A Message From Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Tina S. Kaidanow
Supporting conventional weapons destruction (CWD) is a cornerstone of our national security policy. This 2016 edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety highlights the United States programs, managed primarily by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM/WRA), that keep weapons and ammunition out of the wrong hands and assist nations in clearing landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).
The dangers posed by mines and UXO can linger for decades. In areas reeling from recent fighting, stabilization and humanitarian assistance efforts are effectively blocked until key sites are cleared of explosive hazards. Civilian populations near contaminated land could face permanent injury or death by performing everyday activities such as accessing clean water or walking to work or school.
Our programs continue to evolve to reflect changes on the ground. On the one hand, casualties from factory-made anti-personnel landmines have fallen steadily in recent years, which is very good news. We can be proud that investments in mine action and the hard and dangerous work of the demining teams has paid off, clearing contaminated land in many places and making it safe for communities to return and resume their livelihoods. On the other hand, when casualties from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and UXO are added to the calculus, the story is much more sobering, with a sharp increase from 2014 to 2015, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. Libya, Syria, Ukraine, and Yemen — countries with active armed conflicts — account for much of this disturbing spike. The work ahead is unrelenting, particularly as we and the international community consider how to respond to the emerging threat from IEDs.
This work truly requires international cooperation and coordination. Following the February 2016 announcement of the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia led by the United States and Norway, a September 2016 high-level meeting at the United Nations raised over $100 million from 21 countries and the European Union for this effort. It was an honor to have been part of this historic initiative.
PM/WRA’s life-saving and life-changing CWD programs would not be possible without our implementing partners, other donors, international organizations, and host countries. The success of our programs is built on strong bipartisan support from Congress and the people of the United States, who recognize that our nation benefits from helping to create a world in which all may walk the earth in safety.
Ambassador Tina S. Kaidanow
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
U.S. Department of State
The United States' Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction
Around the world, stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons remain a serious challenge to peace and prosperity. In the wrong hands, small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) fuel political instability and violence, while more advanced conventional weapons, such as man-portable air defense system (MANPADS), pose a serious threat to international security. Aging munitions stockpiles may also explode, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines and UXO, including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, continue to kill and maim people long after conflicts end. They prevent the safe use of land, suppress economic development, and prevent displaced persons from returning home.
The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach
The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $2.8 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), improve physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) practices at conventional weapons storage sites, and implement humanitarian mine action programs.
The Department of State, through PM/WRA, funded and managed CWD programs in 47 countries in 2016. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. USAID assists mine and UXO survivors, providing services, such as medical and rehabilitative care, through its Leahy War Victims Fund. The U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Department of State, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure MANPADS.
Department of State Support for CWD
Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed more than 65 percent (almost $1.9 billion) of the United States’ more than $2.8 billion contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:
- Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors;
- Remediate mine and UXO contamination, returning land to safe and productive use; and
- Accelerate achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives by broadening support for CWD efforts.
PM/WRA partners with nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, educational institutions, and private sector contractors to implement its programs. Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s resource allocation decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.
The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to conventional weapons destruction strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries. We look forward to continuing this important work.
What is a Landmine? Landmines or mines are munitions designed to be placed under, on, or near the ground or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence, proximity, or contact of a person or a vehicle. These munitions have severe consequences for people and the societies in which they live. Landmines render land unusable and inaccessible, restricting agricultural use as well as preventing a means of escape or return for refugees or internally displaced people. For local populations, landmines pose significant physical risks, as detonations often lead to injury or death.
What is Mine Action? Mine action is a term that refers to the reduction of the effects that landmines and UXO have on people in both conflict and post-conflict societies, including socioeconomic and environmental issues. The mine action sector consists of five essential components: humanitarian demining, survivor assistance, mine risk education, stockpile destruction, and advocacy.
What is Humanitarian Demining? Humanitarian demining encompasses activities leading to the removal of mine and UXO hazards, including technical survey, mapping, marking, clearance, post-clearance documentation, community mine action liaison, and the handover of cleared land. Demining consists of several stages, usually beginning with surveys. The two most prevalent types of surveys are non-technical and technical surveys.
- Non-technical survey refers to the collection and analysis of data, without the use of technical assets (such as metal detectors, mechanical devices, and mine detection dogs), about the presence, type, distribution, and surrounding environment of mine and UXO contamination, in order to better define where mine and UXO contamination is present and where it is not, and to support land release prioritization and decision-making processes through the provision of evidence.
- Technical survey refers to the collection and analysis of data, using appropriate technical assets, about the presence, type, distribution, and surrounding environment of mine and UXO contamination, in order to define better where mine and UXO contamination is present and where it is not, and to support land release prioritization and decision-making processes through the provision of evidence.
Once suspected hazardous areas have been surveyed and deminers have identified confirmed hazardous areas, the next phase can begin: detection and clearance. Some of the same tools used in technical survey will be used for full detection and clearance operations. A deminer will begin to progress slowly through a confirmed hazardous area to pinpoint the location of mines and UXO for their removal and/or destruction.
While techniques can vary based on terrain and equipment, manual humanitarian demining generally proceeds as follows: wearing personal protective equipment, the deminer approaches the edge of the hazardous area with vegetation cutting tools, probe, excavation tools, a tripwire feeler, a metal detector, mine tape, and mine markers, and begins to clear a lane. The deminer visually scans an area approximately one meter wide by half a meter deep, looking for evidence of landmines. Satisfied that no mines are present on the surface or in the vegetation, the deminer sweeps the area with a tripwire feeler. The deminer carefully removes all vegetation to ground level, using a variety of cutters to ensure no piece of brush falls onto the ground and gently places any brush fragments behind him or herself. The deminer uses a metal detector and, if a signal is heard, sweeps the area with the detector to identify the center and edge of the target. A marker is placed at the target location. The deminer then backs off from the marker approximately 20 centimeters and begins probing for the suspected mine at a 30 degree angle. If a mine is found, the deminer excavates sufficient space to place a demolition charge. It is often safer for deminers to destroy the mine in place, using an explosive charge at the end of daily operations. Neutralizing or defusing mines is avoided when possible, as these procedures carry a greater risk of physical harm. This process is repeated meter by meter until the ground is determined to be free from known hazards.
When an area has been cleared, humanitarian mine action organizations will conduct quality management, which includes quality control and quality assurance, to determine whether the land has been properly cleared and is safe to turn over to the local population. As these demining teams conduct quality control inspections, they take corrective action if required, placing permanent survey markers for future reference. The national mine action authority will then accept or certify that the land is cleared and ready to return to civilian use.
Documentation, data, and information management support all stages of mine action. The task is not complete until the paperwork is done. Careful recording of the mine action process is necessary to document the effort, record the survey results, the standard clearance, the exact boundaries of the cleared area, and to note any residual hazards to the community. This data is entered into national mine action information management systems to maintain a record of what work has been done and what work is yet to be done.
Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program 1993-2016
Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $2.87 billion
Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States
Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury/death from landmines and UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in mine risk education. .
Conflict Recovery International (CRI) is a Florida-based nongovernmental organization that addresses humanitarian mine action. It emphasizes the development of national civil society to deliver an integrated approach to mine action within broader development and human security programs. The majority of CRI beneficiaries live in areas where greatest risk to life exists. .
Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a California-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to the development of innovative technologies to overcome the operational limitations encountered in humanitarian mine action efforts. It conducts surveys and assessments, and develops mine risk education materials, as well as mine and UXO disposal technologies. .
Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI has provided medical training for the past eight years in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. .
The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its mine and UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese mine action agencies. .
The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining nongovernmental organization, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). CSHD was founded by a former child soldier named Aki Ra, who has more than 20 years of experience clearing mines and UXO. .
Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 13 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. .
PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based nongovernmental organization founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, landmine awareness programs, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. .
The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit nongovernmental organization. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. .
Roots of Peace (ROP), founded in 1997, is a California-based nonprofit organization dedicated to restoring economic livelihood opportunities in post-conflict regions. For nearly 20 years, ROP has helped remove more than one million mines and items of UXO worldwide to give farmers access to land previously deemed too dangerous to develop and planted more than five million trees. .
World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support victim assistance and mine risk education. .
International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations
Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining nongovernmental organization in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and mine risk education activities. .
Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization providing its Community Based Mine Clearance Program (CBMCP) throughout the most insecure areas of Afghanistan. CBMCP transfers skills so that local communities can handle their own mine and UXO clearance. AREA seeks to integrate demining and development through employment and procurement within the local economy. firstname.lastname@example.org.
DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, that provides humanitarian assistance and advocates for oppressed, neglected, and marginalized groups in poor countries. DCA’s humanitarian mine action programs combine mine risk education, mine clearance, and community development activities. .
Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a nonprofit organization that works worldwide to help and protect refugees, internally displaced, and other conflict-affected persons.
Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010. DASH’s goal is to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of household. .
Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration. email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance and relevance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. .
The HALO Trust (HALO) is an American and British nonprofit charity specializing in the removal of mines and UXO from post-conflict zones. Since pioneering the concept of humanitarian landmine clearance in Afghanistan in 1988, HALO has been clearing explosive remnants of war and helping millions of families return home. .
Handicap International (HI), works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing risk education programs, and providing assistance to those who have been injured. .
Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit nongovernmental organization that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. .
ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. Since then, ITF has continued to expand its scope of activities and the geographic area of its implementation in order to reduce threats from mines, UXO, and at-risk weapons and ammunition. .
MAG (Mines Advisory Group) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide mine risk education, and offer capacity-building support. .
The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major humanitarian mine action donor states. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. .
The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and mine detection dog clearance, EOD, mine risk education, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. email@example.com.
The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan of mine and UXO impact so individuals and communities can have a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom, is one of Norway’s primary nongovernmental organizations. For more than 20 years NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 states and territories. .
The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, battle area clearance, EOD, and working with mine detection dogs. .
Spirit of Soccer (SoS), founded in 1996, is a UK and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions of the world. SoS has created risk education courses in more than 10 current or post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, and Moldova. .
Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), established in 1997, is an international nongovernmental organization based in Geneva that has implemented mine clearance projects in 29 countries. FSD focuses on locating and destroying mines and UXO on the ground and underwater. It also engages in collecting and destroying arms and ammunition and managing stockpiles. .
Government and International Organizations
The NATO Support Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund in Ukraine, the largest conventional munitions stockpile reduction project in history. NSPA has worked on PSSM and CWD programs in a number of countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Mauritania, and Serbia. .
The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. .
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. .
Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. .
Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects. email@example.com.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by developing national and local capacities. .
United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the General Assembly, is located in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions and is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 11 UN organizations involved in mine action to develop or revise policies and strategies, set priorities among UN players, and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine-action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. .
The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), established in 1996 at James Madison University (JMU), provides programs and information to post-conflict communities and practitioners in the CWD field. CISR works around the world to promote post-conflict recovery, rebuilding, and resilience. .
Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. .
Janus Global Operations (formerly Sterling Global) is an employee-owned munitions management and demining company supporting government, military, and commercial organizations operating in war-affected countries. Janus Global provides risk management, logistics, construction, and maintenance services in support of countries emerging from conflict. .
Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (TtEC) is a California-based company providing consulting, engineering, remediation, and construction services worldwide. TtEC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech Inc., a publicly traded company. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. .
Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding
From 1993 through 2016, the United States contributed more than $2.8 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The U.S. remains the world’s leading donor for humanitarian mine action programs, including landmine clearance, survivor assistance services, and mine risk education. Many of our ongoing programs combine humanitarian demining, UXO removal, and SA/LW destruction, and improve the safety and storage of conventional munitions stockpiles. The 16th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety covers programmatic activities that occurred January 1 through December 31, 2016.
The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2015 (October 1, 2014 – September 30, 2015) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 17th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2016 that reflect the final allocations.
Legend for charts
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|DoD||Department of Defense|
|DOS NADR-CWD||Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs|
|DOS Other||Department of State – Other funding|
|USAID||U.S. Agency for International Development|
U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History
(Dollars in thousands)
|Country||Sources||FY 1993-2008||FY 2009||FY 2010||FY 2011||FY 2012||FY 2013||FY 2014||FY 2015||*FY 2016||Grand Total|
|Bosnia & Herzegovina||DOS NADR-CWD||45,799||4,103||5,425||3,685||4,300||4,445||4,400||3,974||3,500||79,631|
|Burkina Faso||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||941||0||941|
|Burma (Myanmar)||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||0||829||0||0||2,000||0||2,835|
|Central African Republic||DOS NADR-CWD||37||0||0||0||0||0||187||0||0||224|
|Congo, DRC||DOS NADR-CWD||3,304||937||841||1,016||750||1,265||2,500||500||500||11,613|
|Congo, Republic of the||DOS NADR-CWD||1,120||200||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1,320|
|Croatia ||DOS NADR-CWD||23,802||2,000||2,000||5,037||1,100||999||900||850||0||36,688|
|Czech Republic||DOS NADR-CWD||600||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||600|
|El Salvador||DOS NADR-CWD||50||0||0||0||988||0||0||0||0||1,038|
|Marshall Islands||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||0||0||267||361||285||0||913|
|Montenegro ||DOS NADR-CWD||2,547||804||1,048||1,750||1,300||0||0||0||0||7,449|
|Palestinian Territories||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||209||782||917||1,180||1,000||1,000||5,088|
|Serbia ||DOS NADR-CWD||8,833||1,000||1,400||1,552||1,000||2,000||900||195||1,500||18,380|
|Serbia & Montenegro ||DOS NADR-CWD||5,646||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||5,646|
|Sierra Leone||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||147||0||0||0||0||0||0||147|
|Solomon Islands||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||400||567||560||473||446||0||2,446|
|South Sudan ||DOS NADR-CWD||0||0||0||1,100||2,800||2,500||2,135||2,000||2,000||12,535|
|Sri Lanka||DOS NADR-CWD||9,862||6,600||4,400||2,500||4,804||3,300||4,625||4,250||2,500||42,841|
|Sudan ||DOS NADR-CWD||17,802||4,600||5,350||2,800||0||0||0||0||0||30,552|
*Initial planned allocations
U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History
(Totals by Source)
|DOS NADR – CWD||706,677||130,000||161,194||142,405||149,105||142,417||150,688||177,779||139,126||1,899,391|
|DOS Other ||44,857||2,644||0||0||17,800||2,035||850||0||0||68,186|
*Initial planned allocations
Footnotes for Financial Charts:
1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
2. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007
3. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
4. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
5. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction fund. All U.S. Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
6. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.
Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations
|CASEVAC||Basic Medical and Casualty Evacuation|
|CWD||Conventional Weapons Destruction|
|DDG||Danish Demining Group|
|EOD||Explosive Ordnance Disposal|
|ERW||Explosive Remnants of War|
|GICHD||Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining|
|HALO||The HALO Trust|
|HDTC||Humanitarian Demining Training Center|
|HD R&D||Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program|
|HSTAMIDS||Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System|
|IDP||Internally Displaced Person|
|IED||Improvised Explosive Device|
|IMAS||International Mine Action Standards|
|IMSMA||Information Management System for Mine Action|
|ISIS||Islamic State of Iraq and Syria|
|ITF||ITF Enhancing Human Security|
|MAG||Mines Advisory Group|
|MANPADS||Man-portable Air Defense System|
|NATO||North Atlantic Treaty Organization|
|NPA||Norwegian People’s Aid|
|NSPA||NATO Support Agency|
|OAS||Organization of American States|
|OHDACA||Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid|
|OSCE||Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe|
|PM/WRA||Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs|
|PSSM||Physical Security and Stockpile Management|
|SA/LW||Small Arms and Light Weapons|
|SoS||Spirit of Soccer|
|USAID||United States Agency for International Development|
|USAFRICOM||U.S. Africa Command|
|USCENTCOM||U.S. Central Command|
|USEUCOM||U.S. European Command|
|USSOUTHCOM||U.S. Southern Command|
|USPACOM||U.S. Pacific Command|