Rape and Domestic Violence: Rape, including spousal rape, is a criminal offense with penalties of five to 20 years in prison, depending on the type of offense. The law prohibits spousal abuse, and victims may bring criminal charges against abusive spouses. According to the Ministry of Justice, there were no reported rapes, but there were some instances of domestic violence, which were properly prosecuted. The government enforced the law effectively in these cases.
Sexual Harassment: Sexual harassment is a criminal offense with penalties of three months to three years in prison, depending on the type of offense. There were no reports of sexual harassment during the year.
Coercion in Population Control: There were no reports of coerced abortion or involuntary sterilization.
Discrimination: The law provides for the equality of men and women. The government enforced the law effectively.
Birth Registration: Citizenship may be transmitted by a citizen parent. The government registered births immediately.
Early and Forced Marriage: The legal minimum age of marriage in the country is 18 for women and men. Children under the age of 18 need parental authorization to marry.
Sexual Exploitation of Children: Child prostitution and child pornography are illegal, and authorities enforced the law. The minimum legal age for consensual sex is 15.
International Child Abductions: The country is a party to the 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. See the Department of State’s Annual Report on International Parental Child Abduction at https://travel.state.gov/content/travel/en/International-Parental-Child-Abduction/for-providers/legal-reports-and-data.html.
According to the European Jewish Congress, the Jewish community numbered approximately 1,000 persons, most of whom were not Monegasque citizens but foreign residents. According to the Monaco-based Association Culturelle Israelite, there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts.
Trafficking in Persons
There were no confirmed reports during the year that Monaco was a source, destination, or transit country for victims of human trafficking.
Persons with Disabilities
The constitution and the law prohibit discrimination against persons with disabilities in education, employment, health services, information, communications, buildings, transportation, the judicial system, and other state services. The government effectively implemented these laws.
In a report published in 2016, the European Commission on Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) noted the country’s law does not clearly define and does not expressly prohibit direct and indirect discrimination based on national, racial, or ethnic identity. It also lacks certain key components of effective legislation against discrimination, such as the shared burden of proof.
Police and judicial statistics on hate crimes and hate speech were not published. ECRI observed reluctance on the part of victims to file complaints.
Acts of Violence, Discrimination, and Other Abuses Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
The law prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, including in housing, employment, nationality, and access to government services. It provides for fines, imprisonment, or both for persons who provoke hatred or violence against a person or group due to their sexual orientation, real or perceived. The government enforced these laws.