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Government-by-Government Assessments: Rwanda

During the review period, the government published the executive budget proposal, enacted budget, and end-of-year report online within a reasonable period.  Allocations to and earnings from all major state-owned enterprises were not available in budget documents.  Information on debt obligations, including major state-owned enterprise debt, was publicly available.  The government maintained significant off-budget accounts in its extractive industries sector.  The supreme audit institution met international standards of independence.  It reviewed the government’s accounts and made its reports publicly available.  The government specified in law or regulation and appeared to follow in practice the criteria and procedures for natural resource extraction contracts and licenses.  Basic information on natural resource extraction awards was public.  The sovereign wealth fund had a sound legal framework and disclosed its source of funding and general approach to withdrawals.

Rwanda’s fiscal transparency would be improved by:

  • Publishing in the budget detailed information on allocations to and earnings from all major state-owned enterprises; and
  • Eliminating off-budget accounts or subjecting them to adequate oversight and audit.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future