendant in cases of IPR infringement.  The Law also allows the police to assess samples of pirated articles in lieu of the whole shipment and allows for out-of-court settlement in some cases.  Other important IPR laws include Law 103 (2007) on unfair commercial practices and Law 133(I) (2006), which strengthens earlier legislation targeting copyright infringement.  The Department of Customs and the Police confiscate thousands of counterfeit items every year, including pirated articles of clothing, luggage, accessories, and optical media.

For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at: http://www.wipo.int/directory/en/  .

Resources for Rights Holders

Embassy point of contact:

George F. Demetriou
Economic Specialist
U.S. Embassy, Nicosia
Telephone: +357-22-393361
Email: demetriougf@state.gov

Local attorneys listed with Embassy: https://cy.usembassy.gov/u-s-citizen-services/attorneys/

AmCham Cyprus: http://www.amchamcyprus.com.cy.

For additional information about national laws and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at http://www.wipo.int/directory/en/  .

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

Intellectual property rights are not adequately protected in the area administered by Turkish Cypriots.  Related “laws” in this area are inadequate, antiquated, and there is a lack of enforcement. Infringing goods imported from Turkey and other countries are a concern, such as counterfeit merchandise.

7. State-Owned Enterprises

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC maintains exclusive or majority-owned stakes in more than 40 SOEs, and is making slow progress towards privatizing some of them (see sections on Privatization and OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of SOEs).  There is no comprehensive list of all SOEs available but the most significant are the following: Electricity Authority of Cyprus, Cyprus Telecommunications Authority, Cyprus Sports Organization, Cyprus Ports Authority, Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation, Cyprus Theatrical Organization, and Cyprus Agricultural Payments Organization.  These SOEs operate in a competitive environment (domestically and internationally) and are increasingly responsive to market conditions. The state-owned EAC monopoly on electricity generation and distribution ended in 2014, although competition still remains difficult given the small market size. As an EU Member State, Cyprus is a party to the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA).

OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance are not mandatory for ROC SOEs, although some of the larger SOEs have started adopting elements of corporate governance best practices in their operating procedures.  Each of the SOEs is subject to dedicated legislation. Most are governed by a board of directors, typically appointed by the government at the start of its term, and for the duration of its term in office. SOE board chairs are typically technocrats, affiliated with the ruling party.  Representatives of labor unions and minority shareholders contribute to decision making. Although they enjoy a fair amount of independence, they report to the relevant minister. SOEs are required by law to publish annual reports and submit their books to the Auditor General.

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

In the area administrated by Turkish Cypriots, there are several “state-owned enterprises” and “semi-state-owned enterprises,” usually common utilities and essential services.

In the Turkish Cypriot administered area, the below-listed institutions are known as “public economic enterprises” (POEs), “semi-public enterprises” and “public institutions,” which aim to provide common utilities and essential services.

Some of these organizations include:

  • Turkish Cypriot Electricity Board (KIBTEK);
  • BRTK – State Television and Radio Broadcasting Corporation;
  • Cyprus Turkish News Agency;
  • Turkish Cypriot Milk Industry;
  • Cypruvex Ltd. – Citrus Facility;
  • EMU – Eastern Mediterranean Foundation Board;
  • Agricultural Products Corporation;
  • Turkish Cypriot Tobacco Products Corporation;
  • Turkish Cypriot Alcoholic Products LTD;
  • Coastal Safety and Salvage Services LTD; and
  • Turkish Cypriot Development Bank.

Privatization Program

Republic of Cyprus

The ROC has made limited progress towards privatizations, despite earlier commitments to international creditors in 2013 to raise € 1.4 billion (USD 1.5 billion) from privatizations by 2018.  In July 2017, opposition parties passed legislation abolishing the Privatizations Unit, an independent body established March 2014. Despite this setback, the current administration, remains committed to pursuing privatizations in piecemeal fashion.  The port of Larnaca remains on track for privatization in 2019, while the state lottery is also expected to be sold. The government continues efforts to find long-term investors to lease state-owned properties in the Troodos area, and forge a strategic plan on how to handle the Cyprus Stock Exchange.  A bill providing the transfer of Cyprus Telecommunications Authority (CyTA) commercial activities to a private legal entity, with the government retaining majority ownership has been pending since March 2018.

In December 2015, under the threat of strikes, the government reversed earlier plans to privatize the Electricity Authority of Cyprus (EAC), although it is still pushing ahead with unbundling the EAC’s generation and transmission operations into separate legal entities

Area Administered by Turkish Cypriots

The airport at Ercan and K-Pet Petroleum Corporation have been converted into public-private partnerships.  The concept of privatization continues to be controversial in the Turkish Cypriot community.

In March 2015, Turkish Cypriot authorities signed a public-private partnership agreement with Turkey regarding the management and operation of the water obtained from an underwater pipeline funded by Turkey.  Within the area administrated by Turkish Cypriot s, there has also been discussion about privatizing the electricity authority “KIBTEK”, Turkish Cypriot telecommunications operations, and the sea ports.

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