Executive Summary Title
The Government of Uruguay recognizes the important role foreign investment plays in economic development and offers a stable investment climate that does not discriminate against foreign investors. Uruguay’s legal system treats foreign and national investments equally, and most investments are allowed without prior authorization. Investors can freely transfer capital and profits from their investments abroad. International investors can choose between arbitration and the judicial system to settle disputes. Local courts recognize and enforce foreign arbitral awards.
U.S. firms have not identified corruption as an obstacle to investment. In 2021, Transparency International ranked Uruguay as the most transparent country in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the second most transparent in the Western Hemisphere after Canada. Uruguay is a stable democracy, one of only three full democracies in the Western Hemisphere and ranked 13th in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. As of March 2022, Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s rated Uruguay one step above the investment grade threshold with a stable outlook. Fitch Ratings rated it at the investment grade threshold with a stable outlook.
Investment rose substantially from 2004-2014 as a result of an historic commodities boom but dropped significantly 2015-2019 as the boom flagged. However, investment picked up again in 2021 as a result of: tax incentives for investors; a successful COVID vaccination program; government COVID spending; a dynamic tech industry; and a $2 billion foreign investment in a pulp-mill. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development reports FDI inflows increased 43 percent to $2.6 billion in 2021, the highest level since 2012.
About 150 U.S. firms operate locally in a wide array of sectors, including forestry, tourism and hotels, services, and telecommunications. The IT services sector is a significant recent growth area, with several Uruguayan companies listing on U.S. stock markets, or being bought by U.S. companies. In 2020, the United States had the fourth largest stock of foreign investment, reflecting its longstanding presence in the country. Uruguay has bilateral investment treaties with over 30 countries, including the United States. The United States does not have a double-taxation treaty with Uruguay, but does have a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement in place, in addition to agreements on open skies, trade facilitation, customs mutual assistance, promotion of small and medium enterprises, and social security totalization. Uruguay is a founding member of Mercosur, the Southern Cone Common Market, created in 1991 and headquartered in Montevideo, along with Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. (Note: Venezuela joined the bloc in June 2012 but was suspended in December 2016.) Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are associate members of Mercosur. The current administration is lobbying Mercosur to relax its requirement for members to negotiate as a bloc and allow Uruguay to embark on independent trade negotiations. Uruguay and Mexico have had a comprehensive trade agreement in place since 2004, and in 2018, Uruguay extended its existing free trade agreement with Chile to increase trade in goods and services.
Over the past decade, Uruguay strengthened bilateral trade, investment, and political ties with the People’s Republic of China (PRC), its principal trading partner since 2013. In 2018, Uruguay was the first country in the Southern Cone to join the PRC’s Belt and Road Initiative. Uruguay formally joined the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2020. In September 2021, the government announced that it would start negotiating a free trade agreement with the PRC, independently from its Mercosur partners. A pre-feasibility study was planned to be completed by the end of 2021.
A 2018 survey by Uruguay’s Ministry of Economy and Finance showed that about half of foreign investors were satisfied or very satisfied with Uruguay´s investment climate, principally due to its rule of law, low political risk, macroeconomic stability, strategic location, and investment incentives. Almost all investors were satisfied or highly satisfied with Uruguay’s twelve free trade zones (FTZs) and its free ports. However, roughly one-fourth of investors were dissatisfied with at least one aspect of doing business locally, expressing concerns about high labor costs, taxes, union/labor conflicts and high energy costs. The World Bank’s 2020 “Doing Business” Index placed Uruguay fourth out of twelve countries in South America.
Uruguay’s strategic location (in the center of Mercosur’s wealthiest and most populated area), and its special import regimes (such as free zones and free ports) make it a well-situated distribution center for U.S. goods into the region. Several U.S. firms warehouse their products in Uruguay’s tax-free areas and service their regional clients effectively. With a small market of middle-class consumers, Uruguay can also be a good test market for U.S. products.
There are no significant risks to doing business responsibly in areas such as labor and human rights. Additionally, the government’s long-term climate strategy, announced in December 2021, focuses on mitigation and adaptation to climate change and seeks to reach carbon neutrality, with stable emissions of methane and nitrous oxide in its agricultural sector, by 2050. The government is gradually including environmental variables in designing public economic and capital market policies. Uruguay is proposing in international fora, including the World Bank and the IMF, tying the cost of sovereign funding to advanced environmental indicators.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2021||18 of 180||http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview|
|Global Innovation Index||2021||65 of 132||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/ dex|
|U.S. FDI in Partner Country ($M USD, stock positions)||2019||999||https://apps.bea.gov/international/factsheet/|
|World Bank GNI per capita||2020||15,790||https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD?locations=UY|