Transparency of the Regulatory System
The GOR generally employs transparent policies and effective laws largely consistent with international norms. Rwanda is a member of the UN Conference on Trade and Development’s international network of transparent investment procedures. The Rwanda eRegulations system is an online database designed to bring transparency to investment procedures in Rwanda. Investors can find further information on administrative procedures at: https://businessprocedures.rdb.rw/.
The GOR publishes Rwandan laws and regulations in the Official Gazette and online at https://www.minijust.gov.rw/index.php?id=133 . Government institutions generally have clear rules and procedures, but implementation can sometimes be uneven. Investors have cited breaches of contracts and incentive promises and the short time given to comply with changes in government policies as hurdles to complying with regulations. For example, in 2019 the Parliament passed a law banning single use plastic containers. Investors in the beverage and agro-processing sectors expressed concern that the law would have a serious impact on their operations, that alternative packaging was not available in some cases, and that the GOR did not consult effectively with stakeholders before submitting it. The law built on a ban on the manufacture and use of polyethylene bags introduced in 2008. Enforcement has not taken full effect as of April 2021.
There is no formal mechanism to publish draft laws for public comment, although civil society sometimes has the opportunity to review them. There is no informal regulatory process managed by nongovernmental organizations. Regulations are usually developed rapidly to achieve policy goals and sometimes lack a basis in scientific or data-driven assessments. Scientific studies and quantitative analysis (if any) conducted on the impact of regulations are not generally made publicly available for comment. Regulators do not publicize comments they receive. Public finances and debt obligations are generally made available to the public before budget enactment. Finances for State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are not publicly available. Civil society organizations may request them with a legitimate reason, but these requests are not routinely granted.
There is no government effort to restrict foreign participation in industry standards-setting consortia or organizations. Legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are generally transparent and consistent with international norms but are not always enforced. The Rwanda Utility Regulation Agency (RURA), the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), the Anticorruption Division of the RRA, the Rwanda Standards Board (RSB), the National Tender Board, and the Rwanda Environment Management Authority also enforce regulations. Consumer protection associations exist but are largely ineffective. The business community has been able to lobby the government and provide feedback on some draft government policies through the PSF, a business association with strong ties to the government. In some cases, the PSF has welcomed foreign investors’ efforts to positively influence government policies. However, some investors have criticized the PSF for advocating for the government’s positions more so than conveying business concerns to the government.
The American Chamber of Commerce launched in November 2019, and a European Business Chamber of Commerce launched in March 2020. Both are coordinating policy advocacy efforts to improve the business environment for American, European, and other foreign firms in Rwanda. The Chinese also have a Chamber of Commerce registered in China that is active in Rwanda.
International Regulatory Considerations
Rwanda is a member of the EAC Standards Technical Management Committee. Approved EAC measures are generally incorporated into the Rwandan regulatory system within six months and are published in the Official Gazette like other domestic laws and regulations. Rwanda is also a member of the Standards Technical Committee for the International Standardization Organization, the African Organization for Standardization, and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda is a member of the International Organization for Legal Metrology and the International Metrology Confederation. The Rwanda Standards Board represents Rwanda at the African Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda has been a member of the WTO since May 22, 1996 and notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade on draft technical regulations.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
The Rwandan legal system was originally based on the Belgian civil law system. However, since the renovation of the legal framework in 2002, the introduction of a new constitution in 2003, and the country’s entrance to the Commonwealth in 2009, there is now a mixture of civil law and common law. Rwanda’s courts address commercial disputes and facilitate enforcement of property and contract rights. Rwanda’s judicial system suffers from a lack of resources and capacity but continues to improve. Investors occasionally state that the government takes a casual approach to contract sanctity and sometimes fails to enforce court judgments in a timely fashion. The government generally respects judicial independence, though domestic and international observers have noted that outcomes in high-profile politically sensitive cases appeared predetermined.
In August 2018, the GOR created a Court of Appeals to reduce backlogs and expedite the appeal process without going to the Supreme Court. The new Court of Appeals arbitrates cases handled by the High Court, Commercial High Court, and Military High Court. The Supreme Court continues to decide on cases of injustice filed from the Office of the Ombudsman and on constitutional interpretation. Based on Article 15 of Law nº 76/2013 of 11/09/2013, the Office of the Ombudsman has the authority to request that the Supreme Court reconsider and review judgments rendered at the last instance by ordinary, commercial, and military courts. More information on the review process can be found at https://ombudsman.gov.rw/en/?Court-Judgement-Review-Unit-1375 . A tax court is yet to be established in Rwanda. In 2019, the RDB announced the government’s intent to create a commercial division at the Court of Appeal to fast-track resolution of commercial disputes.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
National laws governing commercial establishments, investments, privatization and public investments, land, and environmental protection are the primary directives governing investments in Rwanda. Since 2011, the government has reformed tax payment processes and enacted additional laws on insolvency and arbitration. The Investment Code establishes policies on FDI, including dispute settlement (Article 13). The RDB publishes investment-related regulations and procedures at: http://businessprocedures.rdb.rw .
According to a WTO policy review report dated January 2019, Rwanda is not a party to any countertrade and offsetting arrangements or agreements limiting exports to Rwanda.
A new property tax law was passed in August 2018. The new law removes the provision that taxpayers must have freehold land titles to pay property taxes. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) will receive a two-year tax trading license exemption upon establishment.
In April 2018, the GOR passed a new law to streamline income tax administration and to clarify the law. The new law can be accessed here: http://www.primature.gov.rw/media-publication/publication/latest-offical-gazettes.html?no_cache=1&tx_drblob_pi1%5BdownloadUid%5D=464 .
The most recent laws (passed between 2020-21) on FDI are below:
- Amended law on Investment Promotion and Facilitation:
- Law on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters:
- Law on Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorism Finance:
Competition and Antitrust Laws
The GOR created the Competition and Consumer Protection Unit at the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MINICOM) in 2010 to address competition and consumer protection issues. The government is setting up the Rwanda Inspectorate, Competition and Consumer Protection Authority (RICA), a new independent body with the mandate to promote fair competition among producers. The body will reportedly aim to ensure consumer protection and enforcement of standards. To read more on competition laws in Rwanda, please visit: https://www.minicom.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Minicom/Publications/Laws/Official_Gazette_no_46_of_12-11-2012_competition_law.pdf https://www.minicom.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Minicom/Publications/Policies/CompetitionPolicy_September_2010-3.pdf
Market forces determine most prices in Rwanda, but in some cases, the GOR intervenes to fix prices for items considered sensitive. RURA, in consultation with relevant ministries, sets prices for petroleum products, water, electricity, and public transport. MINICOM and the Ministry of Agriculture have fixed farm gate prices (or the market value of a cultivated product minus the selling costs) for agricultural products like coffee, maize, and Irish potatoes from time to time. On international tenders, a 10 percent price preference is available for local bidders, including those from regional economic integration bodies in which Rwanda is a member.
Some U.S. companies have expressed frustration that while authorities require them to operate as a formal enterprise that meets all Rwandan regulatory requirements, some local competitors are allowed to operate informally without complying fully with all regulatory requirements. Other investors have claimed SOEs, ruling party-aligned, and politically connected business competitors receive preferential treatment in securing public incentives and contracts.
More information on specific types of agreements, decisions and practices considered to be anti-competitive in Rwanda can be found here: https://rura.rw/fileadmin/Documents/docs/ml08.pdf
Expropriation and Compensation
The Investment Code forbids the expropriation of investors’ property in the public interest unless the investor is fairly compensated. An expropriation law came into force in 2015, which included more explicit protections for property owners.
A 2017 study by Rwanda Civil Society Platform argues that the government conducts expropriations on short notice and does not provide sufficient time or support to help landowners fairly negotiate compensation. The report includes a survey that found only 27 percent of respondents received information about planned expropriation well in advance of action. While mechanisms exist to challenge the government’s offer, the report notes that landowners are required to pay all expenses for the second valuation, a prohibitive cost for rural farmers or the urban poor. Media have reported that wealthier landowners have the ability to challenge valuations and have received higher amounts. Political exiles and other embattled opposition figures have been involved in taxation lawsuits that resulted in their “abandoned properties” being sold at auction, allegedly at below market values.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
The Investment Code states that “a dispute that arises between an investor and a State organ in connection with a registered investment should be amicably settled. If an amicable settlement cannot be reached, parties must refer the dispute to an agreed arbitration institution or to any other dispute settlement procedure provided for under an agreement between both parties. If no dispute settlement procedure is provided under a written agreement, both parties must refer the dispute to the competent court.”
Rwanda is signatory to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the African Trade Insurance Agency (ATI). ICSID seeks to remove impediments to private investment posed by non-commercial risks, while ATI covers risk against restrictions on import and export activities, inconvertibility, expropriation, war, and civil disturbances.
Rwanda ratified the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in 2008.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
Rwanda is a member of the East African Court of Justice for the settlement of disputes arising from or pertaining to the EAC. Rwanda has also acceded to the 1958 New York Arbitration Convention and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency convention. Under the U.S.-Rwanda BIT, U.S. investors have the right to bring investment disputes before neutral, international arbitration panels. Disputes between U.S. investors and the GOR in recent years have been resolved through international arbitration, court judgments, or out of court settlements. Judgments by foreign courts and contract clauses that abide by foreign law are accepted and enforced by local courts, though these lack capacity and experience to adjudicate cases governed by non-Rwandan law. There have been a number of private investment disputes in Rwanda, though the government has yet to stand as complainant, respondent, or third party in a WTO dispute settlement. Rwanda has been a party to two cases at ICSID since Rwanda became a member in 1963; one of these cases is an ongoing case brought by an American investor against Rwanda. SOEs are also subject to domestic and international disputes. SOEs and ruling party-owned companies party to suits have both won and lost judgments in the past.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
In 2012, the GOR launched the Kigali International Arbitration Center (KIAC). KIAC case handling rules are modeled on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) arbitration rules. According to the KIAC’s 2020 activity report, KIAC had reviewed 160 cases by June 2020. Close to 40 percent of those cases were international with parties from more than 20 nationalities (Burundi, China, Ethiopia, Egypt, France, India, Italy, Kenya, Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea, Singapore, Rwanda, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Uganda, the United States, and Zambia). Arbitrators appointed were from Rwanda, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. Of the 89 KIAC-approved international arbitrators, only four are of Rwandan nationality, suggesting that KIAC draws from a large pool of professionals in alternative dispute resolutions from all over the world. All 38 domestic arbitrators are Rwandan nationals.
Some businesses report being pressured to use the Rwanda-based KIAC for the seat of arbitration in contracts signed with the GOR. Some of these companies have indicated that they would prefer arbitration take place in a third country, noting that KIAC has a short track record and is domiciled in Rwanda. Moreover, some companies have reported difficulty in securing international financing due to the KIAC provision in their contracts.
Rwanda ranks 38 out of 190 economies for resolving insolvency in the World Bank’s 2020 Doing Business Report and is number two in Africa. It takes an average of two and a half years to conclude bankruptcy proceedings in Rwanda. Per the World Bank 2020 Doing Business Report, the recovery rate for creditors on insolvent firms was reported at 19.3 cents on the dollar, with judgments typically made in local currency.
In April 2018, the GOR instituted a new Insolvency and Bankruptcy Law. One major change is the introduction of an article on “pooling of assets” allowing creditors to pursue parent companies and other members of the group, in case a subsidiary is in liquidation. The new law can be accessed here: https://org.rdb.rw/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Insolvency-Law-OGNoSpecialbisdu29April2018.pdf
On February 8, 2021, Rwanda passed a new Company Act, with several bankruptcy and insolvency provisions. The new law can be found here: https://www.minijust.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Minijust/Publications/Official_Gazette/2021_Official_Gazettes/_February/Official_Gazette_N___04_ter_of_08-02-2021_Companies_ACT_2021.pdf
On February 17, 2021, Rwanda published a new law on partnerships with several provisions on partnerships’ insolvency. The new law can be accessed here: https://www.minijust.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Minijust/Publications/Official_Gazette/2021_Official_Gazettes/_February/Official_Gazette_N___Special_of_17.02.2021_Partnershiip_Ubufatanye___RSSB.pdf