As reported over the past five years, human traffickers exploit domestic and foreign victims in Venezuela, and traffickers exploit Venezuelan victims abroad. As the economic situation continued to spiral into critical deterioration, more than 3.7 million Venezuelans have fled Venezuela to neighboring countries. The UN estimates approximately 5.3 million Venezuelans will have fled the country by the end of 2019. Traffickers have exploited Venezuelan victims in Aruba, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curacao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Macau, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Spain, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. Venezuelan women and girls were particularly vulnerable to sex trafficking in Colombia and Ecuador. Venezuelan men are increasingly vulnerable to forced labor in destination countries, including islands of the Dutch Caribbean. Venezuelan boys are vulnerable to forced criminality and forced recruitment by dissident illegal armed groups in Colombia. Traffickers subject Venezuelan women and girls, including some lured from poor interior regions to urban and tourist centers, to sex trafficking and child sex tourism within the country. Traffickers, often relatives of the victims, exploit Venezuelan children in forced labor for domestic service within the country. Venezuelan officials and international organizations have reported identifying sex and labor trafficking victims from South American, Caribbean, Asian, and African countries in Venezuela. Foreign nationals living in Venezuela subject Ecuadorians, Filipinos, and other foreign nationals to forced labor in domestic servitude. Venezuelan officials have noted an increase of sex trafficking in the informal mining sector.