Authorities increased anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. Law 6/2008 in the penal code criminalized sex trafficking and labor trafficking and prescribed penalties of three to 15 years’ imprisonment, which were sufficiently stringent and, with regard to sex trafficking, commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Article 170 criminalized the “pimping of minors” and prescribed penalties of one to five years, which were sufficiently stringent and commensurate with those prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape. Authorities initiated one sex trafficking and two forced labor investigations in 2018 (three sex trafficking and zero labor trafficking investigations in 2017). The government initiated two prosecutions (one in 2017) and convicted two sex traffickers in 2018; courts sentenced these offenders to 15 and 18 months’ imprisonment. This represented the first convictions of traffickers in Macau since 2014. However, authorities used the “pimping of a minor” statute and did not prosecute any cases under the trafficking statute, which carried higher penalties. Observers reported prosecutors and judges often believed trafficking crimes must involve organized groups or evidence of physical force. The Court of Final Appeals sentenced two previously convicted sex traffickers to nine and 16 years’ imprisonment. The government continued to include a trafficking component in mandated training for new police, fire, customs, and immigration recruits and provided additional training when officials were promoted. Authorities also organized numerous trainings focused on trafficking awareness and victim protection for police, customs, immigration, social welfare, and other law enforcement personnel in 2018. Authorities did not report any investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of officials complicit in trafficking offenses.