Transparency of the Regulatory System
On paper, Uganda’s legal and regulatory systems are generally transparent and non-discriminatory, and they comply with international norms. In practice, bureaucratic hurdles and corruption significantly impact all investors, but with disproportionate effect on foreigners learning to navigate a parallel informal system. While Ugandan law requires open and transparent competition on government project tenders, U.S. investors have alleged that endemic corruption means that competitors not subject to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or similar legislation, often pay bribes to win awards.
Ugandan law allows the banking, insurance, and media sectors to establish self-regulatory processes through private associations. The government continues to regulate these sectors, however, and the self-regulatory practices generally do not discriminate against foreign investors.
Potential investors must be aware of local, national, and supranational regulatory requirements in Uganda. For example, EAC rules on free movement of goods and services would affect an investor planning to export to the regional market. Similarly, regulations issued by local governments regarding operational hours or the location of factories would only affect an investor’s decision at the local level. Foreign investors should liaise with relevant ministries to understand regulations in the proposed sector for investment.
Uganda’s accounting procedures are broadly transparent and consistent with international norms, though full implementation remains a challenge. Publicly listed companies must comply with accounting procedures consistent with the International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board.
Governmental agencies making regulations typically engage in only limited public consultation. Draft bills similarly are subject to limited public consultation and review. Local media typically cover public comment only on more controversial bills. Although the government publishes laws and regulations in full in the Uganda Gazette, the gazette is not available online and can only be accessed through purchase of hard copies at the Uganda Printing and Publishing Corporation offices. The Uganda Legal Information Institute also publishes all enacted laws on its website ( https://ulii.org/ ).
Uganda’s court system and Inspector General of Government are responsible for ensuring the government adheres to its administrative processes, however, anecdotal reports suggest that corruption significantly undermines the judiciary’s oversight role.
In July 2020, the URA started the implementation of the amended Income Tax Act, which imposes presumptive taxes on rental income based on location using a blockchain compliance system meant to improve transparency and reduce corruption.
Generally, there is legal redress to review regulatory mechanisms through the courts, and the process is made public.
Uganda’s legislative process includes public consultations and, as needed, subject matter expert presentations before parliament; however, not all comments received by regulators are made publicly available and parliament’s decisions tend to be primarily politically driven. Formal scientific analyses of the potential impact of a pending regulation are seldom conducted.
Public finances are generally transparent and budget documents are available online. The government annually publishes the Annual Debt Statistical Bulletin, which contains the country’s debt obligations including status of public debt, cost of debt servicing, and liabilities. However, the government’s significant use of supplementary and classified budget accounts undermines parliamentary and public oversight of public finances.
International Regulatory Considerations
Per treaty, Uganda’s regulatory systems must conform to the below supranational regulatory systems. In practice, domestication of supranational legislation remains imperfect:
- African, Caribbean, and Pacific Group of States (ACP)
- African Union (AU)
- Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA)
- Commonwealth of Nations
- East African Community (EAC)
Uganda, through the Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS), is a member of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Codex Alimentarius, and International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML). Uganda applies European Union directives and standards, but with modifications.
Uganda is a member of the WTO and notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) of all draft technical regulations through the Ugandan Ministry of Trade’s National TBT Coordination Committee.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
Uganda’s legal system is based on English Common Law. The courts are responsible for enforcing contracts. Litigants must first submit commercial disputes for mediation either within the court system or to the government-run Center of Arbitration for Dispute Resolution (CADER). Uganda does not have a singular commercial law; multiple statutes touch on commercial and contractual law. A specialized commercial court decides commercial disputes. Approximately 80% of commercial disputes are resolved through mediation. Litigants may appeal commercial court decisions and regulatory and enforcement actions through the regular national court system.
While in theory independent, in practice there are credible reports that the executive may attempt to influence the courts in high-profile cases. More importantly for most investors, endemic corruption and significant backlogs hamper the judiciary’s impartiality and efficacy.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
The Constitution and ICA regulate FDI. The UIA provides an online “one-stop shop” for investors ( https://www.ugandainvest.go.ug/ ).
Competition and Antitrust Laws
Uganda does not have any specialized laws or institutions dedicated to competition-related concerns, although commercial courts occasionally handle disputes with competition elements. There was no significant competition-related dispute handled by the courts in 2020.
Expropriation and Compensation
The constitution guarantees the right to property for all persons, domestic and foreign. It also prohibits the expropriation of property, except when in the “national interest” such as eminent domain and preceded by compensation to the owner at fair market value. In 2020, the two National Telecom Operators – MTN Uganda and Airtel Uganda – renewed their licenses to operate in Uganda for 12 and 20 years respectively. One requirement of that license renewal is for the telecom companies to list 20% stakes on the Ugandan stock market within two years of being granted the license.
In 1972, then-President Idi Amin expropriated assets owned by ethnic South Asians. The expropriation was extrajudicial and was ordered by presidential decree. The government did not allow judicial challenge to the expropriations or offer any compensation to the owners. The Ugandan government has since returned the vast majority of the properties to the original owners or their descendants or representatives. There have not been any expropriations since, and government projects are often significantly delayed by judicial disputes over compensation for property the Ugandan government seeks to expropriate under eminent domain.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Uganda is a party to both the ICSID Convention and the New York Convention of 1958 on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. The 2000 Domestic Arbitration and Conciliation Act incorporates the 1958 New York Convention.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
Pursuant to the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, the courts and government in theory accept binding arbitration with foreign investors and between private parties. In practice, the overall challenges of the judiciary are likely to impede full enforcement. Uganda has not been involved in any official investment disputes with a U.S person in the last ten years; however, U.S. firms do complain about serious corruption in the award of government tenders.
Ugandan courts recognize and enforce foreign arbitral awards, including those issued against the government. The country is a party to the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Additionally, the Arbitration and Conciliation Act creates a framework for the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards, including those against the government.
Uganda has not had any experience of extrajudicial action against foreign investors. However, in 1972, the government of then-President Idi Amin extrajudicially expropriated property owned by ethnic South Asians.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
Ugandan law provides for arbitration and mediation of civil disputes. The legal framework on arbitration includes the Arbitration and Conciliation Act and Commercial Court Division Mediation Rules. Litigants must first submit all civil disputes to mediation before a court-appointed mediator. CADER is a statutory institution that facilitates the mediation and operates based on the UN Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Arbitration rules. However, unrecorded private arbitration is the most effective investment dispute resolution mechanism in Uganda.
The Foreign Judgments Reciprocal Enforcement Act enables the recognition and enforcement of judgments and awards made by foreign courts.
There is no evidence that Ugandan courts favor state-owned enterprises when arbitrating or settling disputes. However, court decisions are often influenced by corruption or high-level government officials.
The Bankruptcy Act of 1931, the Insolvency Act of 2011, and the Insolvency Regulations of 2013 generally align Uganda’s legal framework on insolvency with international standards. The 2020 World Bank Doing Business Report ranked Uganda 99 out of 190 countries for resolving insolvency. On average, Uganda recovers $ 0.39 per dollar, well above the sub-Saharan average of $0.20. Bankruptcy is not criminalized.