Overview:  Terrorism affected the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) in the northwest, the northeast, and some parts of central and southern India.  Active terrorist groups included Jaish-e-Mohammed, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Hizbul Mujahideen, ISIS, AQIS, Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen, the Communist Party of India-Maoist, and Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh.  Terrorists remained focused on attacking civilians and government officials, primarily by using IEDs.  The Indian government made significant efforts to detect, disrupt, and degrade operations of terrorist organizations.  U.S.-India CT cooperation included special forces exercises on joint CT operations, a Quad counterterrorism tabletop exercise, and the U.S.-India Counterterrorism Joint Working Group.

2022 Terrorist Incidents:  J&K experienced 222 incidents of terrorism resulting in 152 deaths, including 97 alleged terrorists, according to the Global Terrorism Trends and Analysis Center.

  • On April 22, suspected Jaish-e-Mohammed terrorists attacked an Indian security force bus in Jammu city, using firearms and hand grenades.  Two suspected terrorists and one security official were killed, and 10 security officials were injured.
  • On October 23 a man was killed after the premature explosion in his car of a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder, which he allegedly planned to use in a suicide attack on a Hindu temple in Coimbatore in the southern state of Tamil Nadu.

Legislation, Law Enforcement, and Border Security:  There were no changes in terrorism-related legislation.  India implements UNSCR 2396 by utilizing watchlists, implementing biographic and biometric screening at ports of entry, and prioritizing information sharing.  The U.S. and Indian governments collaborate on improving border security and information sharing capabilities.

India collaborates with the United States on implementing aviation security measures, including those on data collection consistent with UNSCR 2309.

The National Investigation Agency (NIA) is the lead federal agency investigating terrorism.  While many states have dedicated CT police units, Maharashtra has two separate police units for dealing with terrorism.  The Anti Terrorism Squad is focused on preventing terrorism attacks and rooting out networks; Force One serves to respond to threatened and active attacks.  Several police units as well as the National Security Guard also conduct drills to protect infrastructure from terrorist attacks.

In October, the Popular Front of India was banned for five years for its alleged role in supporting terrorism.  Around 53 alleged members of terror groups linked to AQIS were arrested in Assam.  The NIA investigated 35 cases related to jihadi terrorism in 12 states.

Indian law enforcement faced budgetary, staffing, and equipment constraints.  Capacity to patrol and secure extensive maritime and land borders improved but was not adequate.

The Government of India does not recognize the category of racial and ethnically motivated violent extremism and opposes labeling terrorism based on motivation.

Countering the Financing of Terrorism:  India is a member of FATF, the Asia/Pacific Group on Money Laundering, and the Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism.  Its FIU, Financial Intelligence Unit India, is part of the Egmont Group.  In 2022, the NIA investigated one new case of possible terrorism funding.

For further information on money laundering and financial crimes, see the 2022 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, Volume 2, Money Laundering and Financial Crimes.

Countering Violent Extremism:  India did not adopt any new strategies or programs for countering terrorist radicalization and recruitment.  The Ministry of Home Affairs maintains a Counter Terrorism and Counter Radicalization division, but there is no national CVE coordinator.  State governments have the lead on CVE and deradicalization from violence.

Reports claim donations from private groups in Western countries and the Middle East made to religious institutions, social organizations, and schools have contributed to radicalization to violence.  Some human rights and civil society groups advocating for the rights of Kashmiris and their freedom of expression have been accused of contributing funds or support to radicalization to violence.

In J&K, the Indian Army runs schools, training courses, recruitment drives, medical camps, and emergency services to prevent radicalization.  It also launched skill-development programs in partnership with a financial services company.  Assam, in northeast India, became the sixth state to develop a CVE strategy.  CVE efforts vary based on local contexts.  CVE programs target demographics at the highest risk of vulnerability for terrorist recruitment.

India does not have a program to repatriate FTFs or their associated family members.  Rehabilitation and reintegration programs for Indians who have joined domestic terrorist or Violent Extremist Organizations operate at the state or local levels.

The Ministry of Home Affairs has not yet released a draft action plan on strategic messaging to counter radicalization to violence.

Online platforms were monitored for violent extremist content and messaging by federal and state police forces.  In October, the NIA arrested a person from the northern state of Uttar Pradesh for allegedly working with the ISIS-K publication Voice of Khorasan.

International and Regional Cooperation:  India headed the 1988 Taliban Sanctions Committee and the Libyan Sanctions Committee of the UNSC.

India promoted multilateral CT cooperation in:

  • GCTF
  • ASEAN Regional Forum
  • Council of Regional Antiterrorist Structure of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (or RATS SCO)
  • UN Office of Drugs and Crime
  • G-20

India hosted:

  • Special meetings of the United Nations Security Council Counterterrorism Committee in Mumbai and New Delhi, October 28-29
  • INTERPOL’s 90th General Assembly for finding solutions supporting national and regional security
  • The third “No Money for Terror” Ministerial Conference on Counterterrorism Financing

India cooperates multilaterally on terrorism and related issues with Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Turkmenistan, the UAE, and Uzbekistan.

India’s defense relationships with Israel, Australia, Russia, the UK, France, Japan, Burma, and Bhutan extend to CT issues, as do its military exercises with Nepal and other countries.

Mumbai is a member of the Strong Cities Network.

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