Russia endorsed the Terezin Declaration in 2009, but due to a lack of data, it is difficult to assess the degree to which Russia has implemented restitution laws. There are no known laws or special mechanisms enabling the return of, or compensation for, private property or heirless property confiscated or nationalized during the Holocaust era. In 2010, Russia enacted laws on objects of cultural value and on the transfer of nationalized religious property to religious organizations.
Despite having the requisite legal framework in place for return of religious property, restitution of such property to the Jewish community has been slow in practice and few claims have been submitted. Gaining access to archival documents or data on potentially sensitive topics related to political persecution or repression, including the Holocaust and Jewish history, remains difficult. While it is complicated to assess how many Jews died in the Soviet Union during World War II, given that large numbers were evacuated to or fled to the interior of the Soviet Union after 1939, local sources estimate that up to 2 to 2.5 million Jews perished, including approximately 120,000 in the territory of the present-day Russian Federation. (Information on Holocaust victims is available at www.ushmm.org.) The Federation of Jewish Communities estimates that about one million Jews currently live in Russia, which exceeds the most recent government census tally of 200,000.