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General Information

A Message From Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary Tina S. Kaidanow

Tina S. Kaidanow, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs

Supporting conventional weapons destruction (CWD) is a cornerstone of our national security policy. This 2016 edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety highlights the United States programs, managed primarily by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. State Department’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM/WRA), that keep weapons and ammunition out of the wrong hands and assist nations in clearing landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).

The dangers posed by mines and UXO can linger for decades. In areas reeling from recent fighting, stabilization and humanitarian assistance efforts are effectively blocked until key sites are cleared of explosive hazards. Civilian populations near contaminated land could face permanent injury or death by performing everyday activities such as accessing clean water or walking to work or school.

Our programs continue to evolve to reflect changes on the ground. On the one hand, casualties from factory-made anti-personnel landmines have fallen steadily in recent years, which is very good news. We can be proud that investments in mine action and the hard and dangerous work of the demining teams has paid off, clearing contaminated land in many places and making it safe for communities to return and resume their livelihoods. On the other hand, when casualties from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) and UXO are added to the calculus, the story is much more sobering, with a sharp increase from 2014 to 2015, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. Libya, Syria, Ukraine, and Yemen — countries with active armed conflicts — account for much of this disturbing spike. The work ahead is unrelenting, particularly as we and the international community consider how to respond to the emerging threat from IEDs.

This work truly requires international cooperation and coordination. Following the February 2016 announcement of the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia led by the United States and Norway, a September 2016 high-level meeting at the United Nations raised over $100 million from 21 countries and the European Union for this effort. It was an honor to have been part of this historic initiative.

PM/WRA’s life-saving and life-changing CWD programs would not be possible without our implementing partners, other donors, international organizations, and host countries. The success of our programs is built on strong bipartisan support from Congress and the people of the United States, who recognize that our nation benefits from helping to create a world in which all may walk the earth in safety.

Ambassador Tina S. Kaidanow
Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
U.S. Department of State

The United States' Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

Around the world, stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons remain a serious challenge to peace and prosperity. In the wrong hands, small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) fuel political instability and violence, while more advanced conventional weapons, such as man-portable air defense system (MANPADS), pose a serious threat to international security. Aging munitions stockpiles may also explode, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines and UXO, including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, continue to kill and maim people long after conflicts end. They prevent the safe use of land, suppress economic development, and prevent displaced persons from returning home.

Date: 2017 Description: A deminer in Cambodia. © Photo courtesy of HALO.

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $2.8 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, and nongovernmental organizations to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), improve physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) practices at conventional weapons storage sites, and implement humanitarian mine action programs.

The Department of State, through PM/WRA, funded and managed CWD programs in 47 countries in 2016. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. USAID assists mine and UXO survivors, providing services, such as medical and rehabilitative care, through its Leahy War Victims Fund. The U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Department of State, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure MANPADS.

Department of State Support for CWD

Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed more than 65 percent (almost $1.9 billion) of the United States’ more than $2.8 billion contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  1. Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors;
  2. Remediate mine and UXO contamination, returning land to safe and productive use; and
  3. Accelerate achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives by broadening support for CWD efforts.

PM/WRA partners with nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, educational institutions, and private sector contractors to implement its programs. Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s resource allocation decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to conventional weapons destruction strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries. We look forward to continuing this important work.

Demining 101

What is a Landmine? Landmines or mines are munitions designed to be placed under, on, or near the ground or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence, proximity, or contact of a person or a vehicle. These munitions have severe consequences for people and the societies in which they live. Landmines render land unusable and inaccessible, restricting agricultural use as well as preventing a means of escape or return for refugees or internally displaced people. For local populations, landmines pose significant physical risks, as detonations often lead to injury or death.

What is Mine Action? Mine action is a term that refers to the reduction of the effects that landmines and UXO have on people in both conflict and post-conflict societies, including socioeconomic and environmental issues. The mine action sector consists of five essential components: humanitarian demining, survivor assistance, mine risk education, stockpile destruction, and advocacy.

What is Humanitarian Demining? Humanitarian demining encompasses activities leading to the removal of mine and UXO hazards, including technical survey, mapping, marking, clearance, post-clearance documentation, community mine action liaison, and the handover of cleared land. Demining consists of several stages, usually beginning with surveys. The two most prevalent types of surveys are non-technical and technical surveys.

  • Non-technical survey[1] refers to the collection and analysis of data, without the use of technical assets (such as metal detectors, mechanical devices, and mine detection dogs), about the presence, type, distribution, and surrounding environment of mine and UXO contamination, in order to better define where mine and UXO contamination is present and where it is not, and to support land release prioritization and decision-making processes through the provision of evidence.
  • Technical survey[2] refers to the collection and analysis of data, using appropriate technical assets, about the presence, type, distribution, and surrounding environment of mine and UXO contamination, in order to define better where mine and UXO contamination is present and where it is not, and to support land release prioritization and decision-making processes through the provision of evidence.

Once suspected hazardous areas have been surveyed and deminers have identified confirmed hazardous areas, the next phase can begin: detection and clearance. Some of the same tools used in technical survey will be used for full detection and clearance operations. A deminer will begin to progress slowly through a confirmed hazardous area to pinpoint the location of mines and UXO for their removal and/or destruction.

While techniques can vary based on terrain and equipment, manual humanitarian demining generally proceeds as follows: wearing personal protective equipment, the deminer approaches the edge of the hazardous area with vegetation cutting tools, probe, excavation tools, a tripwire feeler, a metal detector, mine tape, and mine markers, and begins to clear a lane. The deminer visually scans an area approximately one meter wide by half a meter deep, looking for evidence of landmines. Satisfied that no mines are present on the surface or in the vegetation, the deminer sweeps the area with a tripwire feeler. The deminer carefully removes all vegetation to ground level, using a variety of cutters to ensure no piece of brush falls onto the ground and gently places any brush fragments behind him or herself. The deminer uses a metal detector and, if a signal is heard, sweeps the area with the detector to identify the center and edge of the target. A marker is placed at the target location. The deminer then backs off from the marker approximately 20 centimeters and begins probing for the suspected mine at a 30 degree angle. If a mine is found, the deminer excavates sufficient space to place a demolition charge. It is often safer for deminers to destroy the mine in place, using an explosive charge at the end of daily operations. Neutralizing or defusing mines is avoided when possible, as these procedures carry a greater risk of physical harm. This process is repeated meter by meter until the ground is determined to be free from known hazards.

When an area has been cleared, humanitarian mine action organizations will conduct quality management, which includes quality control and quality assurance, to determine whether the land has been properly cleared and is safe to turn over to the local population. As these demining teams conduct quality control inspections, they take corrective action if required, placing permanent survey markers for future reference. The national mine action authority will then accept or certify that the land is cleared and ready to return to civilian use.

Documentation, data, and information management support all stages of mine action. The task is not complete until the paperwork is done. Careful recording of the mine action process is necessary to document the effort, record the survey results, the standard clearance, the exact boundaries of the cleared area, and to note any residual hazards to the community. This data is entered into national mine action information management systems to maintain a record of what work has been done and what work is yet to be done.

______________________________

[1] International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) 08.10 http://bit.ly/2wyNCvZ .
[2] International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) 08.20 http://bit.ly/2z0N8jJ .

Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program 1993-2016

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $2.87 billion

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $2.87 billion: Africa 14.51%, East Asia and Pacific 14.45%, Europe 13.30%, Middle East and North Africa 17.66%, South and Central Asia 18.30%, Western Hemisphere 3.75%, Global 18.02% - State Dept Image

Implementing Partners

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury/death from landmines and UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in mine risk education. http://crs.org .

Conflict Recovery International (CRI) is a Florida-based nongovernmental organization that addresses humanitarian mine action. It emphasizes the development of national civil society to deliver an integrated approach to mine action within broader development and human security programs. The majority of CRI beneficiaries live in areas where greatest risk to life exists. https://www.conflictrecoveryinternational.org .

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a California-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to the development of innovative technologies to overcome the operational limitations encountered in humanitarian mine action efforts. It conducts surveys and assessments, and develops mine risk education materials, as well as mine and UXO disposal technologies. http://goldenwesthf.org .

Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI has provided medical training for the past eight years in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. http://healthleadershipinternational.org .

The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its mine and UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese mine action agencies. http://ic-vvaf.org .

The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining nongovernmental organization, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). CSHD was founded by a former child soldier named Aki Ra, who has more than 20 years of experience clearing mines and UXO. http://landmine-relief-fund.com .

Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 13 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. http://marshall-legacy.org .

PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based nongovernmental organization founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, landmine awareness programs, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. http://peacetreesvietnam.org .

The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit nongovernmental organization. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. http://poluscenter.org .

Roots of Peace (ROP), founded in 1997, is a California-based nonprofit organization dedicated to restoring economic livelihood opportunities in post-conflict regions. For nearly 20 years, ROP has helped remove more than one million mines and items of UXO worldwide to give farmers access to land previously deemed too dangerous to develop and planted more than five million trees. http://rootsofpeace.org .

World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support victim assistance and mine risk education. http://worlded.org .

International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining nongovernmental organization in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and mine risk education activities. http://atc-wlfhdngo.org.af .

Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization providing its Community Based Mine Clearance Program (CBMCP) throughout the most insecure areas of Afghanistan. CBMCP transfers skills so that local communities can handle their own mine and UXO clearance. AREA seeks to integrate demining and development through employment and procurement within the local economy. asryusufi@hotmail.com.

DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, that provides humanitarian assistance and advocates for oppressed, neglected, and marginalized groups in poor countries. DCA’s humanitarian mine action programs combine mine risk education, mine clearance, and community development activities. http://dca.dk .

Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a nonprofit organization that works worldwide to help and protect refugees, internally displaced, and other conflict-affected persons.

Danish Demining Group (DDG) is a Humanitarian Mine Action Unit in the Danish Refugee Council, which assists individuals and populations hampered by mines, UXO, and SA/LW. https://drc.ngo .

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010. DASH’s goal is to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of household. http://slnmac.gov.lk/dash .

Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration. sattar_dafa@yahoo.ca or dafafinance@yahoo.com.

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance and relevance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. http://gichd.org .

The HALO Trust (HALO) is an American and British nonprofit charity specializing in the removal of mines and UXO from post-conflict zones. Since pioneering the concept of humanitarian landmine clearance in Afghanistan in 1988, HALO has been clearing explosive remnants of war and helping millions of families return home. http://halotrust.org .

Handicap International (HI), works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing risk education programs, and providing assistance to those who have been injured. http://handicap-international.us .

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit nongovernmental organization that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. http://immap.org .

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. Since then, ITF has continued to expand its scope of activities and the geographic area of its implementation in order to reduce threats from mines, UXO, and at-risk weapons and ammunition. http://itf-fund.si .

MAG (Mines Advisory Group) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide mine risk education, and offer capacity-building support. http://maginternational.org .

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major humanitarian mine action donor states. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. http://www.mineaction.org/funding/masg .

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and mine detection dog clearance, EOD, mine risk education, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. hajiattqullah@gmail.com.

The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan of mine and UXO impact so individuals and communities can have a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. mdc-afghann@gmail.com.

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom, is one of Norway’s primary nongovernmental organizations. For more than 20 years NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 states and territories. http://npaid.org .

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, battle area clearance, EOD, and working with mine detection dogs. http://www.landmineclearance.org/ .

Spirit of Soccer (SoS), founded in 1996, is a UK and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions of the world. SoS has created risk education courses in more than 10 current or post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, and Moldova. http://spiritofsoccer.org .

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), established in 1997, is an international nongovernmental organization based in Geneva that has implemented mine clearance projects in 29 countries. FSD focuses on locating and destroying mines and UXO on the ground and underwater. It also engages in collecting and destroying arms and ammunition and managing stockpiles. http://fsd.ch .

Government and International Organizations

The NATO Support Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund in Ukraine, the largest conventional munitions stockpile reduction project in history. NSPA has worked on PSSM and CWD programs in a number of countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Mauritania, and Serbia. http://www.nspa.nato.int .

The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. http://oas.org .

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. http://osce.org .

Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. http://recsasec.org .

Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects. muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by developing national and local capacities. http://undp.org .

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the General Assembly, is located in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions and is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 11 UN organizations involved in mine action to develop or revise policies and strategies, set priorities among UN players, and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine-action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. http://www.mineaction.org/unmas .

Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), established in 1996 at James Madison University (JMU), provides programs and information to post-conflict communities and practitioners in the CWD field. CISR works around the world to promote post-conflict recovery, rebuilding, and resilience. http://jmu.edu/cisr .

Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. http://smallarmssurvey.org .

Contractors

Janus Global Operations (formerly Sterling Global) is an employee-owned munitions management and demining company supporting government, military, and commercial organizations operating in war-affected countries. Janus Global provides risk management, logistics, construction, and maintenance services in support of countries emerging from conflict. http://www.janusgo.com .

Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (TtEC) is a California-based company providing consulting, engineering, remediation, and construction services worldwide. TtEC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech Inc., a publicly traded company. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. http://www.tteci.com .

Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding

From 1993 through 2016, the United States contributed more than $2.8 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The U.S. remains the world’s leading donor for humanitarian mine action programs, including landmine clearance, survivor assistance services, and mine risk education. Many of our ongoing programs combine humanitarian demining, UXO removal, and SA/LW destruction, and improve the safety and storage of conventional munitions stockpiles. The 16th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety covers programmatic activities that occurred January 1 through December 31, 2016.

The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2015 (October 1, 2014 – September 30, 2015) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 17th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2016 that reflect the final allocations.

Date: 2017 Description: Top 10 Countries Funded FY1993-2016 (Aggregate, dollars in thousands): Afghanistan $442,823, Iraq $335,636, Laos $135,091, Cambodia $124,344, Angola $122,966, Bosnia and Herzegovina $109,079, Vietnam $105,424, Lebanon $60,582, Mozambique $56,391, Sri Lanka $54,270. - State Dept Image

Legend for charts

CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DoD Department of Defense
DOS NADR-CWD Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs
DOS Other Department of State – Other funding
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History
(Dollars in thousands)

Country Sources FY 1993-2008 FY 2009 FY 2010 FY 2011 FY 2012 FY 2013 FY 2014 FY 2015 *FY 2016 Grand Total
Afghanistan DOS NADR-CWD 107,706 30,253 45,800 40,475 40,550 30,785 22,450 22,700 20,365 361,084
DOS Other 20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 1,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 4,264 520 996 0 1,000 355 162 744 451 8,492
USAID 51,447 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51,447
Total 185,217 30,773 46,796 40,475 41,550 31,140 22,612 23,444 20,816 442,823
Albania DOS NADR-CWD 16,473 2,395 5,909 3,500 4,034 2,324 2,135 1,777 1,500 40,047
DoD 0 11 0 11 0 10 185 147 100 464
USAID 1,389 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,389
Total 17,862 2,406 5,909 3,511 4,034 2,334 2,320 1,924 1,600 41,900
Angola DOS NADR-CWD 46,729 7,300 10,000 7,500 8,675 6,000 6,000 5,600 4,700 102,504
DOS Other 3,170 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150
DoD 4,014 850 850 0 850 1,345 179 152 551 8,791
USAID 8,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,351
Total 62,414 8,150 10,850 7,500 9,525 7,345 6,179 5,752 5,251 122,966
Argentina DoD 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
Total 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
Armenia DOS NADR-CWD 2,600 0 0 0 391 700 301 300 0 4,292
DOS Other 3,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,000
DoD 2,818 0 0 8 9 169 187 40 10 3,241
USAID 1,148 0 0 1,000 0 0 0 997 0 3,145
Total 9,566 0 0 1,008 400 869 488 1,337 10 13,678
Azerbaijan DOS NADR-CWD 17,779 2,199 752 365 365 325 325 532 0 22,642
DOS Other 1,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,100
DoD 6,675 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 140 7,115
Total 25,554 2,199 1,052 365 365 325 325 532 140 30,857
Bahrain DoD 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Total 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Belize DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 300
Total 0 0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 300
Benin DoD 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Total 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Bosnia & Herzegovina DOS NADR-CWD 45,799 4,103 5,425 3,685 4,300 4,445 4,400 3,974 3,500 79,631
DOS Other 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 3,210 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 4,263 0 0 0 0 241 156 0 78 4,738
USAID 20,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,500
Total 74,772 4,103 5,425 3,685 4,300 4,686 4,556 3,974 3,578 109,079
Bulgaria DOS NADR-CWD 3,544 0 0 3,100 1,585 2,250 0 0 0 10,479
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 31
Total 3,544 0 0 3,100 1,585 2,250 31 0 0 10,510
Burkina Faso DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 941 0 941
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 941 0 941
Burma (Myanmar) DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 829 0 0 2,000 0 2,835
DOS Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 850 0 0 850
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 1,350 1,500 0 500 3,350
Total 0 0 0 6 829 1,350 2,350 2,000 500 7,035
Burundi DOS NADR-CWD 581 438 400 516 0 0 0 0 0 1,935
DoD 0 74 0 155 201 322 566 118 0 1,436
Total 581 512 400 671 201 322 566 118 0 3,371
Cambodia DOS NADR-CWD 35,364 5,152 5,040 5,250 5,494 5,800 6,216 8,307 5,500 82,123
DOS Other 4,943 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100
DoD 5,130 2,500 3,000 0 4,235 1,411 1,722 2,379 1,717 22,094
USAID 12,548 0 500 0 0 600 633 500 303 15,084
Total 58,085 7,652 8,540 5,250 9,729 7,811 8,571 11,186 7,520 124,344
Central African Republic DOS NADR-CWD 37 0 0 0 0 0 187 0 0 224
Total 37 0 0 0 0 0 187 0 0 224
Chad DOS NADR-CWD 6,834 65 0 0 0 0 0 1,657 0 8,556
DoD 3,687 0 0 190 414 384 325 0 50 5,050
Total 10,521 65 0 190 414 384 325 1,657 50 13,606
Chile DoD 1,708 454 450 0 450 0 385 3 0 3,450
Total 1,708 454 450 0 450 0 385 3 0 3,450
Colombia DOS NADR-CWD 2,972 1,523 2,000 2,500 3,500 4,100 6,465 7,039 3,500 33,599
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 940 10 575 0 154 0 0 0 742 2,421
USAID 2,500 1,600 1,500 3,200 600 1,900 1,300 2,000 3,085 17,685
Total 6,862 3,133 4,075 5,700 4,254 6,000 7,765 9,039 7,327 54,155
Congo, DRC DOS NADR-CWD 3,304 937 841 1,016 750 1,265 2,500 500 500 11,613
DoD 0 0 65 305 233 0 373 107 0 1,083
USAID 1,300 0 0 0 0 0 1,300 2,000 1,722 6,322
Total 4,604 937 906 1,321 983 1,265 4,173 2,607 2,222 19,018
Congo, Republic of the DOS NADR-CWD 1,120 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,320
DoD 0 0 0 0 267 371 690 191 0 1,519
Total 1,120 200 0 0 267 371 690 191 0 2,839
Croatia [1] DOS NADR-CWD 23,802 2,000 2,000 5,037 1,100 999 900 850 0 36,688
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 713 0 0 0 713
Total 23,802 2,000 2,000 5,037 1,100 1,712 900 850 0 37,401
Cyprus DOS NADR-CWD 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 260
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 76 19 18 20 133
Total 0 10 0 0 0 76 19 268 20 393
Czech Republic DOS NADR-CWD 600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
Total 600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
Djibouti DOS NADR-CWD 1,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,900
DoD 1,167 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,172
Total 3,067 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,072
Dominican Republic USAID 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 500
Total 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 500
Ecuador DOS NADR-CWD 3,323 0 1,002 500 0 200 0 0 0 5,025
DoD 2,582 258 433 0 518 0 0 0 0 3,791
Total 5,905 258 1,435 500 518 200 0 0 0 8,816
Egypt DoD 718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
Total 718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
El Salvador DOS NADR-CWD 50 0 0 0 988 0 0 0 0 1,038
CDC 2,840 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,840
USAID 1,500 0 0 0 500 300 0 0 0 2,300
Total 4,390 0 0 0 1,488 300 0 0 0 6,178
Eritrea DOS NADR-CWD 11,623 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,623
DOS Other 1,560 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,560
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 4,485 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,485
Total 18,118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,118
Estonia DOS NADR-CWD 1,477 699 323 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,499
DoD 1,706 160 0 195 87 54 0 2,202
Total 3,183 699 323 160 0 195 87 54 0 4,701
Ethiopia DOS NADR-CWD 3,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,545
DOS Other 1,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,500
CDC 2,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,846
DoD 3,984 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,984
USAID 1,255 300 2,000 327 0 0 0 0 0 3,882
Total 13,130 300 2,000 327 0 0 0 0 0 15,757
Georgia DOS NADR-CWD 18,256 2,614 2,845 1,158 1,232 1,500 500 500 0 28,605
DOS Other 0 2,644 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 1,114 0 0 0 0 0 167 209 20 1,510
Total 19,370 5,258 2,845 1,158 1,232 1,500 667 709 20 32,759
Guatemala DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 250
Total 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 250
Guinea DOS NADR-CWD 103 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 103
Total 103 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 103
Guinea-Bissau DOS NADR-CWD 2,967 1,000 1,000 1,070 0 0 0 0 0 6,037
DoD 1,444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,444
Total 4,411 1,000 1,000 1,070 0 0 0 0 0 7,481
Haiti USAID 0 0 1,000 1,500 0 0 1,000 0 0 3,500
Total 0 0 1,000 1,500 0 0 1,000 0 0 3,500
Honduras DOS NADR-CWD 316 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 816
Total 316 0 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 816
India USAID 0 0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 300
Total 0 0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 300
Iraq DOS NADR-CWD 38,019 19,417 24,913 22,000 25,000 23,805 23,177 37,835 15,000 229,166
DOS Other 992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 992
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 103,499 120 318 300 160 573 58 105,028
Total 142,960 19,537 25,231 22,000 25,300 23,965 23,750 37,835 15,058 335,636
Jordan DOS NADR-CWD 8,465 2,700 2,906 2,015 3,850 1,200 0 500 400 22,036
DOS Other 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
CDC 2,968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 2,418 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,418
Total 14,151 2,700 2,906 2,015 3,850 1,200 0 500 400 27,722
Kazakhstan DOS NADR-CWD 295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 295
Total 295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 295
Kenya DOS NADR-CWD 638 500 269 75 0 0 0 0 0 1,482
DoD 0 56 25 175 236 70 162 151 280 1,155
USAID 400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400
Total 1,038 556 294 250 236 70 162 151 280 3,037
Kosovo DOS NADR-CWD 5,490 150 1,000 450 260 100 0 550 0 8,000
DoD 4,300 0 0 0 0 0 165 120 204 4,789
USAID 17,472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17,472
Total 27,262 150 1,000 450 260 100 165 670 204 30,261
Kyrgyzstan DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 500 0 300 0 400 250 1,450
DoD 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
Total 0 7 0 500 0 300 0 400 250 1,457
Laos DOS NADR-CWD 22,461 3,350 5,100 5,000 9,233 9,000 12,840 26,880 19,500 113,364
DOS Other 750 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 750
DoD 6,861 0 6 0 33 0 0 0 111 7,011
USAID 7,700 600 1,000 0 0 0 500 2,000 2,166 13,966
Total 37,772 3,950 6,106 5,000 9,266 9,000 13,340 28,880 21,777 135,091
Lebanon DOS NADR-CWD 17,138 4,791 1,997 2,225 2,524 3,000 2,500 3,324 2,000 39,499
DOS Other 2,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 8,136 5 289 0 590 80 50 44 39 9,233
USAID 7,500 800 750 800 0 0 0 0 0 9,850
Total 34,774 5,596 3,036 3,025 3,114 3,080 2,550 3,368 2,039 60,582
Lesotho DOS NADR-CWD 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Total 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Liberia DOS NADR-CWD 360 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 360
CDC 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150
USAID 4,429 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,429
Total 4,939 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,939
Libya DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 3,000 0 0 1,000 1,500 2,500 8,000
DOS Other 0 0 0 0 17,800 1,775 0 0 0 19,575
Total 0 0 0 3,000 17,800 1,775 1,000 1,500 2,500 27,575
Lithuania DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Total 0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Macedonia DOS NADR-CWD 1,798 50 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998
Total 1,798 50 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998
Mali DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,200 500 1,700
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 170 170
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,200 670 1,870
Marshall Islands DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 0 267 361 285 0 913
Total 0 0 0 0 0 267 361 285 0 913
Mauritania DOS NADR-CWD 1,395 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 300 500 3,195
DoD 4,410 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,410
Total 5,805 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 300 500 7,605
Moldova DoD 71 0 0 0 0 154 282 132 35 674
Total 71 0 0 0 0 154 282 132 35 674
Montenegro [2] DOS NADR-CWD 2,547 804 1,048 1,750 1,300 0 0 0 0 7,449
DoD 0 0 0 0 11 294 422 428 562 1,717
Total 2,547 804 1,048 1,750 1,311 294 422 428 562 9,166
Morocco DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 90
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 90
Mozambique DOS NADR-CWD 20,623 2,124 2,000 2,175 2,635 3,000 1,525 700 0 34,782
DOS Other 1,600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,600
CDC 2,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,100
DoD 11,449 49 3 326 639 599 122 189 0 13,376
USAID 4,533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,533
Total 40,305 2,173 2,003 2,501 3,274 3,599 1,647 889 0 56,391
Namibia DOS NADR-CWD 3,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,351
DOS Other 670 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 670
DoD 4,400 0 78 165 309 151 45 110 80 5,338
Total 8,421 0 78 165 309 151 45 110 80 9,359
Nepal DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 165 36 36 237
USAID 0 500 500 0 1,000 0 0 131 1,580 3,711
Total 0 500 500 0 1,000 0 165 167 1,616 3,948
Nicaragua DOS NADR-CWD 3,731 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,081
DoD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Total 3,931 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,281
Niger DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 693 500 1,193
Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 693 500 1,193
Nigeria DOS NADR-CWD 1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,449
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 315 315
Total 1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 315 1,764
Oman DOS NADR-CWD 1,785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,785
DoD 2,553 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,553
Total 4,338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,338
Pakistan DOS NADR-CWD 32 500 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 832
Total 32 500 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 832
Palau DOS NADR-CWD 0 85 0 0 150 390 690 505 0 1,820
Total 0 85 0 0 150 390 690 505 0 1,820
Palestinian Territories DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 209 782 917 1,180 1,000 1,000 5,088
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 20
Total 0 0 0 209 782 917 1,180 1,020 1,000 5,108
Paraguay DOS NADR-CWD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Total 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Peru DOS NADR-CWD 3,286 2,620 2,000 2,000 1,000 0 0 0 0 10,906
DoD 11,902 42 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,944
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 0 1,000
Total 15,188 2,662 2,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 0 0 0 23,850
Philippines DOS NADR-CWD 670 0 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 920
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 173 45 218
USAID 1,550 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,550
Total 2,220 0 250 0 0 0 0 173 45 2,688
Romania DOS NADR-CWD 1,369 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,369
DoD 0 0 0 150 0 0 0 0 0 150
Total 1,369 0 1,000 150 0 0 0 0 0 2,519
Rwanda DOS NADR-CWD 3,761 200 242 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,203
DOS Other 700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 700
DoD 7,790 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,790
Total 12,251 200 242 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,693
Sao Tome/
Principe
DOS NADR-CWD 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
Total 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
Senegal DOS NADR-CWD 1,280 725 500 0 0 0 0 400 400 3,305
DOS Other 0 0 0 0 0 260 0 0 0 260
DoD 252 0 0 0 0 0 367 1,147 100 1,866
USAID 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Total 2,032 725 500 260 367 1,547 500 5,931
Serbia [2] DOS NADR-CWD 8,833 1,000 1,400 1,552 1,000 2,000 900 195 1,500 18,380
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 200 203
Total 8,833 1,000 1,400 1,552 1,000 2,000 900 198 1,700 18,583
Serbia & Montenegro [2] DOS NADR-CWD 5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646
Total 5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646
Sierra Leone DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 147
USAID 1,593 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,593
Total 1,593 0 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,740
Slovenia DoD 0 0 0 0 0 270 0 0 0 270
Total 0 0 0 0 0 270 0 0 0 270
Solomon Islands DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 400 567 560 473 446 0 2,446
DoD 0 0 0 0 325 35 429 306 569 1,664
Total 0 0 0 400 892 595 902 752 569 4,110
Somalia DOS NADR-CWD 6,697 1,523 2,000 2,325 2,500 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 24,145
Total 6,697 1,523 2,000 2,325 2,500 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 24,145
South Sudan [3] DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 1,100 2,800 2,500 2,135 2,000 2,000 12,535
DoD 0 0 0 0 367 459 0 0 0 826
Total 0 0 0 1,100 3,167 2,959 2,135 2,000 2,000 13,361
Sri Lanka DOS NADR-CWD 9,862 6,600 4,400 2,500 4,804 3,300 4,625 4,250 2,500 42,841
DOS Other 122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122
CDC 175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 175
DoD 247 98 280 0 262 522 715 507 601 3,232
USAID 4,350 750 300 2,000 0 500 0 0 0 7,900
Total 14,756 7,448 4,980 4,500 5,066 4,322 5,340 4,757 3,101 54,270
Sudan [3] DOS NADR-CWD 17,802 4,600 5,350 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 30,552
Total 17,802 4,600 5,350 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 30,552
Suriname DOS NADR-CWD 390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
Total 390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
Swaziland DOS NADR-CWD 210 0 229 0 0 0 0 0 0 439
DoD 836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 836
Total 1,046 0 229 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,275
Syria DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 0 0 550 0 8,000 8,000 16,550
Total 0 0 0 0 0 550 0 8,000 8,000 16,550
Tajikistan DOS NADR-CWD 680 0 2,194 1,000 1,691 2,028 3,190 2,275 1,975 15,033
DoD 7 25 1,200 0 1,200 0 101 67 147 2,747
USAID 0 0 0 0 1,500 0 0 0 534 2,034
Total 687 25 3,394 1,000 4,391 2,028 3,291 2,342 2,656 19,814
Tanzania DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
DoD 0 0 0 185 244 274 44 123 50 920
USAID 1,700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,700
Total 1,700 0 0 201 244 274 44 123 50 2,636
Thailand DOS NADR-CWD 4,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,190
DoD 3,189 1,400 1,500 0 1,500 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 12,917
Total 7,379 1,400 1,500 0 1,500 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 17,107
Togo DOS NADR-CWD 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Total 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Tunisia DoD 217 0 0 0 0 0 0 536 630 1,383
Total 217 0 0 0 0 0 0 536 630 1,383
Uganda DOS NADR-CWD 40 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 56
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 207 207
USAID 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
Total 1,040 0 0 16 0 0 0 0 207 1,263
Ukraine DOS NADR-CWD 6,442 0 2,590 4,500 1,500 2,000 7,095 1,940 2,000 28,067
DoD 0 0 177 0 0 0 0 303 0 480
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,031 920 1,951
Total 6,442 0 2,767 4,500 1,500 2,000 7,095 3,274 2,920 30,498
Uruguay DOS NADR-CWD 0 0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Total 0 0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Uzbekistan DoD 0 30 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
Total 0 30 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
Vietnam DOS NADR-CWD 22,110 2,120 3,750 3,584 4,032 4,500 10,506 12,548 10,500 73,650
CDC 1,848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 763 0 275 0 300 471 256 340 722 3,127
USAID 22,794 605 1,500 1,900 0 0 0 0 0 26,799
Total 47,515 2,725 5,525 5,484 4,332 4,971 10,762 12,888 11,222 105,424
Yemen DOS NADR-CWD 10,536 609 1,000 1,075 3,135 2,000 700 2,000 2,000 23,055
DoD 4,689 157 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,846
Total 15,225 766 1,000 1,075 3,135 2,000 700 2,000 2,000 27,901
Zambia DOS NADR-CWD 2,050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,050
DoD 424 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 437
Total 2,474 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,487
Zimbabwe DOS NADR-CWD 3,086 0 0 0 250 500 2,750 3,000 1,000 10,586
DoD 3,265 0 0 0 0 0 0 173 78 3,516
Total 6,351 0 0 0 250 500 2,750 3,173 1,078 14,102
Global/Multi-Country DOS NADR-CWD 109,059 14,294 9,172 4,460 5,999 16,007 20,662 6,326 23,536 209,515
DOS Other 1,450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,450
CDC 15,613 3,040 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,653
DoD 195,456 5,462 49 682 1,106 0 0 1,313 861 204,929
USAID 59,525 7,845 19,950 7,773 3,300 4,850 7,000 2,841 687 113,771
Total 381,103 30,641 29,171 12,915 10,405 20,857 27,662 10,480 25,084 548,318
Grand Total 1,452,294 160,840 201,132 163,917 189,858 165,283 175,708 200,223 162,454 2,871,709

*Initial planned allocations

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History
(Totals by Source)

Sources FY93-08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 *FY16 Total
DOS NADR – CWD 706,677 130,000 161,194 142,405 149,105 142,417 150,688 177,779 139,126 1,899,391
DOS Other [4] 44,857 2,644 0 0 17,800 2,035 850 0 0 68,186
CDC 35,150 3,900 3,040 0 0 0 0 0 0 38,190
DoD [5] 428,626 12,156 10,938 2,512 15,753 10,331 10,937 10,944 11,831 514,028
USAID [6] 236,984 13,000 29,000 19,000 7,200 10,500 13,233 11,500 11,497 351,914
GRAND TOTAL 1,452,294 160,840 201,132 163,917 189,858 165,283 175,708 200,223 162,454 2,871,709

*Initial planned allocations

Footnotes for Financial Charts:

1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
2. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007
3. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
4. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
5. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction fund. All U.S. Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
6. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.

Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations

CASEVAC Basic Medical and Casualty Evacuation
CWD Conventional Weapons Destruction
DCA DanChurchAid
DDG Danish Demining Group
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
FY Fiscal Year
GICHD Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining
HALO The HALO Trust
HDTC Humanitarian Demining Training Center
HD R&D Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program
HSTAMIDS Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IED Improvised Explosive Device
IMAS International Mine Action Standards
IMSMA Information Management System for Mine Action
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
ITF ITF Enhancing Human Security
MAG Mines Advisory Group
MANPADS Man-portable Air Defense System
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NPA Norwegian People’s Aid
NSPA NATO Support Agency
OAS Organization of American States
OHDACA Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid
OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PM/WRA Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
PSSM Physical Security and Stockpile Management
SA/LW Small Arms and Light Weapons
SoS Spirit of Soccer
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAFRICOM U.S. Africa Command
USCENTCOM U.S. Central Command
USEUCOM U.S. European Command
USSOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command
USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command
UXO Unexploded Ordnance

U.S. Government Interagency Partners

U.S. Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

The Leahy War Victims Fund, managed by USAID, serves as the primary source of U.S. assistance to civilian victims of conflict in developing countries. Established in 1989, the Leahy War Victims Fund is a dedicated source of financial and technical support for people with disabilities, particularly those who sustain mobility-related injuries from anti-personnel mines, UXO, and other injuries resulting from armed conflict and civil strife. To date, the fund has provided over $263 million in assistance to more than 50 countries.

Date: 2017 Description: Through Handicap International, USAID's Leahy War Victims Fund is improving access to physical rehabilitation services in the Democratic Republic of Congo. © USAID Image

The Leahy War Victims Fund was originally tasked with the delivery of immediate care to civilians impacted by landmines and other unexploded ordnance, including the provision of prosthetics and orthotics and rehabilitation services. Its scope has subsequently widened to include initiatives that accommodate the changing needs of the populations it serves and to promote sustainable rehabilitation services in conflict-affected countries. The Fund also supports the development of international standards as well as training on those standards to ensure that rehabilitation practitioners and institutions have sufficient capacity.

A good example of programming supported by the Leahy War Victims Fund in 2016 is the $2 million TEAM project implemented by UCP Wheels for Humanity in Ukraine. Launched in September 2015, TEAM Ukraine focuses on: Training for rehabilitation service personnel; Economic empowerment; Assistive technology delivery; and Medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities. In 2016, UCP Wheels for Humanity partnered with the Ukrainian Association of Physical Therapy and the National Assembly of People with Disabilities to reach over 1,000 people with medical and physical rehabilitation services, assistive products, and greater economic opportunities. Priority was given to civilians affected by conflict. In addition, over 500 professionals were trained on subjects ranging from neurological rehabilitation to the provision of assistive products.

The Leahy War Victims Fund also launched two new regional activities in 2016, one in Francophone West Africa covering Mali, Niger, and Senegal and another in the Middle East, covering Jordan, Lebanon, and the West Bank and Gaza. Both activities seek to strengthen in-country provision of rehabilitation services and expand access to assistive products. This includes direct support to beneficiaries and the strengthening of service providers through physical therapy associations, academic programs, and training for wheelchair service provision. Spending approximately $12 million in 2016, the Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support activities in Burma, Cambodia, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Laos, Nepal, and Tajikistan. The Fund also continues to support several global initiatives spanning multiple countries. This includes support to the International Committee of the Red Cross MoveAbility Foundation with a geographic emphasis on Africa.

http://usaid.gov 

Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC), headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia, is managed and funded by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. HDTC trains and prepares U.S. military forces, U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to build partner-nation capacity in land-based and underwater UXO disposal, and PSSM. In addition to HDTC’s training function, the center provides program management support to the U.S. military’s geographic combatant command mine action programs conducted by USAFRICOM, USCENTCOM, USEUCOM, USPACOM, and USSOUTHCOM. HDTC’s responsibilities include validating humanitarian mine action project plans and budgets, and monitoring and evaluating global Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) funded humanitarian mine action activities.

HDTC has courses on landmine clearance, battle area clearance, PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions, and underwater UXO disposal. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, IMAS, and the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines. The HDTC quality management system, for the provision of curricula and training in disposal of UXO and physical security of stockpiled conventional munitions, is certified to conform to International Organization of Standardization 9001:2008 (https://www.iso.org/standard/46486.html ).

The center utilizes a three-phase approach to provide program management support to the geographic combatant command humanitarian mine action programs. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, HDTC deploys program analysts to assess the current state of a partner nation’s demining program. The assessment, or requirements determination site survey (RDSS), is designed to determine partner nation capability gaps in order to develop humanitarian mine action project goals, objectives, and resource requirements to effectively and efficiently support the partner nation in achieving its demining goals. When concluded, the RDSS provides a viable plan with established objectives and outcomes and is used to request OHDACA funded resources. The director of HDTC, in consultation with the Defense Security Cooperation Agency Office of the General Counsel, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability and Humanitarian Affairs, and PM/WRA, approves the mine action projects.

HDTC also conducts capacity-building training or technical assistance activities in support of combatant command mine action projects. As part of a deployment team or independently, HDTC personnel provide a suite of tools and expertise to perform stockpiled munitions physical security and management, landmine clearance and EOD, and underwater UXO disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The target audience for capacity building is junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, or civil servants who conduct mine action operations as part of their civic duties. In order to sustain the capabilities of partner nation mine action programs, HDTC, in coordination with PM/WRA, executes mine action projects designed to enhance the skills of mine action managers and, to a degree, ministerial or executive level personnel. These projects include seminars and workshops to address legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic level.

http://www.lee.army.mil/hdtc 

Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program

Initiated in 1994, the Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program delivers the latest technology solutions to the most challenging landmine and UXO detection and clearance efforts, with emphasis on improving technologies for mine/UXO detection and mechanical mine/UXO and vegetation clearance. The program is tasked with the rapid development, testing, demonstration, and validation of internationally shareable technologies that increase the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of humanitarian demining operations. Such technologies operate in high-risk areas where manual clearance or mine detection dogs are deemed impractical. Without these technologies, operations partners would be unable to complete and release sites. Host-nation demining partners (foreign militaries, nongovernmental organizations, and mine action centers) test and operate equipment in active minefields and provide feedback for future R&D enhancements.

Date: 2017 Description: MAG deminer uses the HD R&D Program's Scorpion system to detect UXO in eastern Cambodia. © Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

In 2016, the HD R&D Program’s technologies cleared 6.9 million square meters (approximately 1,714 acres) of the world’s toughest minefields, removing or destroying 11,300 mines and items of UXO. Notably, the HD R&D Program participated in the launch meeting of the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia, completed a technology test in-country and is committed to sending demining technology to Colombia in 2017.

To date, the HD R&D Program’s technologies have cleared 40.2 million square meters (approximately 8,450 acres) and removed or destroyed approximately 175,000 mines and pieces of UXO. Since 1995, the program has fielded technologies in support of 199 operational field evaluations in 38 countries and the Palestinian Territories. In 2016, HD R&D performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Palestinian Territories, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.

http://humanitarian-demining.org 

Implementation Tools and Fora

The U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force

What are MANPADS?

MANPADS (Man-portable Air Defense System) are surface-to-air missiles. They were originally developed in the 1960s for national military forces to protect troops and facilities. A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS.

Most MANPADS consist of three components: a missile packaged in a tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (called a “gripstock”), and a battery. The tube, which protects the missile until it is fired, is disposable. A single-use battery typically powers the missile prior to launch.

MANPADS tubes are usually 1.2 to 2 meters (4 feet to 6.5 feet) in length and are about 76 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter. With gripstocks, they weigh from about 13 to 25 kilograms (28 pounds to just more than 55 pounds). This makes them easy to transport and conceal. Some of the most commonly produced MANPADS can fit into an automobile trunk.

Although they look similar, a MANPADS missile should not be confused with a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG). MANPADS missiles can travel at twice the speed of sound and strike aircraft flying at altitudes up to 4.57 kilometers (about 25,000 feet) or out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). RPGs are unguided weapons designed for use against ground targets at much closer range, so they are generally much less effective against aircraft. However, some RPG attacks on aircraft flying at low altitudes and relatively slow speeds have been mistaken for MANPADS attacks.

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force

Since 1973, more than 40 civilian airliners have been hit by MANPADS. In 2002, terrorists used two MANPADS to try to shoot down an Israeli civilian airliner in Mombasa, Kenya. In 2006, National Security Presidential Directive 47 established a comprehensive strategy for aviation security, comprised of seven plans that guide the U.S. government in dealing with the ever-evolving threats to aviation. The International Aviation Threat Reduction Plan delineates specific responsibilities of various U.S. government agencies to mitigate the threat to aviation from MANPADS and other stand-off weapons. The Interagency MANPADS Task Force coordinates and facilitates U.S. government action to counter the illicit proliferation and use of MANPADS. In the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world.

In recent years, arms traffickers and violent extremists have looted MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons from unsecured state stockpiles in Libya and Syria, making efforts to mitigate the MANPADS threat to aviation even more crucial. The Interagency MANPADS Task Force has continued to champion this effort with priority country engagements, increased MANPADS recognition training, and assessments of airports globally. These efforts are in addition to PM/WRA’s stockpile security management and CWD programs, which have resulted in the reduction of over 39,000 MANPADS missiles.

The MANPADS Task Force engages foreign partners in further cooperation and collaboration on MANPADS threat mitigation and counterproliferation initiatives. These engagements increase international awareness of threats posed by illicitly-proliferated MANPADS and act as a force multiplier for U.S. government threat mitigation efforts.

Additionally, the MANPADS Task Force works with various U.S. government entities to incorporate MANPADS recognition training into ongoing border and security training programs. This training helps prevent the illicit trafficking of MANPADS between borders and checkpoints by providing essential personnel the ability to identify and secure MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons when discovered.

Finally, the U.S. government has conducted more than 60 MANPADS assessment visits to airports all over the world, especially those identified as last points of departure to the United States. These assessments identify potential weaknesses to a MANPADS attack in an effort to improve airport security. The ongoing coordinated global efforts of the U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force promote stability and security both in the air and on the ground.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

U.S. PM/WRA Quick Reaction Force (QRF)

The Quick Reaction Force (QRF) is a team of civilian EOD-qualified technical experts who serve as PM/WRA’s first responders to unexpected CWD-related emergencies including munitions depot explosions, ammunition depots at risk of imminent explosion, and UXO that pose a significant threat to civilians. These situations require immediate action to secure or dispose of loose and unstable munitions, prevent loss of life, protect property, and conduct needs assessments for further CWD activities. The QRF is headquartered in Northern Virginia and maintains the ability to deploy globally within 48 hours of being tasked by PM/WRA.

Golden West, the implementing partner for the QRF, is a nongovernmental organization that specializes in demining, battle area clearance, and PSSM. The QRF is staffed by former U.S. military EOD experts who have supported emergency response efforts across the globe.

QRF teams were very active in 2016. Their flexible and adaptable nature allowed the United States to assist six countries with providing effective and safe remediation to some difficult and dangerous situations.

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: In May the QRF conducted PSSM assessments of 19 ammunition storage depots in order to identify conditions and/or practices that could lead to an unplanned explosion. The assessments reinforced the importance of ongoing U.S.-funded demilitarization efforts.
  • Federated States of Micronesia: During April and May the QRF conducted a UXO survey and assessment on Yap Island, Ulithi Atoll, and Pohnpei Island. The assessment of Ulithi Atoll also included an underwater inspection of several suspect naval sea mines located in the vicinity of the island’s shipping channels.
  • Kiribati: The QRF assisted the government of Kiribati from January until November with the recovery and destruction of over 700 ordnance items, over 300 fuzes, and over 5,000 rounds of small arms ammunition that were identified the previous year as a hazard in the aftermath of Cyclone Pam, which had dislodged many of these items.
  • Malawi: During October the QRF surveyed four ammunition storage sites and assessed the aging stockpiles of munitions to determine if they presented an immediate threat to the Malawi Defense Forces and surrounding populations. The survey determined that the stockpiles did not pose an immediate threat and that no emergency action was required.
  • Paraguay: From late November to early December the QRF conducted an assessment of deteriorating ammunition stockpiles at the Paraguayan Military War Materiel Directorate facility, as well as separated and secured dangerous munitions
  • Peru: From September to November two QRF teams were sent to multiple sites to stabilize and dispose of dangerous, deteriorated ordnance presenting a risk of unplanned detonation. The teams succeeded in destroying 12 tons of munitions in the north and an additional 26 tons in the south.

Being a QRF team member is challenging. Members are often required to operate in austere environments including the torrential rains in South America, the mountainous terrain of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the heat of Sub-Saharan Africa, or the waters of the South Pacific. The slightest disturbance of some of the sites they inspect could prove deadly.

Since its inception, the QRF and its precursor the Quick Reaction Demining Force have deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

Senior Managers' Course in Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) and Mine Action

The Senior Managers’ Course (SMC), organized by the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) at James Madison University (JMU), brings together senior-level managers from mine action organizations for training in organizational management skills. During the course, sponsored by PM/WRA, participants refine their program management and strategic planning skills, share expertise and exchange best practices in CWD, and develop a professional network for collaboration with colleagues, international experts, JMU faculty, CISR staff, and PM/WRA personnel.

Date: 2017 Description: SMC participants learn GIS mapping technology in a field project at the 2016 SMC at JMU. © Photo courtesy of CISR.

Since 2004, CISR has hosted 10 SMCs at the JMU campus in Harrisonburg, Virginia and held two regional SMCs with local partners abroad. In 2014, CISR worked with the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) to hold the first regional SMC in Dushanbe. CISR, PM/ WRA, and faculty from the JMU College of Business tailored the course to fit a regional context for programs in South Central Asia. The following year, CISR hosted a Southeast Asia Regional SMC in Vietnam for 30 participants—the largest SMC to date. CISR worked closely with The International Center – Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation in Hanoi and the Association for Empowerment of Persons with Disabilities in Quang Binh to implement the course, including a series of field visits in Central Vietnam.

Date: 2017 Description: SMC participants work on a case study during the 2016 SMC at JMU. © Photo courtesy of CISR.

In 2016, CISR welcomed the course back to Harrisonburg for the aptly named “Global SMC,” as 21 senior managers from 13 different countries participated in the three-week program at JMU. CISR staff led the instruction in conjunction with JMU faculty, PM/WRA staff, and guest lecturers, delivering sessions on effective management, resource mobilization, and special topics in CWD. CISR also incorporated highly successful modules developed for the regional SMCs, including a panel featuring representatives from donor countries and a roundtable discussion with international nongovernmental organizations working in mine action around the world, both held in Washington, D.C.

http://www.jmu.edu/cisr 

Improving Lives Through the U.S. Conventional Weapons Program

Africa--Physical Security and Stockpile Management in Mali

In a central neighborhood of Bamako, the Anti-Crime Brigade (Brigade Anti-Criminalité or BAC) is located in a colonial building next to an elementary school. The unit staffs about 130 officers with a guard post in service 24/7.

Commissary Seydou Sissoko, who is the chief of the BAC said, “BAC is a strategic unit of the Malian Defense and Security Forces (MDSF), located in a central and overcrowded neighborhood of Bamako. This has always challenged the safety of the unit’s armament, as weapons and ammunitions were stored in precarious ways before MAG’s (Mines Advisory Group) interventions.”

Date: 2017 Description: Commissary Sissoko stands next to the newly installed metal gun rack. © Photo courtesy of MAG.

Before MAG’s involvement, all the weapons and ammunition were stored in the guardhouse in an unsafe manner. The main weapons storage area was improvised in a closet that also stored other objects for everyday use. Moreover, as the closet was not big enough, additional weapons and ammunition were lying in any available empty corner, accessible to anyone at any time.

MAG, with financial support from PM/WRA, provided the BAC with a containerized armory and equipped it with metal racks, a key box, a secure cage for the storage of small-caliber ammunition, and a fire extinguisher.

“The quality of my job has drastically changed. On the one hand, securing our armament allows us to better accomplish our mission—that is protecting our people from criminality—by preventing that weapons fall in the wrong hands; on the other, the better organization of our equipment streamlines our workflow,” said Commissary Sissoko.

Date: 2017 Description: Weapons were previously stored in a closet along with other objects in the guardhouse before relocation to the armory. © Photo courtesy of MAG.

Commissary Sissoko further commented, “We are now able to monitor and control weapons and ammunitions flow. Our country is experiencing a very unstable security situation, fueled by the precarious conditions in which we used to work; but we are now advancing our strategy and realize how pivotal accountability and safety in our job is.”

MAG’s objective is to improve security and stability in Mali and in the Sahel. Since MAG began PSSM operations in Mali in 2015, it has secured more than 21,000 weapons, built three storehouses for explosives, and trained 169 MDSF personnel in SA/LW management. MDSF authorities highly appreciate MAG’s contributions, and have asked for continued support to strengthen security and reduce the risk of diversion of state-owned SA/LW to illicit markets.

East Asia and Pacific--U.S. Assistance Helps Develop a Mine Action Professional in Cambodia

Ms. Sophary Sophin was born in 1987 in a small village outside of Siem Reap during a period of civil war in Cambodia. As a young girl, she and her family had to evade Khmer Rouge fighters every evening, sometimes taking refuge in another village and sometimes floating in the water to hide. The sides of the path she walked to school were littered with anti-vehicle mines; a neighbor’s family lost a son and a husband to an anti-vehicle mine explosion. Her childhood experience motivated her to work on demining and she “jumped into this sector with no doubt.” She started by working in the office of Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD), an NGO funded in part by the United States. When CSHD founder Aki Ra and his wife took Ms. Sophary to see the work in the minefield and the demining team showed her how to wear the protective clothes, safely enter the minefield, and use the demining tools, she felt “very happy and excited.” She did not tell her family or friends that she had started demining in the field. Later, when they found out, they told her to quit the job because of the danger. She said, “My family and friends thought I was crazy.”

Date: 2017 Description: Ms. Sophary, Cambodian Self Help Demining/Landmine Relief Fund's Operations Manager who supervises demining and EOD teams, gives a briefing on landmines and UXO. © Photo courtesy of Cambodian Self Help Demining.

Now after more than nine years at CSHD, Ms. Sophary has risen up in the organization and taken on increasing responsibilities: managing a demining team’s operations and resources for maximum efficiency, effectiveness, and safety. She develops annual work and budget plans, presents them to donors, and reports on CSHD’s work to all stakeholders (donors and Cambodian central and local authorities). She has had to work hard to overcome bias against her as a young female, succeeding due both to education and to her honest and likeable personality. She paid her own way through high school and university with a restaurant job and extremely frugal living, completing her bachelor’s degree in accounting, and entering a program for a master’s degree in management, and becoming certified on EOD. She loves fighting the “haunting killer” of mines and UXO and making villagers “feel safe in their mind and body.”

Ms. Sophary aspires to expand the CSHD program, get more women involved, and one day help other countries afflicted by landmines. With her job and modest lifestyle, she has been able to pay her family’s debts, send her younger brother to university, take care of her parents, and help seven cousins from poor villages finish high school. Her dream is to raise the quality of education in Cambodia to the level of any developed country and perhaps enter politics to serve her country more.

Europe--Clearing Ordnance in My Own Backyard

In 1997, in the Kordhoc area of Albania, two separate munitions storage units exploded. The army conducted some initial surface clearance but civilians in the area remained severely affected. Not until July 2016 did additional clearance begin, spearheaded by NPA in partnership with ITF.

Date: 2017 Description: Malo Buci discusses with NPA how uncleared UXO has impacted his family. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

Since 2000 Malo Buci has lived in a house near the explosion site. His house is inside the NPA clearance zone, surrounded by ammunition on and below surface. This is his firsthand account of NPA clearance activities and the effect it has had on his livelihood and quality of life:

“When I first started living in this area, all the land was contaminated. You could see different UXO widespread on the ground. At the time no one was cleaning the area. I had to gather all the devices around the house and notify the army or police to come and take them. All this initial clearance was done by me. I would not allow my wife or daughter to clean, because I was worried for their safety. I was able to clean the garden around the house, but there were still a lot of devices outside the garden. I thus don’t allow my children to play outside because there are a lot of safety issues and concerns that I have. When we want to plant vegetables or fruits, I am always doing it. I am worried that a member of my family during planting will find a device under the surface…I am happy that all the area is finally being cleared by people that are specialized for this job and have the necessary and appropriate equipment.

The clearance is providing significant benefits to me and my family. The clearance will give more opportunity for my family and other people to access safe land, and I will no longer need to worry about safety of my loved ones.”

By October 2016, NPA had removed 320 items of UXO from the area, including hand grenades, projectiles, and fuzes.

Date: 2017 Description: An NPA deminer clears the land around Malo Buci's house to allow for future planting. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

Middle East and North Africa--Survivor Who Received Assistance Now Helps Others

In 1999 in Yemen, Mrs. Labibah Abdo Saif was just nine years old when she saw something in the road that looked interesting and picked it up. Her discovery exploded, causing her to lose her right eye and right leg, and to suffer severe facial wounds. She described the experience: “I was walking to school in third grade, and I had no idea that there was something on the road waiting to take away my beauty and my happiness for the rest of my life. I saw an object lying alongside the road. It was a nice color and shape, so I thought that I could use it to carry drinking water or as kitchenware for cooking. I also thought that my mother would be happy if I gave it to her…but suddenly it exploded when I tried to take it.”

Date: 2017 Description: Mrs. Labibah Abdo Saif was honored as Survivor of the Year by MLI in October 2016. © Photo courtesy of MLI.

The resulting surgeries and care she required were very difficult for her family, who sold all its belongings to pay for her initial treatment. She was extremely depressed, particularly when she saw other children happily playing. However, despite the suffering she endured at such an early age, Mrs. Labibah has grown to demonstrate great courage and compassion. Refusing to give up, she worked hard to recover from her injuries and continue her education. She registered with the Yemen Mine Action Center (YEMAC) and was one of the first Yemeni landmine survivors to receive further treatment abroad. Upon her return, she participated in MLI’s vocational training courses, learned how to use a computer, and began learning English. With these new skills, in 2010 she secured employment with the Yemeni Association of Landmine Survivors (YALS) and the Ministry of Social Affairs, and has been working as a YALS Training Officer since 2012. Now married and the mother of three young children, she enjoys working with fellow survivors to prepare them for a brighter future.

South and Central Asia--The Expeditionary Nature of Demining in the Afghan Highlands

In Afghanistan, significant numbers of traditional communities eke out a living on grassland plateaus high in the mountain ranges by raising goats and sheep for their own subsistence and modest trading. Shepherds have grazed their flocks in these areas for a century or more, but in recent decades their work has been made more hazardous, at times by active conflict, and more constantly by landmine contamination. Soviet forces and Mujahideen fighters, followed by Northern Alliance groups and Taliban forces, sought to establish posts and bases on ridgelines above villages and valleys for surveillance and to control the high ground during fighting. Frequently, these groups laid mines around their posts, and therefore much of the remaining contamination is found on steep hillsides and hilltops.

Date: 2017 Description: A shepherd takes a break from herding his flock on ground where PM/WRA-funded teams found 19 anti-personnel landmines. © Photo courtesy of HALO.

Manual demining teams represent the bulk of operational capacity in Afghanistan because they are the most efficient and cost-effective method for conducting clearance in mountainous areas. The Afghanistan Technical Consultants (ATC) utilized donkeys to carry equipment to their high-mountain camps to conduct clearance operations, as most hazards within Chaharikar and Salang Districts of Parwan Province are located near the top of mountains. With no roads for vehicles, the donkeys had to pack in everything needed for the operations: demining equipment, safety equipment, medical supplies for emergencies, tents, food, clothing, and communications gear. Planning these expeditions is complex and must be thorough. Using narrow footpaths, some journeys to the camps take three to four hours. The same donkeys used to carry heavy equipment up the trails are also relied upon to evacuate casualties if needed. These “beasts of burden,” by providing support to demining operations, help grant local shepherds access to more grassland and more peace of mind for their own safety and the protection of their flocks and livelihoods.

Date: 2017 Description: An ATC demining team moves with equipment-laden donkeys along a rough mountain pass in Salang District, Parwan Province, Afghanistan. © Photo courtesy of ATC.

Western Hemisphere--Reducing Excess Ammunition and Building Critical Skills in Peru

In September 2016, Peruvian Army commanders were concerned about the stability of aging and deteriorating excess ammunition creating risks to military personnel on base and to the surrounding civilian communities. At the request of the Peruvian government, the Department of State’s QRF, managed by the Golden West, deployed to assist the Peruvian Army with its PSSM management program.

A QRF team conducted initial assessments of ammunition storage facilities in both northern and southern Peru. After evaluating the condition of munitions, storage facilities, and the army’s PSSM training capacity, the QRF discussed the findings with senior Peruvian officials, Golden West, and Department of State personnel.

Date: 2017 Description: The QRF prepares munitions for disposal during one of the planned explosions. © Photo courtesy of Golden West.

All agreed that a formal QRF deployment would be beneficial to both the army and local communities. The initial QRF team remained in northern Peru, while Golden West sent another team of senior technical advisors south. Both teams provided ammunition disposal training and reduction of excess, obsolete, and unserviceable ammunition. They were also tasked with assessing a potential contingent of officers and non-commissioned officers for future formal EOD training.

In the north, the QRF team stabilized three remote depots, completely disposing of the contents of two of them. In the south, the Central Ammunition Depot near Paracas held a large amount of excess, unserviceable, and deteriorating ammunition. The Golden West team arrived in mid-October and began conducting ammunition disposal training for the soldiers. Training included basic range safety, demolition procedures, and ammunition recognition, with special emphasis on MANPADS.

The Peruvian military personnel were great students and highly motivated to learn new skills. Many of the officers and non-commissioned officers were also assessed for aptitude and motivation for future formal EOD training, something the Peruvians hoped to develop to export their peacekeeping operations.

The Golden West and QRF teams faced harsh environmental conditions to get the job done. In the thick jungles of northern Peru, teams worked through heavy rains, lightning and floods, as well as a myriad of biting and stinging insects. Desert-like terrain in the south provided dust, heat, and windy conditions. After long days and weeks working on the ranges, the teams succeeded in destroying 12 tons of potentially dangerous munitions in the north and an additional 26 tons in the south. All mission objectives were achieved or exceeded.

Regional Profile: Africa

Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $416.8 million.

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $416.8 million: Angola 30.38%, *Benin 0.0%, Burkina Faso 0.23%, Burundi 0.83%, CAR 0.06%, Chad 3.36%, DRC 4.70%, Congo 0.70%, Djibouti 0.76%, Eritrea 4.48%, Ethiopia 3.89%, Guinea 0.03%, Guinea-Bissau 1.85%, Kenya 0.75%, *Lesotho 0.00%, Liberia 1.22%, Mali 0.46%, Mauritania 1.88%, Mozambique 13.93%, Namibia 2.31%, Niger 0.29%, Nigeria 0.44%, Rwanda 3.14%, Sao Tome/Principe 0.01%, Senegal 1.47%, Sierra Leone 0.43%, Somalia 5.97%, South Sudan 3.30%, Sudan 7.55%, Swaziland 0.32%, Tanzania 0.65%, Togo 0.01%, Uganda 0.31%, Zambia 0.61%, Zimbabwe 3.48%; *Less than 0.01%. - State Dept Image

Many countries across Africa continue to suffer the devastating consequences of decades of past conflicts, while others face threats from terrorists like Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, and other extremist groups active in the region that have declared support to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Elsewhere in the region, dense minefields and UXO hotspots endanger civilians and obstruct economic progress.

Unlawful trafficking of SA/LW in the Sahel and in East and Central Africa threatens regional security and provides the means for cross-border violence and terrorist attacks. State-held stockpiles of excess conventional arms and munitions are poorly secured in some countries, creating a risk for illicit weapons diversion. Weak security institutions and porous state borders make it easier for violent extremist groups and other non-state actors to illegally obtain SA/LW and launch attacks throughout the Sahel, East and Central Africa, and beyond. For example, the greater Sahel region continues to suffer the influx of illicit SA/LW from post-Qadhafi Libya, with these weapons ending up in the hands of Boko Haram fighters in Nigeria and the Lake Chad basin.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD programs have provided more than $416 million of assistance in 35 countries in the region. Through these programs, the United States supports international efforts to partner with countries to reduce stockpiles and improve PSSM to stem this mounting crisis. CWD efforts by the United States and international partners promote greater stability in the region, which enhances peacebuilding and sets the stage for economic growth and opportunity.

Angola

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY95–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,000 5,600 4,700 102,504
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 179 152 551 8,791
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
COUNTRY TOTAL 6,179 5,752 5,251 122,966

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A deminer looks over clearance operations in Moxico Province, Angola. Soon this land will be made safe and handed over to the community for agriculture and access to the nearby river. © Photo courtesy of MAG.

Following more than 40 years of conflict, Angola is one of the world’s most landmine and UXO-affected countries, with all of its 18 provinces reporting some level of contamination. According to the Angolan government’s March 2015 nationwide census, 88,716 people were living with a disability caused by landmines or UXO. Several accidents in 2016 highlighted the continued need for increased clearance efforts. As of December 2016, the Angolan government reported 118 square kilometers (about 45 square miles) of contamination. Aging weapons and munitions, also a legacy of the conflict, pose risks of both illicit proliferation and accidental detonation, placing thousands of civilian lives in danger. Approximately two million SA/LW were distributed to civil defense forces during the civil war, and massive government stockpiles of SA/LW and excess munitions remain.

From 1995 to 2016, the United States invested more than $122.9 million for CWD in Angola, improving access to land and infrastructure through mine and UXO removal and disposal; destroying unserviceable, excess, and unsecured SA/LW and munitions; and developing Angola’s CWD capacity.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The HALO Trust (HALO) continued to conduct humanitarian demining, surveyed suspected hazardous areas, cleared confirmed hazardous areas, performed explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) “spot” tasks, destroyed SA/LW, and safely destroyed or reduced other at-risk and excess munitions. HALO also provided mine risk education.
  • MAG continued to survey suspected hazardous areas, cleared confirmed hazardous areas, conducted EOD “spot” tasks, and safely destroyed or reduced at-risk and excess munitions. MAG also provided mine risk education.
  • Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) continued to survey suspected hazardous areas, clear confirmed hazardous areas, conduct EOD “spot” tasks, and provide mine risk education. NPA also facilitated a land return program in the province of Malanje for productive use through technical survey, mine and battle area clearance, and surveyed and defined confirmed hazardous areas in the municipalities of Cambundi-Catembo, Luquembo, and Quirima.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D provided funding and new technology to support mine action assistance in Angola. In partnership with MAG, HD R&D expanded the operations of the dual-sensor Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in manual mine clearance of densely cluttered minefields. MAG also began using the Rex, a versatile, lightweight armored excavator designed to clear vegetation and obstacles, and mechanically remove and neutralize anti-personnel mines and UXO. HD R&D’s program partners have used its technologies in the clearance of more than 1.3 million square meters (501,933 square miles) of land and 750 mines and pieces of UXO since 2006.

Burkina Faso

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY15–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 941 0 941
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 941 0 941

Dollars in thousands

Burkina Faso is a major transit point for illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and conventional munitions, a situation that has been exacerbated by the availability of SA/LW proliferated from post-Qadhafi Libya. Flush with illicitly-trafficked weaponry, violent extremist groups pose a threat to the stability of the region’s governments. The January 2016 terrorist attack on the Splendid Hotel in Ouagadougou killed 30 people from several countries, including an American citizen. This attack, and others on gendarmerie stations and schools along the border, demonstrate the ongoing instability and threats to good governance in Burkina Faso.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • MAG worked to improve PSSM capacity in the capital, Ouagadougou, and in the town of Bobo Dioulasso, and to reduce stockpiles threatened by violent extremist organizations in the north.

Chad

FUNDING* FY14 FY15 FY16 FY95–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,657 0 8,556
DoD 325 0 50 5,050
COUNTRY TOTAL 325 1,657 50 13,606

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

The Sahel region has experienced a surge of instability from violent extremist organizations bolstered by the influx of illicitly-trafficked SA/LW from post-Qadhafi Libya. Chad is a transit point for illicit weapons coming from Libya into northern Chad and from Sudan into eastern Chad. With U.S. support, Chad has made substantial efforts to counter violent extremist organization threats it faces on two fronts: against al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb in the north and Boko Haram in the southwest.

From 1995 to 2016, the United States invested more than $13.6 million in Chad for the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved PSSM, mine removal, surveys, and assessments. Additional funding supported MANPADS threat reduction activities, including counter-proliferation patrols that Chad’s Special Anti-Terrorism Group (SATG) operates.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • MAG supported the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved the host nation’s PSSM capabilities, and managed surveys and assessments for future work. This program, with a primary emphasis on the Chadian SATG, increased Chad’s ability to reduce illicit SA/LW trafficking and better repel direct attacks on its stockpile facilities and infrastructure by violent extremist organizations.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) conducted two missions in Chad focused on developing a cadre to teach basic EOD Level I awareness to assist Chad’s National Demining Center’s ability to respond to Boko Haram activities.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY02-16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 500 500 11,613
DoD 373 107 0 1,083
USAID 1,300 2,000 1,722 6,322
COUNTRY TOTAL 4,173 2,607 2,222 19,018

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A deminer in the DRC organizes her tools during manual demining. - State Dept Image

Following two decades of war with neighboring states and non-state actors, several of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) provinces remain contaminated with landmines and UXO. According to the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), as of 2016 a total of 58 suspected hazardous areas remained. Five of the DRC’s 26 provinces still contain confirmed or suspected mine contamination. In 2015, the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) conducted a countrywide assessment of storage facilities to identify unstable, obsolete, and excess stockpiles of arms and ammunition. The FARDC identified 336.7 metric tons of ammunition that threaten a population of more than 7.5 million people.

In addition to mine and UXO contamination, illicit flows of SA/LW easily pass through porous borders unchecked by weakened governmental controls, as illegally armed groups occupy some of these areas. Non-state actors in the eastern and northern provinces of the DRC continue to terrorize civilians and conduct cross-border operations against neighboring countries.

From 2002 to 2016, the United States invested more than $19 million in funding for CWD efforts in the DRC, destroying more than 150,000 SA/LW, 1,229 tons of munitions, 345 anti-vehicle mines, 2,018 anti-personnel landmines, and 14 MANPADS, as well as improving the DRC’s PSSM capacity and supporting the DRC government’s ability to mark and trace all state-owned weapons.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG collected and disposed of 204 tons of obsolete and surplus ammunition and 10,490 weapons, training the DRC military and Congolese police personnel in PSSM practices, and making basic security improvements to arms storage facilities.
  • DanChurchAid (DCA) continued to advance sustainable development in the DRC by clearing mines and UXO in areas of priority humanitarian need, and educating the public about the risks of mines and UXO.
  • Polus conducted a study on how communities affected by conflict could benefit from economic opportunity through the DRC’s emerging coffee industry, partnering with cooperatives and local farmers impacted by CWD.
  • Conflict Recovery International (CRI) provided mine risk education to more than 30,000 school age children through an interactive Peace Puzzle, which demonstrated what to do if they encountered a mine or UXO.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Handicap International to deliver rehabilitation services, including assistive products, and promote economic opportunity for individuals affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities. The effort included strengthening the capacity of service providers.

Mali

FUNDING * FY14 FY15 FY16 FY13–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,200 500 1,700
DoD 0 0 170 170
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 1,200 670 1,870

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

An increase in violent extremist organizations stemming from a post-Qadhafi Libya allowed for an uptick in illicit trafficking of SA/LW throughout the Sahel. In Mali, militant groups supported a 2012 coup, further destabilizing the country. Tuareg rebels and Islamist militias seized the country’s north, while a military coup prevented an effective response from the country’s elected leadership. Although intervention by French forces re-established order, the country still suffers from an insurgency in the north, and hosts a major UN-led peacekeeping mission. Mali remains a major transit point for illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and conventional munitions.

From 2013 to 2016, the United States invested more than $1.87 million in Mali. These projects supported the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved the host nation’s PSSM capacity, and managed surveys and assessments to scope future work.

In 2016, the Department of State supported MAG to work with the military and police to improve their PSSM capacity and built/refurbished 15 armories around the country.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARAF conducted a feasibility study for expanding programs in Mali. The Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Mauritania

FUNDING* FY14 FY15 FY16 FY95–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 300 500 3,195
DoD 0 0 0 4,410
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 300 500 7,605

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

Poorly secured stockpiles of arms and munitions remain a threat throughout Mauritania. Illicit SA/LW trafficking is also widespread throughout the region, jeopardizing the country’s efforts to remain stable and prosperous.

In 2010, the government of Mauritania requested stockpile management assistance for the Mauritania National Army through a NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund. Italy agreed to serve as the lead nation, and the NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) implemented the Trust Fund. The project resulted in the construction of two ammunition storage depots, the training of 26 stockpile management personnel, and the destruction of 1,714 tons of excess ammunition, 2,210 SA/LW, and 141 MANPADS.

Following the successful implementation of the Trust Fund, the government of Mauritania requested that NATO develop a second Trust Fund with three phases to include the construction of an additional arms/ammunition supply area, training for PSSM, the destruction of ammunition and MANPADS, and the destruction of decommissioned weapons systems. In early 2015, the United States agreed to serve as lead nation for the first phase of this second Trust Fund.

From 1995 to 2016, the United States invested more than $7.6 million in Mauritania. These projects supported the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, and improved the host nation army’s PSSM capacity.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • NSPA destroyed 1,164 tons of ammunition, 63 MANPADS, and 10 gripstocks, and began planning for construction of an ammunition storage area and the provision of PSSM training.

Niger

FUNDING* FY14 FY15 FY16 FY13–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 693 500 1,193
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 693 500 1,193

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

The fall of the Qadhafi regime in Libya, and more recently the threat of Boko Haram emanating from northeastern Nigeria and violent extremist activity along the Malian border, have challenged Niger’s quest for stability. While the threat of non-state actors, illicit trafficking of SA/LW, and poor control of national stockpiles pose a significant challenge, Niger is considered a linchpin for regional stability.

Date: 2017 Description: In Niger obsolete ammunition is destroyed in an incinerator provided by Handicap International. © Photo courtesy of Handicap International.

From 2013 to 2016, the United States invested more than $1.1 million in CWD funding toward the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved PSSM capacity and surveys and assessments.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Handicap International provided PSSM training to the Nigerien Armed Forces and the National Guard, destroyed two tons of obsolete ammunition, and secured previously poorly managed weapons in a number of storage facilities.

Senegal

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY02–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 400 400 3,305
DOS Other 0 0 0 260
DoD 367 1,147 100 1,866
USAID 0 0 0 500
COUNTRY TOTAL 367 1,547 500 5,931

Dollars in thousands

More than 30 years of internal conflict between the government of Senegal and the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance (MFDC) left the country’s Casamance region littered with landmines and UXO. With the successful clearance of most landmines from the rest of Senegal, the United States began assistance for projects in the Casamance region in 2008. Demining ceased temporarily after the MFDC kidnapped deminers in May 2013. However, work resumed in September 2014 on a limited basis and has continued in the absence of further hostile action. Landmine clearance in the region has continued to facilitate the Casamance peace process, ultimately encouraging stability in the region.

From 2002 to 2016, the United States invested more than $5.9 million in CWD funding toward mine and UXO clearance, mine risk education, technical and non-technical surveys of suspected hazard areas, and capacity building.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Handicap International continued to conduct humanitarian demining in the Casamance region, survey suspected hazard areas, and provide mine risk education.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Africa Command (USAFRICOM), the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa (USMARFORAF), and the Vermont National Guard partnered with the Austrian Ministry of Defense to continue implementing a comprehensive plan to build the Senegal PSSM training program. The Senegal Humanitarian Mine Action Training Center used international and intergovernmental partners to provide a holistic approach to building capacity within the Senegal Armed Forces. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Somalia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY98–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 1,800 2,000 24,145
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,000 1,800 2,000 24,145

Dollars in thousands

The Ethiopian-Somali wars and more than 22 years of internal conflicts among clans have left much of Somalia contaminated with landmines and UXO. Many abandoned stockpiles of arms and munitions are located near residential areas in major cities. Conventional weapons and SA/LW trafficking are also widespread. This flow of weapons and munitions constitutes a grave threat to Somalia’s civilian population and regional stability.

From 1998 to 2016, the United States invested more than $24.1 million in CWD programs in Somalia for humanitarian mine clearance, SA/LW destruction, MANPADS stockpile reduction, survivor assistance, and other programs, increasing access to critical infrastructure and promoting overall stability.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO supported a final humanitarian mine action project in Somaliland that cleared over 450,000 square meters (11.1 acres) during the year. It also piloted weapons and ammunition disposal teams in south-central Somalia to mitigate the threat of loose conventional weapons in non-state hands.
  • MAG assisted the Somaliland security forces and Darawish (Puntland forces) by improving storage at military facilities.

South Sudan

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY11-16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,135 2,000 2,000 12,535
DoD 0 0 0 826
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,135 2,000 2,000 13,361

Dollars in thousands

Decades of civil war resulted in serious neglect of South Sudan’s economy and infrastructure. Residual landmines and UXO, and loose SA/LW, including MANPADS, threaten communities throughout the country and compromise security in the region. Recent conflict renewed concern about access to land for internally displaced persons. Lack of access in certain northern provinces due to conflict and the pressing needs of displaced people in southern provinces prompted the United States to transition from traditional humanitarian mine action projects to focus on UXO clearance. In addition, instability from fighting in July 2016 made all but small-scale projects impossible to execute. Current implementing partners continue to adapt to the security situation and reorient their plans to the needs of internally displaced people.

From 2003 to 2010, the United States provided more than $27.7 million in CWD funding to Sudan prior to southern Sudan’s secession, directing much of it to southern provinces.

From South Sudan’s independence in 2011 to 2016, the United States invested more than $13.3 million directly to South Sudan for mine and UXO removal, survivor assistance programs, and enhanced SA/LW stockpile security.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA continued to provide EOD and battle area clearance teams in stable provinces around the capital, Juba.
  • MAG continued to provide a roving EOD-SA/LW team that disposed of stockpiles of abandoned ordnance and safely cleared UXO in stable provinces; it also supported a community liaison team.
  • NPA continued to provide EOD and battle area clearance teams in accessible provinces around Juba.

Zimbabwe

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY98–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,750 3,000 1,000 10,568
DoD 0 173 78 3,516
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,750 3,173 1,078 14,102

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: In Zimbabwe villagers carry water through a gap between marked minefields. © Photo courtesy of HALO.

Almost 40 years after its war of independence and 20 years after neighboring Mozambique’s civil war, Zimbabwe is still contaminated with landmines. Zimbabwe Security Forces’ records indicate more than 2.5 million anti-personnel mines, 76,000 anti-personnel fragmentation mines, and an unknown number of anti-vehicle mines were laid in three-to-five landmine belts interspersed with booby traps and contaminated with UXO. In the northeast, the mine density ratio could be as high as 5,500 landmines per linear kilometer (0.62 mile). The estimate for remaining mine contamination is approximately 557 linear kilometers (about 346 miles) along the border with Mozambique.

From 1998 to 2016, the United States invested more than $14.1 million to Zimbabwe for CWD capacity building, including funding NGOs and training multiple military engineer companies to facilitate the removal and safe disposition of mines and UXO, and the return of land for agricultural use.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to clear highly impacted communities along the northeastern border with Mozambique, survey suspected hazard areas, provide mine risk education and survivor assistance, and initiate mechanical clearance assets.
  • NPA continued to clear highly impacted communities along the eastern border with Mozambique, survey suspected hazard areas, provide mine risk education and survivor assistance, and initiate a mine detection dog program.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D provided mine clearance support to HALO and NPA through continued evaluation of HSTAMIDS in extremely cluttered minefields. To date, the technologies have assisted in the clearance of 89,000 square meters (34,363 square miles) of land, including 1,900 mines.

Great Lakes Region

Cross-border trafficking of SA/LW coupled with decades of conflict affects the countries in the African Great Lakes region. Porous borders and inadequate security checkpoints contribute to SA/LW proliferation, which exacerbates regional insecurity. Remote weapons depots are the sites most at risk of exploitation by violent non-state actors. Assisting the countries in the Great Lakes region to better protect stockpiles and destroy excess items will reduce the possibility of spontaneous explosions of munitions and illicit trafficking in SA/LW.

To address the SA/LW challenge, the governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004. The Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa was created to implement the Nairobi Protocol. From 2006 through 2016, the United States has provided more than $5.8 million in support of RECSA’s initiatives, including $500,000 in FY16. These initiatives supported the procurement and shipment of 495 firearm storage units to KenyaTanzania, and Uganda to strengthen stockpile security, increase accountability, and reduce the threat of proliferation. PSSM training iterations were conducted, benefitting 119 individuals from host nations’ security forces. Lastly, U.S. support allowed RESCA to destroy more than 17,000 firearms and 195 tons of UXO in 2016.

Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided $725,000 for CWD in other African countries. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services in the following countries:

  • Kenya: USAFRICOM, in partnership with the U.S. Embassy and the British Peace Support Training Center, is establishing a regional counter-improvised explosive device (C-IED) center of excellence at the Humanitarian Peace Support School in Nairobi to train EOD Level I/II, PSSM, SA/LW, medical first responder, and various C-IED/IED competencies. USAFRICOM is also working with the Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) to establish a C-IED unit within the Kenya Engineers. Training for this initiative is taking place in KDF facilities at Archers Post four hours northwest of Nairobi.
  • Namibia: Two training missions were conducted in Otavi, Namibia by the U.S. Naval Forces Africa (USNAVAF). Missions focused on EOD/UXO operations and medical first responder with the National Defense Force (NDF) and Namibian Police. The NDF training center in Otavi is well developed and the cadre is in the process of taking over training from U.S. personnel.
  • Nigeria: In coordination with the British Military Training Team, USARAF and USAFRICOM conducted a policy development visit to synchronize U.S. humanitarian mine action activities with U.S. and British C-IED training. Training and an initial shipment of equipment was provided.
  • Tanzania: USNAVAF conducted two training missions at the Tanzania People’s Defense Force new training site in the Peace Keeping Training Complex centering on EOD and International Mine Action Standards (IMAS).

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Handicap International in Mali, Niger, and Senegal to strengthen rehabilitation services, including the provision of assistive products, and provide direct support to persons with disabilities, with an emphasis on civilians affected by conflict.

Date: 2017 Description: Firearms are destroyed in Ngong, Kenya in November 2016. © Photo courtesy of the Department of State and RECSA.

Regional Profile: East Asia and Pacific

East Asia and Pacific Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in East Asia and Pacific from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $415 million

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in East Asia and Pacific from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $415 million: Burma 1.77%, Cambodia 31.20%, Laos 33.90%, Marshall Islands 0.23%, Palau 0.46%, Philippines 0.67%, Solomon Islands 1.03%, Thailand 4.29%, Vietnam 26.45%. [Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 74.]- State Dept Image

Landmines and UXO have remained a persistent threat in many countries in the East Asia and Pacific region dating back to World War II. With the Vietnam War and the related bombing of Laos and Cambodia by U.S. forces, Southeast Asia has suffered perhaps the most from the lingering dangers of explosive hazards. According to the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Laos is the most heavily bombed country per capita in the world. Cambodia underwent 30 years of conflict which ended in the 1990s and resulted in additional landmine and UXO contamination.

For the past 20 years, efforts to make the region safe from mines and UXO have strengthened our relationships with several countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. In addition to smart investments in clearance operations and survivor assistance, the United States and its implementing partners are building local CWD capacity, allowing countries to manage these challenges themselves over the long term.

Since 1997, the U.S. CWD program has provided $415 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for building local capacity, clearing legacy ordnance, providing mine risk education, assisting victims, and reducing SA/LW proliferation.

Burma

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY11–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 2,000 0 2,835
DOS-OTHER 850 0 0 850
USAID 1,500 0 500 3,350
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,350 2,000 500 7,035

Dollars in thousands

As a result of decades of internal conflict between the Burmese army and armed ethnic groups, landmines concentrated along Burma’s borders with Bangladesh, China, and Thailand remain a threat, particularly to ethnic minority communities. Landmines continue to be deployed in conflict areas, albeit in reduced numbers, while World War II-era UXO still affects the country.

While no comprehensive estimate of the level of contamination exists, the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported that in August 2016, the Ministry of Health and Sports released data for the first time on landmine fatalities. The ministry reported that 101 people had died as a result of anti-personnel landmine incidents during the 18-month period from January 2015 to June 2016. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor identified 3,693 as the number of all known casualties from 1999 through the end of 2015 from mine and UXO incidents in Burma, but the total number of casualties is unknown and expected to be much higher.

From 2011 to 2016, the United States invested more than $7 million for programs that supported survivor assistance and risk education services in Burma.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (using FY15 funds):

  • Danish Demining Group (DDG) conducted risk education and victim assistance in Kachin and Northern Shan States.
  • Handicap International provided risk education, victim assistance, and livelihoods support in Bago and Kayin States.

Through USAID’s Office of Transition Initiatives, the Leahy War Victims Fund supported Development Alternatives International to improve access to rehabilitation service providers, and increase socioeconomic opportunities for civilians affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities.

Cambodia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY93–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,216 8,307 5,500 82,123
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 1,722 2,379 1,717 22,094
USAID 633 500 303 15,084
COUNTRY TOTAL 8,571 11,186 7,520 124,344

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: Children in Cambodia participate in mine risk education as part of the Spirit of Soccer (SoS) program. © Photo courtesy of SoS.

Nearly three decades of armed conflict has left Cambodia seriously affected by mines and UXO, which still kill or injure nearly 100 people per year and keep poor communities impoverished by limiting access to farmland. The Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), and Vietnamese and Thai militaries laid extensive minefields during the Indochina wars, Vietnamese occupation, and factional fighting that ended in 1999.

The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports that Cambodia’s anti-personnel mine problem is concentrated in, but not limited to, 21 northwestern districts along the border with Thailand that account for the great majority of mine casualties. Contamination includes the remains of the 1,046 kilometer-long K-5 mine belt that was installed along the Thai border in the mid-1980s to block insurgent infiltration, and ranks among the densest contamination in the world with up to 2,400 mines per linear kilometer. Desperately poor Cambodians are migrating to this area in growing numbers, and the search for land and the pull of the Thai labor market led to a spike in anti-personnel mine casualties in 2016.

Additionally, U.S. air and artillery strikes during the Vietnam War left heavy concentrations of UXO in the eastern and northeastern areas of the country along the border with Vietnam, which also face growing migratory pressure.

Cambodia reached a significant milestone in 2016 with more than 50 percent of contaminated land cleared. The Cambodian Mine Action Authority (CMAA) is actively engaging international development partners and operators in finalizing the National Mine Action Strategy 2017–2025, a document intended to be the roadmap for releasing all known mine-contaminated areas by 2025.

From 1993 to 2016, the U.S. government invested more than $124 million for CWD programs in Cambodia that cleared mines and UXO, provided mine risk education, assisted RCAF with PSSM of SA/LW, and supported national capacity development.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Golden West, in partnership with RCAF, supported an explosive harvesting system and the development of appropriate PSSM. In a joint project with the Department of Defense, Golden West’s underwater EOD capacity development team mentored, trained, and sustained the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) Dive Unit. Golden West is also continuing a global engineering initiative, an accountability program for demolition charges in Cambodia, and joint research and development with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States) and Singapore University.
  • HALO provided survey and clearance assets in some of the densest minefields along the K-5 mine belt in western Cambodia.
  • Landmine Relief Fund supported two Cambodia Self Help Demining EOD teams conducting small village clearance in northwestern Cambodia.
  • MAG provided survey and clearance assets in western Cambodia and cluster munition clearance assets in eastern Cambodia. MAG also partnered with the Department of Defense HD R&D Program to perform technology testing through survey and clearance in Ratanakiri Province.
  • NPA collaborated with CMAC to support Demining Unit 5, focused on the survey and clearance of U.S.-origin contamination in eastern Cambodia, and conducted its own cluster munition survey activities in eastern Cambodia while supporting information management support and national capacity development of the CMAA.
  • Spirit of Soccer (SoS) delivered mine risk education to primary school children through soccer coaching activities and sport.

The Department of Defense funded the following:

  • HD R&D provided funding and new technology to support mine action assistance in Cambodia, including an additional Scorpion UXO detection system. HD R&D continued to support technology, including a second Minehound (a dual sensor handheld detector), the Piranha minefield area reduction and technical survey system, the Badger tracked excavator, the Nemesis skid-steer, Bearcat vegetation clearance system, Quadcopter remote monitoring system, Scorpion UXO detection system, an underwater UXO detection system, and Mined Area Management System (an application for real-time data collection in the field).
  • With funding and support of both the Department of State and HD R&D, HALO and MAG continued their operations of the HSTAMIDS in manual mine clearance of densely cluttered minefields. HSTAMIDS operators in Cambodia have accurately discriminated 20 million detections as metallic clutter rather than mines, each discrimination saving 10–15 minutes of excavation. HD R&D’s partners have used its technologies in the clearance of more than 19.4 million square meters (4,794 acres) of land and 37,000 mines and pieces of UXO to date.
  • U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) continued the Underwater Humanitarian Mine Action project with CMAC EOD divers that began in FY14. The 3rd Medical Battalion of Marine Corps Forces, Pacific (MARFORPAC), out of Okinawa, Japan, continued the First Responder Blast Injury medical humanitarian mine action engagement with RCAF and CMAC medical personnel with three iterations of training. USPACOM intends to continue both the underwater humanitarian mine action and medical engagements in Cambodia. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Veterans International to improve access to medical services, prosthetics, and orthotics and provided community-based rehabilitation to civilians affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities.

Laos

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY95–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 12,840 26,880 19,500 113,364
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 0 0 111 7,011
USAID 500 2,000 2,166 13,966
COUNTRY TOTAL 13,340 28,880 21,777 135,091

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A cluster munition in Laos is difficult to see among the leaves. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

While landmines were laid in Laos during the Indochina Wars of the 1960s and 1970s, UXO such as cluster munitions, called “bombies,” account for the bulk of contamination. The majority of the country’s 17 provinces are contaminated with UXO; most of these are of U.S. origin. Population growth in rural areas and other socioeconomic factors have increased demands to put UXO-contaminated land into productive use, which leads to greater risk of death and injury. In September 2016, the United States announced a significant increase to the U.S. commitment to address the UXO challenge, a plan to invest $90 million over a three-year period (2016–2018) to conduct the first-ever comprehensive national survey of UXO in Laos, and to fund ongoing clearance and victim assistance operations.

From 1995 to 2016, the United States invested more than $135 million in CWD programs in Laos that supported survey and clearance activities, risk education, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA provided risk education in Phongsaly and Xieng Khouang Provinces.
  • HALO continued to support UXO clearance teams tasked with survey and removal of UXO in Savannakhet Province.
  • Health Leadership International continued work to improve medical diagnostic capabilities and competencies of district-level medical personnel through medical education in UXO-affected districts.
  • Janus continued to partner with UXO Laos on UXO survey and clearance efforts and provided managerial support to the National Regulatory Authority, which oversees all UXO-related activity in Laos.
  • MAG continued to support survey and clearance teams in Xieng Khouang Province.
  • NPA continued its evidence-based UXO survey work in the Sekong, Salavan, and Attapu Provinces.
  • SoS continued to provide risk education for schoolchildren through soccer activities in the Xieng Khouang and Salavan Provinces, and provided a women’s soccer clinic that taught coaches from Burma, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam how to integrate mine risk education into their soccer programs.
  • World Education, Inc. continued a two-year project supporting the War Victim Medical Fund, which provides financial support for UXO victims and their families. It focuses on emergency medical, funeral, and other critical activities. Additionally, World Education continued efforts to support the integration of risk education in the grade five school curriculum and supported the development of a comprehensive case management system for UXO survivors in Xieng Khouang Province.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USPACOM provided mine action training to Lao military personnel at the Laos Mine Action Center. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported World Education to strengthen rehabilitation services, including the provision of assistive products, and promote socioeconomic opportunities for civilians affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities. The Fund also supported Cooperative Orthotic and Prosthetic Enterprise (COPE) to strengthen its organizational capacity, train service providers, and improve access to quality rehabilitation services and assistive products.

Marshall Islands

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY13–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 361 285 0 913
COUNTRY TOTAL 361 285 0 913

Dollars in thousands

During World War II, both the U.S. and Japanese forces left UXO on the Marshall Islands. In spite of massive clearance efforts in the 1950s, UXO contamination continues to affect some of the Marshall Islands’ atolls.

From 2013 to 2016, the United States invested more than $913,000 in CWD in the Marshall Islands.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • Golden West continued UXO clearance on Mili and Maleolap Atolls and, with HD R&D equipment support, upgraded the “island hopper kit,” which is a set of equipment easily movable from one island to another, increasing efficiency in operations.

Palau

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY09–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 690 505 0 1,820
COUNTRY TOTAL 690 505 0 1,820

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A team in Palau navigates dense vegetation while conducting a survey. © Photo courtesy of NPA.Many of Palau’s islands are contaminated with UXO remaining from World War II. The greatest concentration, a result of fighting between U.S. and Japanese forces in 1944, threatens the civilians residing on the island of Peleliu.

From 2009 to 2016, the United States invested more than $1.8 million in CWD in Palau.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • NPA continued to work with the government of Palau to develop national UXO standards, a national UXO strategy, and a national UXO action plan, which the government adopted fully in early 2017. NPA also began work to build the capacity of a survey and clearance team as part of the government of Palau’s National Safety Office. This team began working on non-technical survey of all 16 states in 2016. When the non-technical survey is complete, the survey and clearance team will begin working on technical survey throughout Palau.

Solomon Islands

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY11–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 473 446 0 2,446
DoD 429 306 569 1,664
COUNTRY TOTAL 902 752 569 4,110

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: The Royal Solomon Islands Police Force operates a tool provided by the HD R&D Program to find UXO in water-laden soil. © Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

The Solomon Islands faces serious impacts from World War II era UXO. From 2011 to 2016, the United States invested more than $4.1 million in CWD in the Solomon Islands.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Golden West continued training members of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) to EOD Level II to support public safety UXO clearance tasks. The RSIPF EOD team used its mobile cutting system and detonation sites to destroy additional UXO, which contaminates Hell’s Point in Guadalcanal and other neighboring islands.

The Department of Defense funded the following:

  • HD R&D provided support for mine action assistance in the Solomon Islands. HD R&D continued an evaluation of the Badger with Golden West on the island of Guadalcanal. The Severe Terrain Support Vehicle and the Badger, an armored excavator with a suite of attachments for removing thick, mature tropical vegetation and processing soil, are improving access for EOD teams to locate and clear UXO/AXO at Hell’s Point. The Badger has cleared 1.3 million square meters (3,212 acres) of extremely dense jungle vegetation in difficult terrain and found 6,100 pieces of UXO (previous totals reported through calendar year 2015 represented a slight overestimate).
  • USPACOM continued to support underwater humanitarian demining with the RSIPF. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Vietnam

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY93–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 10,506 12,548 10,500 73,650
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 256 340 722 3,127
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
COUNTRY TOTAL 10,762 12,888 11,222 105,424

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: In Vietnam, technicians remove a bomb from a household garden found during the installation of a fence. © Photo courtesy of MAG.

Thirty years of conflict from World War II through the Vietnam War left most of Vietnam contaminated with UXO. Much of this UXO is concentrated along the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Nam Provinces. Parts of southern Vietnam and the country’s border with China also remain contaminated with landmines.

The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported seven casualties in 2015, down from the 24 reported in 2014. In 2016, the Vietnam National Mine Action Center (VNMAC) officially opened its newly constructed headquarters in Hanoi and continued to establish itself as the government lead for issues related to landmines and UXO in Vietnam. After VNMAC hosted the first-ever regional Senior Managers’ Course in ERW and Mine Action in Southeast Asia in 2015, U.S. capacity development support for VNMAC continued to expand in 2016 through the provision of a technical advisor and specific assistance which supported the establishment of an information management unit within VNMAC headquarters. Supporting VNMAC’s development will ensure that Vietnam has the capacity to deal with residual mine and UXO threats.

From 1993 to 2016, the United States invested more than $105 million for CWD programs in Vietnam that cleared mines and UXO, provided mine risk education and survivor assistance, and supported national capacity development.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS) continued to provide support to survivors of mine and UXO accidents and/or their families in Quang Tri Province. Support is customized for each beneficiary and includes medical support, vocational training, and education. Additionally, CRS began a 48-month project aimed at supporting efforts by provincial governments in Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Quang Nam, and the city of Danang to institutionalize risk education materials and training in schools.
  • Golden West worked to enhance and develop the capacity of the Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Tri provincial demining units so they are certified to IMAS and equipped to deal with UXO contamination in their respective provinces. Additionally, Golden West provided IMAS training to PeaceTrees Vietnam EOD teams.
  • The International Center-Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation helped develop the capacity of VNMAC and the executive office of the National Mine Action Program to plan, coordinate, and manage the program in Vietnam.
  • MAG continued to partner with Japan in UXO survey and clearance in Quang Binh Province and provided the clearance component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards.
  • NPA provided the survey component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards.
  • NPA supported capacity development of VNMAC through the provision of a technical advisor, development of a technical survey standard operating procedure, and the establishment of an Information Management Unit.
  • PeaceTrees Vietnam continued to field EOD response teams and clearance operations along the heavily contaminated Quang Tri border with Laos.
  • Roots of Peace continued to provide matching funds raised to support MAG clearance operations and local farmers in Quang Tri Province.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the multi-year underwater humanitarian mine action engagement with EOD Mobile Unit 5 and the Vietnam People’s Navy project that began in fiscal year 2014 continued in 2016 and has opened the door for USPACOM to engage with the VNMAC steering committee 504. As a result, USPACOM began a five-year humanitarian mine action capacity building project focusing on terrestrial-based EOD and medical blast trauma techniques. Continuing these humanitarian mine action disciplines in Vietnam is a priority for USPACOM’s humanitarian mine action program. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Support

From early 1942 until Victory Over Japan Day in 1945, U.S. armed forces engaged in an “island hopping” strategy to roll back the Empire of Japan’s territorial holdings in the Pacific Islands. This campaign unfortunately resulted in massive UXO contamination and abandoned munitions caches across the region. The Pacific Regional Program was initiated in 2009 to address the legacies of World War II in the region.

In 2016, the Department of State supported work of the following implementing partner:

  • The Quick Reaction Force (QRF), operated by Golden West, finished operations to assist the local population in Kiribati to reestablish safety with regard to UXO and munition stockpiles in the community. The QRF also engaged with the Federated States of Micronesiato carry out a survey and assessment on Yap Island, Ulithi Atoll, and Pohnpei Island.

East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided $1.8 million for CWD in other East Asia and Pacific countries:

  • Philippines: Re-enforcing the mature relationship between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines, EOD-Munitions Unit 5 continued the humanitarian mine action EOD engagement with the engineers from Assault Support Command (ASCOM) and the underwater Naval Special Operations Group (NAVSOG) in Northern Luzon. ASCOM’s ancillary mission is to remediate UXO on land areas while NAVSOG focused on mitigating underwater UXO by Sangley Point. These projects in the northern Luzon area are critical to the infrastructure development of the Philippines. Both engagements started in late FY15 and continued on into FY16. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.
  • Thailand: HD R&D provided new technology and continued technology operations. In partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), HD R&D initiated an evaluation of the Medium MineWolf, an earth tilling system capable of clearing anti-personnel and anti-vehicle landmines, and continued evaluations of the Remote Monitoring Station, Quadcopter remote monitoring system, Wolverine Vegetation Cutter, and the Mini MineWolf. HD R&D’s partner in Thailand has used its technologies in the clearance of 723 mines and pieces of UXO from 7 million square meters (1,729 acres) of land to date. USPACOM, MARFORPAC, and TMAC continued EOD and mine detection projects in Thailand in 2016. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Date: 2017 Description: HD R&D and TMAC personnel ready the Medium MineWolf for operation in Thailand. © Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

Regional Profile: Europe

Europe Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Europe from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $382 million

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in Europe from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $382 million: Albania 10.97%, Armenia 3.58%, Azerbaijan 8.08%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 28.55%, Bulgaria 2.75%, Croatia 9.79%, Cyprus 0.10%, Czech Republic 0.16%, Estonia 1.23%, Georgia 8.57%, Kosovo 7.92%, Lithuania 0.13%, Macedonia 0.52%, Moldova 0.17%, Montenegro 2.40%, Romania 0.66%, Serbia 4.86%, Serbia and Montenegro 1.48%, Slovenia 0.07%, Ukraine 7.98%. [Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 74.]- State Dept Image

Preventing illicit transfers of SA/LW, the reduction of unplanned ammunition or weapons depot explosions through PSSM, and programs to remove landmines and UXO left from the Yugoslav Wars remained top CWD priorities in the region. The United States continues to support regional security and build national capacity through a stockpile reduction initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, land clearance and release programs in Kosovo, and ongoing programs in Albania, Serbia, and Ukraine. These programs help prevent the illicit use and diversion of SA/LW in Eastern Europe and reduce the likelihood of ammunition depot explosions.

Since 1993, the United States has supported extensive efforts to rid Europe of the vestiges of past conflicts, providing more than $382 million in CWD funding. Funding and clearance efforts by the United States and other donors have freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and other dangerous UXO, and PSSM and demilitarization projects support both regional and civilian security.

Albania

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY00–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,135 1,777 1,500 40,047
DoD 185 147 100 464
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,320 1,924 1,600 41,900

Dollars in thousands

Although declared mine free in 2009, Albania continues to face UXO contamination. After the fall of the communist dictatorship in 1991, Albania was left with immense stockpiles of obsolete and poorly maintained weapons and munitions. During civil unrest in the 1990s, many weapons and munitions depots were looted or burned. Significant amounts of ammunition were scattered, leaving large swaths of land that were dangerous, uninhabitable, and unfit for use. UXO at former military impact ranges and depot explosion sites, otherwise known as “hotspots,” pose the greatest threat.

From 2000 to 2016, the United States provided $41.9 million to Albania for CWD efforts.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • ITF reduced threats to civilian safety and economic livelihood posed by UXO through systematic clearance of contaminated hotspots in Pisar-Gjirokastër, Korçë-Gjirokastër, and Sinanaj-Tepelenë, while also supporting the development of the Albanian Mine and Munition Coordination Office. Additionally, ITF provided assistance to landmine and UXO survivors at the Kukës Hospital in northeastern Albania.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) supervised Albanian EOD technicians conducting two separate EOD Level I train-the-trainer courses. U.S. National Guard personnel from the state of New Jersey through the State Partnership Program and U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) were assigned as lead training partners for Albania. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Armenia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY93–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 301 300 0 4,292
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,000
DoD 187 40 10 3,241
USAID 0 997 0 3,145
COUNTRY TOTAL 488 1,337 10 13,678

Dollars in thousands

The 1988–1994 war between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region left parts of Armenia heavily contaminated by landmines and UXO. The 2016 Landmine and Cluster Munitions Monitor reported 99 confirmed hazardous areas, totaling almost 6.7 square kilometers (2.5 square miles), and an additional 17.3 square kilometers (6.6 square miles) of suspected hazardous areas. Armenia has made significant gains in its demining program and manages clearance operations independently, due in part to previous U.S. training and capacity building programs. While Department of State CWD funding to Armenia concluded in 2015, programmatic activities continued through 2016.

From 1993 to 2016, the United States provided more than $13.6 million to Armenia aimed at building government capacity to manage its residual UXO problem.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with 2015 funds):

  • ITF, in partnership with MLI and the Mine Detection Dog Center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, continued to build the capacity of the Armenia Center for Humanitarian Demining and Expertise by providing instruction to mine detection dog trainers to support building Armenia’s national capacity to safely clear landmines.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM engaged in EOD training to buttress Armenia’s demining program. United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) was assigned as lead training partner for Armenia. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Azerbaijan

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY99–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 325 532 0 22,642
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,100
DoD 0 0 140 7,115
COUNTRY TOTAL 325 532 140 30,857

Dollars in thousands

Most of Azerbaijan’s landmine challenges stem from the ongoing Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. However, abandoned Soviet-era munitions dumps, firing ranges, and UXO also pose significant threats. In early April 2016, fighting broke out in the Nagorno-Karabakh region resulting in approximately 2 square kilometers (.77 square mile) of new cluster munition contamination. While clearance, surveys, and land release show Azerbaijan reduced its estimated contamination area to approximately 89 square kilometers (34 square miles) by the end of 2016, the mine and UXO problem remains severe in areas occupied by Armenian forces, including Nagorno-Karabakh and the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan. While Department of State CWD funding to Azerbaijan concluded in 2015, programmatic activities concluded in 2016.

From 1999 to 2016, the United States provided more than $30.8 million in CWD programs in Azerbaijan aimed at mine and UXO clearance, training, equipment procurement, and expanding humanitarian demining teams, including mine detection dog teams. These funds were primarily directed through NSPA to the Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA) and significantly reduced the area of contamination, restoring access to land and infrastructure for the community.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • NSPA continued Phase II of a three-phase clearance project across 23 square kilometers (9 square miles) of the former Soviet military testing facility and training field in the Jeyranchel area along Azerbaijan’s border with Georgia.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM humanitarian mine action and subject matter experts visited Azerbaijan’s National Authority, ANAMA, to assist in battle area clearance. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY96–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,400 3,974 3,500 79,631
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 156 0 78 4,738
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
COUNTRY TOTAL 4,556 3,974 3,578 109,079

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A mine detection dog and his handler during the mine search in Ilijas on the outskirts of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. © Photo courtesy of ITF.

The breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts left Bosnia and Herzegovina heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO. It also left the country with substantial stockpiles of conventional arms and munitions from the former Yugoslav National Army in excess of its national security needs. Most minefields remain in the area of separation between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, and around strategic facilities, such as ammunition or weapons depots. As of December 2015, there were reportedly 1,149 square kilometers (443 square miles) of mine-contaminated land, representing 2.3 percent of the country’s territory. An estimated 84,000 mines and pieces of UXO remain throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina, and impact the lives and livelihoods of approximately 500,000 people. The country also faces challenges from aging stockpiles and unstable munitions.

From 1996 to 2016, the United States provided more than $109 million in CWD programs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including landmine clearance, mine risk education, survivor assistance, weapons and munitions stockpile destruction, and PSSM initiatives.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF, in close coordination with the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center, cleared 39 sites and conducted 17 technical surveys that directly benefited more than 3,000 people in 10 cantons of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Brcko District and throughout Republika Srpska.
  • MLI continued its Children Against Mines Program (CHAMPS) and the Mine Detection Dog Partnership Program, which enhance indigenous demining capacity, provide mine risk education to various ethnic groups, and assist landmine survivors in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • In coordination with the Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo, Janus continued destruction of excess, unsafe arms, and ammunition. In 2016, more than 790 tons of excess stockpiled munitions were destroyed, which included more than 2.2 million items.
  • Small Arms Survey began a Life Cycle Management of Ammunition research project, using Bosnia and Herzegovina as a case study. The published results will be used to enhance stockpile security and management.
  • Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC), a Bosnian organization, completed a land release project in Ilidza Municipality that returned more than 2 million square meters (503.8 acres) of mine-suspected area back to the community.
  • The UNDP destroyed 26.4 tons of excess small arms ammunition at TROM Doboj.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM and the Bosnian Ministry of Defense reorganized the Bosnian EOD and demining centers allowing USEUCOM humanitarian mine action to better target engagement and assistance. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Date: 2017 Description: Cleared UXO is destroyed by controlled explosion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. © Photo courtesy of Janus.

Croatia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY99–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 900 850 0 36,688
DoD 0 0 0 713
COUNTRY TOTAL 900 850 0 37,401

Dollars in thousands

Like other countries in the Balkans, Croatia was left with extensive landmine and UXO contamination from the Yugoslav Wars, which occurred between 1992 and 1995. Despite a robust commercial demining sector with many companies competing for demining tasks, Croatia is still affected by mines and UXO. The country also has a research and development sector for demining-related technologies, and the Croatian government funds more than 90 percent of demining tasks performed on its territory. Croatia maintains a sizeable stockpile of conventional arms and munitions inherited from the Yugoslav national military, many of which are beyond their shelf life, exceed national defense requirements, and are in need of demilitarization.

From 1999 to 2016, the United States provided more than $37.4 million for CWD in Croatia.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with 2015 funds):

  • ITF worked closely with the Croatian Ministry of Defense to demilitarize or destroy over 125 metric tons of excess or aging munitions stockpiles. It also performed security upgrades to facilities in Doljani, Trbounje, Slunj, and Buna and cleared over 50,000 square meters (12.3 acres) of land in Karlovac County with the Croatian Mine Action Center.

Georgia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY98–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 500 0 28,605
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 167 209 20 1,510
COUNTRY TOTAL 667 709 20 32,759

Dollars in thousands

In addition to stockpiles of old and deteriorating Soviet munitions, conflicts in the South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions of Georgia left landmine and UXO contamination along the boundary lines between these regions, and around former Soviet Union military bases in Georgia. In November 2011, all 336 known minefields in the Abkhazia region were declared to be mine free. While Department of State CWD funding to Georgia concluded in 2015, programmatic activities will continue into 2017. The final year of funding focused on improving Georgian capacity to manage CWD-related issues in order to bring contamination and stockpile amounts to more manageable levels. Georgia’s goal is to clear all residual UXO contamination independently.

From 1998 to 2016, the United States provided more than $32.7 million in CWD programs in Georgia aimed at training, clearance, and safe disposal of mines and UXO, as well as destruction of excess and aging conventional weapons and munitions.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with 2015 funds):

  • HALO continued clearance of both the former Soviet training range at Udabno and the Chognari minefield, a former military base, with support from the government of Japan. HALO also completed a mechanical excavation of UXO from a partly destroyed ammunition stockpile at the Chognari minefield and diverted existing mechanical assets to support manual clearance.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM partnered with Georgia to provide EOD, battle area clearance, and emergency medical assistance train-the-trainer engagements. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Kosovo

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY96–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 550 0 8,000
DoD 165 120 204 4,789
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
COUNTRY TOTAL 165 670 204 30,261

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A HALO deminer operate the HD R&D Program's HSTAMIDS in Kosovo. © Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

UXO contamination in Kosovo resulted primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later between the FRY and NATO forces in 1999. After unilaterally declaring independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo transitioned into a parliamentary democracy. In 2013, HALO and the Kosovo Mine Action Centre (KMAC) conducted a countrywide (with the exception of four northern municipalities) joint non-technical survey of cluster munition strikes and minefields. The survey identified 130 confirmed hazardous areas: 51 cluster munition strikes covering 7.63 square kilometers (2.9 square miles), and 79 mined areas over 2.76 square kilometers (over 1 square mile). At the end of 2015, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munitions Monitor, mine contamination covered 2.5 square kilometers (.96 square mile) and contamination from cluster munition remnants covered approximately 16 square kilometers (6 square miles). The increase in contamination from cluster munitions came from a non-technical survey conducted by NPA, KMAC, and local municipality authorities. The non-technical survey included the four northern municipalities not previously covered in the 2013 survey, and confirmed 8.9 square kilometers (4.3 square miles) of cluster munition contamination in three of these municipalities.

From 1996 to 2016, the United States provided approximately $30.2 million in CWD efforts in Kosovo supporting capacity development of KMAC, non-technical surveys, and UXO clearance activities.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with 2015 funds):

  • HALO began a technical survey and sub-surface battle clearance work at five NATO cluster munitions strike sites around Mitrovica, in addition to implementing a land release program.
  • NPA performed clearance and land release activities at cluster munition strike sites in northern Kosovo.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • HD R&D provided funding and technology to support mine action assistance in Kosovo. To speed clearance in highly cluttered minefields, HALO began an evaluation of the HSTAMIDS, clearing 10,000 square meters (2.47 acres) of land in the first months of using the equipment loaned by HD R&D.
  • USEUCOM provided support to the Kosovo Security Forces and the Kosovo Mine Action Center for EOD, demining, and battle area clearance. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Serbia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY07–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 900 195 1,500 18,380
DoD 0 3 200 203
COUNTRY TOTAL 900 198 1,700 18,583

Dollars in thousands

Serbia’s landmine and UXO contamination stems from the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s and NATO airstrikes targeting military sites during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. Beyond UXO, landmine contamination persists along Serbia’s shared borders with Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. While recent clearance efforts reduced contamination in these areas, several impacted locations have not yet been cleared. Serbia also faces additional risks stemming from a large stockpile of aging munitions inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army. Media reports during the year also showed an increase in illicit SA/LW smuggling activities within Serbia and across its borders.

From 2007 to 2016, the United States invested over $18.5 million in CWD efforts in Serbia supporting SA/LW and munitions destruction programs and addressing mine and UXO contamination.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF continued clearance of high-priority sites, including Sjenica, as determined by the U.S. Embassy in Belgrade and the Serbian Mine Action Center.
  • NSPA conducted site surveys and completed the initial stages of a project to destroy excess stockpiles of outdated and at-risk conventional munitions at the Kragujevac facility in October of 2016.
  • UNDP conducted PSSM upgrades and aimed to increase the Serbian military’s capacity to store and secure recently- reduced stockpiles near Platicevo.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM conducted a site visit and USAEUR conducted an observation of current Serbian EOD training. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Ukraine

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY04–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 7,095 1,940 2,000 28,067
DoD 0 303 108 480
USAID 0 1,031 920 1,951
COUNTRY TOTAL 7,095 3,274 2,920 30,498

Dollars in thousands

Ukraine continues to maintain large quantities of excess and aging conventional arms and munitions remaining after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2005, NSPA estimated Ukraine held as many as seven million SA/LW and stored as much as two million tons of ammunition in more than 80 depots. Much of these munitions are excess, aging, and potentially unstable, and are no longer available for military use and represent a security threat to the country and the region. In October 2015, a depot explosion in government-controlled Svatove, Luhansk region, killed two people and injured 16. In addition, Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine, including through arming, training, and fighting along Russian-led separatists, has resulted in a line of contact between government and combined Russian-separatist forces. The line of contact running through Donetsk and Luhansk regions is marked by extensive landmine and UXO contamination. These explosive hazards represent a threat to combatants and civilians alike. More than 300 civilian casualties from mines or UXO have occurred since the conflict started in 2014.

From 2004 to 2016, the United States provided more than $30.4 million for SA/LW and ammunition destruction, as well as clearance activities in Ukraine.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • NSPA continued to implement the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund, for which the United States is the lead nation. The goal is to continue the reduction of munitions in order to lower the risk of unplanned depot explosion and reduce the security threat posed by excess ammunition.
  • OSCE provided a project coordinator to expand Ukraine’s capacity for humanitarian demining and to help establish a national authority in humanitarian mine action.
  • HALO supported the Ukrainian government’s landmine and UXO clearance efforts by utilizing technical survey and taking into account clearance requirements identified by previous assessments to prioritize clearance sites according to the greatest humanitarian need.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported UCP Wheels for Humanity to strengthen rehabilitation services, including the provision of assistive products, and promote economic opportunities for civilians affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities.

Europe--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided $617,000 for CWD in other European countries. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services in the following countries:

  • Cyprus: USEUCOM supported EOD, mine victim assistance, and PSSM training. The Defense Ammunition Center conducted one PSSM technical assistance event with the Cypriot National Guard. In 2015, the Department of State reprogrammed $250,000 from Serbia to Cyprus for the development of a strategic demining plan, which included the prioritization of areas along the buffer zone. However, as of December 2016, activities had not commenced.
  • Moldova: USEUCOM provided EOD Level I and emergency medical assistance train-the-trainer engagements. Moldovan forces are now providing indigenous training in those subjects.
  • Montenegro: USEUCOM deployed an expert from the HDTC along with contractors to provide follow-on mentorship and oversight to the Montenegrin Navy Hydrographic Institute while they provided training to new navy personnel on the Humanitarian Underwater Explosive Detection System.

Regional Profile: Middle East and North Africa

Middle East and North Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Middle East & North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $507 million

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in the Middle East and North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $507 million: *Bahrain 0.00%, Egypt 0.14%, Iraq 66.12%, Jordan 5.46%, Lebanon 11.93%, Libya 5.43%, Morocco 0.02%, Oman 0.85%, Palestinian Territories 1.01%, Syria 3.26%, Tunisia 0.27%, Yemen 5.50%; *less than 0.01%. [Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 74.] - State Dept Image

The Middle East and North Africa have experienced decades of conflict and regional instability, making conventional weapons destruction programs a U.S. priority in the region for stabilization and conflict resolution. As coalition forces pushed back ISIS, massive UXO contamination slowed the return of millions of displaced families. In Libya, illicit trafficking of SA/LW continued to fuel violence. In Yemen, fighting in the current conflict has contaminated previously cleared areas with UXO, undoing some of the progress achieved prior to 2014.

According to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor 2016, the year 2015 saw a sharp rise in the global total number of casualties caused by landmines and explosive remnants of war of over 60 percent compared to 2014. This increase was due in large part to more casualties recorded in armed conflicts in Libya, Syria, and Yemen. The fact that many of the devices found in Syria and Iraq are specifically designed to kill those trying to defuse them represents a troubling new trend, which further complicates humanitarian clearance of such devices. Despite uncertainty and the difficulties posed by ongoing conflicts, the United States has invested more than $507 million in CWD funding since 1993 to help build regional stability in the Middle East and North Africa. Survey, marking, and clearance projects enable the safe return of displaced families to their communities, as well as develop strong and capable local humanitarian mine action capacities. Life-saving mine risk education projects prevent deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provide rehabilitation and reintegration support.

Iraq

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY03–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 23,177 37,835 15,000 229,166
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 573 0 58 105,028
COUNTRY TOTAL 23,750 37,835 15,058 335,636

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: Young girls at a camp for displaced families in Iraq listen to mine risk education after taking part in a soccer session organized by Spirit of Soccer (SoS). © Photo courtesy of SoS.

Iraq is highly contaminated by landmines and UXO from conflicts dating back to the 1940s through the current ongoing conflict with ISIS. Numerous large barrier minefields and UXO remain along the Iran/Iraq border as a result of the 1980–1988 conflict between the two nations. Coalition operations from 1990 to 1991 and 2003 to 2011 scattered significant amounts of UXO throughout the country, with most contamination concentrated in the south.

More recently, the activities of ISIS in northern and western Iraq have dramatically altered an already complex CWD landscape. The extent of the contamination caused by ISIS in both rural and urban areas remains unclear, as security and access concerns limit survey and clearance activities. The commencement of survey and clearance efforts in areas liberated from ISIS, such as Ramadi, indicate unprecedented levels of urban contamination by devices more sophisticated and difficult to clear than landmines. Contamination poses a threat to refugees and internally displaced persons returning home.

From 2003 to 2016, the United States invested more than $335.6 million in Iraq for the clearance and disposal of landmines, UXO, and excess conventional weapons and munitions.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG conducted survey and clearance operations in southern Iraq (including of U.S.-origin UXO), assisted in developing the program capacity of the Regional Mine Action Center-South (RMAC-S) in coordination with the Directorate of Mine Action (DMA), and delivered mine risk education reaching 90,725 beneficiaries in northern Iraq.
  • Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) deployed survey and clearance teams to increase civilian security for returning displaced families in liberated villages between Mosul and Erbil.
  • Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) advisors began work on establishing a joint DMA and the Iraq Kurdistan Mine Action Agency (IKMAA) information management database to track humanitarian mine action in areas liberated from ISIS, and facilitate the flow of data among various mine action nongovernmental organizations assisting in reconstruction efforts, as envisioned in a memorandum of understanding signed in September 2015 by DMA, IKMAA, and iMMAP. iMMAP also provided operational management, strategic planning, survivor assistance support, and technical expertise.
  • MAG conducted survey, clearance, and spot tasks to safely remove and destroy mines and UXO from northern Iraq, and began clearing newly liberated areas for the safe return of displaced families such as the Yazidi population. MAG also provided mine risk education to increase the security of civilians affected by ISIS.
  • MLI provided training through a mine detection dog partnership program with a local Iraqi demining organization.
  • NPA provided technical advisors to RMAC-S to assist in its role as a regulatory body to coordinate and monitor mine action activities. The project enabled RMAC-S to implement non-technical surveys designed to provide a more accurate picture of the mine and UXO situation in southern Iraq.
  • SoS implemented mine risk education using soccer to teach children, including those in camps for displaced families, about the risks of mines and UXO. SoS also incorporated trauma training for youth affected by ISIS-related violence, and pursued local league and tournament sponsorships, targeting young Iraqi males at risk of joining extremist groups.
  • Janus began surveying, marking, and clearing UXO and IEDs from key infrastructure areas in the provinces of Anbar and Ninewa.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D provided support for mine action assistance in partnership with MAG. HD R&D and MAG continued evaluations of the Rebel Crusher contaminated soil processing plant, several excavator sifting attachments, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and a commercial front-loader attachment. The technology is used for completing complicated, low-density mine clearance tasks around villages and agricultural areas in northern Iraq that have been mine-affected for decades. These technologies have assisted in the clearance of 2,200 mines and pieces of UXO from 245,000 cubic meters of soil.

Jordan

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY96–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 500 400 22,036
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 500 400 27,722

Dollars in thousands

Contamination by landmines and UXO in Jordan stems from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war. In April 2012, Jordan declared itself “free from the threat of all known minefields,” but residual minefields exist in three main areas: the northern border with Syria, the Jordan River Valley, and the Wadi Arab region in the south.

From 1996 to 2016, the United States invested more than $27.7 million in assistance to clear landmines and UXO, deliver mine risk education, provide survivor assistance, construct an ammunition demilitarization facility, and destroy unserviceable and obsolete weapons systems and ammunition.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Polus continued its survivor assistance project, which began in 2015 to provide rehabilitation, vocational training, and prosthetics to Jordanian and Syrian survivors of landmine and UXO accidents and deliver mine risk education to Jordanians and Syrians within the country’s borders.

Lebanon

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY98–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 3,324 2,000 39,499
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 50 44 39 9,233
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,550 3,368 2,039 60,582

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A deminer works on clearing a cultivated garden in Lebanon. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

Lebanon remains contaminated with various types of UXO from the 1975–1991 civil war, as well as the Israeli-Hezbollah conflict of 2006. As of January 2017, approximately 51 million square meters (12,602 acres) of contaminated areas remained, according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center (LMAC). Since 1975, landmines and UXO have killed 907 people and injured over 2,800 people. The threat of UXO, especially in southern Lebanon, continues to hamper development. Given Lebanon’s position in the region and overall strength of LMAC, the country serves as a critical hub for bolstering CWD capacity across the region. Lebanon continues to work toward its goal of becoming free from the impact of landmines and UXO by 2021.

From 1998 to 2016, the United States invested more than $60.5 million in CWD for Lebanon.

In 2016, the Department of State, with LMAC concurrence, supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA continued to operate multi-task teams and mine risk education teams to support clearance of legacy minefields and UXO contamination, as well as continued to build the capacity of the national nongovernmental organization LAMiNDA.
  • Handicap International conducted mine and UXO clearance operations in northern Lebanon.
  • MAG conducted battle area and mine clearance activities with the aim of supporting socioeconomic development in southern and central Lebanon.
  • NPA conducted battle area clearance in central Lebanon and cluster munitions clearance in southern Lebanon.
  • MLI supported the LMAC by working with the five dogs provided in 2015 to support the Mine Detection Dog Partnership Program while continuing its survivor assistance programs.

The Department of Defense HD R&D Program provided support for mine action assistance in Lebanon in partnership with MAG. MAG is evaluating several soil excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments on its own armored excavators. In addition, the Terrapin small excavator is speeding manual clearance by cutting and removing thick vegetation and excavating rocky areas to expose ordnance. The technologies have assisted in the clearance of 4,700 mines and pieces of UXO from 133,000 square meters of land.

Libya

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY11–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,500 2,500 8,000
DOS Other 0 0 0 19,575
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,000 1,500 2,500 27,575

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A LibMac team conducts a non-technical survey on a road in Libya. © Photo courtesy of ITF.

Stockpiles of Qadhafi-era arms and munitions proliferated in Libya and the region during the 2011 revolution. Since mid-2014, fierce fighting between Libyan militias and rival governing factions, as well as Libyan forces and ISIS, has caused further landmine and UXO contamination. The U.S. government is working with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to better coordinate activities that counter the illicit trafficking of weapons throughout the region by violent extremist organizations operating in Libya and mitigate the threats to civilians posed by UXO, particularly in areas recently liberated from ISIS.

From 2011 to 2016, the United States invested more than $27.5 million working with partners and allies to coordinate a CWD response with a focus on MANPADS destruction and UXO removal. However, ongoing conflict and instability inhibited implementers’ access to certain communities preventing some programs from being implemented.

In 2016 the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG worked to mitigate the threat of mines and UXO through non-technical surveys on the outskirts of Sirte. Following the liberation of Sirte in December 2016, DDG prepared to conduct EOD spot tasks in areas of the city where UXO posed a heavy threat to civilians, including returning families.
  • ITF continued sustainment of the Libya Mine Action Center (LibMAC), supporting the maintenance of staff and facilities and the development of standard operating procedures and national standards while building explosive mine risk education capacity.

Syria

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY13–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 8,000 8,000 16,550
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 8,000 8,000 16,550

Dollars in thousands

The Syrian civil war, which began in 2011, and the rise of ISIS have resulted in widespread contamination of UXO in Syria and massive displacement of Syrian civilians.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • DDG provided risk education to communities affected by mines and UXO.

The Department of State supported additional humanitarian mine action activities in Syria in 2016 in limited areas.

Yemen

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY97–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 700 2,000 2,000 23,055
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
COUNTRY TOTAL 700 2,000 2,000 27,901

Dollars in thousands

Over the past 50 years, Yemen has faced a series of conflicts (1962–1969; 1970–1983; and 1994) that have created a significant and deadly legacy of landmines and UXO. In more recent years, as armed conflict between al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) and government troops began in 2009 and escalated during 2011, AQAP left behind IEDs interspersed with older landmines and UXO when it withdrew from areas under its control in southern Yemen in 2012. Subsequent landmine survey and clearance efforts were hampered due to the conflict beginning in 2014, when Houthi rebels allied with forces loyal to former president Saleh (Houthi-Saleh rebels) staged an armed takeover against the government, precipitating its exile. In 2015, the use of air-dropped munitions increased the UXO threat to the civilian population, and a series of cyclones resulted in a potential displacement of landmines, which enlarged the suspected hazard areas. Although contamination from mines and UXO has sharply increased, many projects planned for execution in 2016 were on hold throughout the reporting period due to the ongoing conflict.

From 1997 to 2016, the United States invested more than $27.9 million in CWD programs in Yemen.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The UNDP international technical expert deployed in November 2015 continued to support the Yemen Mine Action Center (YEMAC) and other high-level government of Yemen institutions to address the National Mine Action Strategy, prioritizing survey and clearance efforts, as well as developing emergency-phase clearance plans as UXO are found and reported by citizens. UNDP also continued to develop Yemen’s local humanitarian mine action capacity to prioritize survey and clearance efforts independently to release areas for productive civilian use, teach citizens about the harmful effects of these remaining hazards through mine risk education, and assist in reintegration efforts for landmine survivors.
  • MLI conducted the CHAMPS and Survivor’s Assistance programs in partnership with the Yemeni Association of Landmine Survivors and YEMAC to provide mine risk education, medical assistance, and rehabilitative care to landmine survivors. MLI provided mine detection dogs through its partnership program with Yemen.

Palestinian Territories

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY11–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,180 1,000 1,000 5,088
DoD 0 20 0 20
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,180 1,020 1,000 5,108

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A deminer works to clear a hillside in the West Bank. © Photo courtesy of HALO.
Landmines and UXO contaminate the West Bank after decades of conflict beginning in 1948. The exact amount of contamination is unknown, but a 2012 survey of the West Bank identified 90 minefields. The Jordanian military laid 13 of these fields from 1948 to 1967, and the Israeli military laid 77 more following the 1967 war. Subsequently, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) have conducted training exercises in parts of the West Bank resulting in additional UXO contamination, often discovered by the local population while herding and farming. Following years of negotiations, clearance activities started in April 2014. This milestone marked the beginning of the first humanitarian mine action program to clear mines and UXO in the West Bank in nearly 50 years, and the program continued through 2016.

From 2011 to 2016, the United States invested more than $5.1 million in CWD funding for survey and clearance operations in the Palestinian territories.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO completed clearance at the Um Daraj minefield and liaised with the Israeli National Mine Action Authority, the IDF, and the Palestine Mine Action Center to approve more minefields for clearance.
  • ITF provided quality assurance and quality control of the West Bank demining program as well as mine detection and removal focused on clearing legacy contamination in the village of Um Daraj in coordination with HALO.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D continued to support mine action assistance in the West Bank through its partnership with HALO. HALO is evaluating the Target Reacquisition and Positioning System, a low-cost differential global positioning system, to provide accurate mapping of hazardous areas in the West Bank.

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $106,058 for CWD in other Middle East and North African countries:

  • With funding from the Department of Defense, at the request of Morocco and in coordination with the U.S. Embassy in Rabat, U.S. Marines worked alongside Utah Air National Guard and National Guard EOD technicians and engineers to assist Morocco in establishing its own demining center of excellence and EOD school within its military. The five-week program was the first phase in which the U.S. military members tested the Moroccans’ basic EOD Level I capabilities and covered effective communication and instructing methods. In the follow-on train-the-trainer phases, Royal Moroccan Army instructors will validate their abilities. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.
  • In Tunisia USAFRICOM began development of a dedicated EOD training site in cooperation with the Tunisian Army 61st Engineer School.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the Al Hussein Society in JordanLebanon, the West Bank, and Gaza to strengthen physical therapy associations and rehabilitation service providers, promote international accreditation of select physical therapy academic programs, and improve wheelchair service provision and access.

Regional Profile: South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in South and Central Asia from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $525 million

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in the Middle East and North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $525 million: Afghanistan 84.53%, India 0.06%, Kazakhstan 0.06%, Kyrgyz Republic 0.28%, Nepal 0.75%, Pakistan 0.17%, Sri Lanka 10.36%, Tajikistan 3.78%, Uzbekistan 0.02%. Turkmenistan benefited in FY13 from Defense Threat Reduction Agency programs. The funding does not appear on the chart above or the funding charts beginning on page 67 because the Defense Threat Reduction Agency does not assign dollar amounts to countries. [Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 74]- State Dept Image

While volatility in Afghanistan continues to create challenges for the United States’ largest CWD program, the United States remains committed to deepening the relationships that further its CWD goals in the region.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $525 million in CWD funding to South and Central Asia. Funding for Afghanistan accounts for more than $442 million of that amount. The Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured and deteriorating weapons and munition stockpiles, both in terms of physical security and in terms of the deteriorating state of these stockpiles which are located close to or within populated areas. In Sri Lanka, landmines and UXO impede the return of displaced families.

U.S. assistance is aimed toward building capacity that will allow recipient countries to take the lead in CWD activities, which are essential to regional stabilization and economic development. It is critical for regional and global security that the United States and South and Central Asian countries continue to foster a partnership with the goal of securing weapons and munitions that might fall into the wrong hands, promoting peace and stability, and strengthening economic ties.

Afghanistan

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY93–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 22,450 22,700 20,365 361,084
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 162 744 451 8,492
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
COUNTRY TOTAL 22,612 23,444 20,816 442,823

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A weapons ammunition and disposal team stacks ammunition for destruction in Afghanistan. © Photo courtesy of Janus.

Afghanistan remains an important partner of the United States in the fight against terrorism, working together to eliminate the remnants of al-Qa’ida and its affiliates. In order to strengthen Afghanistan’s capabilities as a partner, and to improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides CWD resources to help Afghanistan clear landmine and UXO contamination left by the 1979 Soviet invasion and internal armed conflict from 1992 to 2001. U.S. CWD programs also work to clear UXO left from more recent conflicts. The extensive use of IEDs by non-state actors (e.g., Taliban, ISIS-Khorasan) accounted for approximately 60 percent of all casualties recorded by the Directorate for Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) from January 2016 to February 2017.

As of December 2016, DMAC reported 3,903 hazard areas (suspected minefields, ammunition supply points, battlefields, spot contaminations, high explosive training ranges, and confirmed minefields) covering 553 square kilometers (213 square miles); affecting 1,555 communities, 259 districts, and 33 provinces; directly impacting over 610,000 people—those living within 500 meters (1,640 feet) of a known hazard area; and indirectly affecting the entire population of Afghanistan.

From 1993 through 2016, the United States has provided more than $442 million for CWD and demining assistance to Afghanistan. As of December 2016, implementing partners have cleared over 231 square kilometers (89 square miles) of land and removed or destroyed approximately 8 million landmines and pieces of UXO, stockpiled munitions, and homemade explosives.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Janus assisted PM/WRA in the monitoring and evaluation of more than 200 mine clearance projects and the monitoring and evaluation of five Afghan nongovernmental organizations and two international nongovernmental organizations.
  • Afghan Technical Consultants conducted clearance operations in Parwan, Laghman, and Baghlan Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by the Mine Action Program of Afghanistan (MAPA) in coordination with Janus.
  • The Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy conservation in Afghanistan conducted a community-based mine clearance program in the high-threat Momandara District, Nangarhar Province.
  • The Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) entered its fourth year of community-based demining projects in the Zharey District of Kandahar Province and the Nahri-Seraj District of Helmand Province. DAFA also conducted clearance operations in Balkh Province on high-priority tasks selected by MAPA in coordination with Janus.
  • FSD conducted clearance operations in northern Badakhshan Province on high-priority tasks selected by MAPA in coordination with Janus.
  • GICHD coordinated and managed an annual International Donor and Implementing Partner Coordination Workshop to support MAPA. This four-day workshop was held in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, where Afghan nationals and international representatives met to discuss program management.
  • HALO conducted weapons and ammunition disposal and assessments throughout central, western, and northern Afghanistan. HALO also deployed eight CWD teams tasked with responding to call-outs from Afghan government agencies to identify, secure, and destroy SA/LW, munitions, and explosive material. In addition, HALO managed demining projects in Kabul, Nangarhar, Baghlan, Kapisa, and Panjshir Provinces, to conduct clearance operations on high-priority tasks selected by MAPA in coordination with Janus.
  • ITF expanded its support to MAPA with emphasis on developing host-nation capacity through enhanced Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) training and program management skills development within the DMAC and the Afghan National Disaster Management Authority. ITF also supported a mine detection center medical clinic in Kabul, a collaborative project between the United States and the government of Slovenia.
  • The Mine Clearance Planning Agency continued non-technical surveys in 26 UXO-contaminated districts located within 10 provinces throughout Afghanistan.
  • The Mine Detection Center entered its fourth year of community-based demining in the Garmsir District of Helmand Province and conducted clearance operations in Panjshir Province on high-priority tasks selected by MAPA in coordination with Janus.
  • The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation conducted clearance operations in Takhar and Nangarhar Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by MAPA in coordination with Janus.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D provided funding and new technology to support mine action assistance in Afghanistan. New technology includes the Storm, a steep slope excavator with specialized tools. In partnership with HALO, HD R&D continued evaluations of equipment including the Minehound, a hand-held detector for minimum-metal anti-vehicle mines; Orbit Screen, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders; and the Raptor I & II, armored tractors with the Rotary Mine Comb anti-vehicle mine clearance attachment. In 2016, HD R&D enhanced the processing speed of the Rotary Mine Combs, which are clearing very large minefields that are contaminated only with minimum-metal anti-vehicle mines in hard, rocky soil or where metal contamination or electrical interference precludes metal detectors. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of more than 7.6 million square meters (1,878 acres) of land and 22,500 mines and pieces of UXO to date.

Kyrgyz Republic

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY09–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 400 250 1,450
DoD 0 0 0 7
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 400 250 1,457

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: Technicians in the Kyrgyz Republic who were trained by ITF wear protective gear during disposal of artillery ammunition with an expired shelf life. © Photo courtesy of ITF.

Like many former Soviet republics, the Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and munition stockpiles. The stockpiles at national ammunition storage sites threaten civilians’ safety due to their proximity to populated areas.

From 2009 to 2016, the United States invested more than $1.4 million to assist the Kyrgyz Republic to rehabilitate existing explosive storage facilities and segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable conventional munitions. Such activities develop host nation capacity to prevent spontaneous explosions and injuries to civilian populations living near storage depots, and mitigate the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions from stockpiles.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF conducted national capacity training and developed and deployed Ministry of Defense assets to secure, demilitarize, and destroy excess and unserviceable munition stockpiles. This included the demilitarization of more than 15,000 pieces of large-caliber ammunition and the destruction of 100 metric tons of other munitions.
  • OSCE managed a complex PSSM project to assist, support, and enhance the storage and maintenance of excess stockpiles of SA/LW, munitions, and conventional ammunition.

Sri Lanka

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY95–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,625 4,250 2,500 42,841
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 715 507 601 3,232
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
COUNTRY TOTAL 5,340 4,757 3,101 54,270

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: Mine detection dogs and their handler work to locate landmines in Sri Lanka. © Photo courtesy of MLI.

Landmines and UXO still contaminate Sri Lanka following almost three decades of armed conflict between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which sought a separate homeland in the north and east. After the war ended in 2009, demining activities immediately commenced in the north; however, contamination remains a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and other development initiatives. This is particularly true as the government seeks to return land previously held in high security zones, the borders of which were heavily mined. The widespread presence of mines and UXO presents an ongoing threat to the safety of returnees to such areas.

From 1995 to 2016, the United States invested more than $54.2 million in CWD funding for mine clearance, survey, risk education, and capacity building.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO supported the government of Sri Lanka’s efforts to return displaced families to their homes in the Northern Province by conducting survey, clearance, and risk education.
  • MAG continued to clear mines and other explosive hazards, restoring access to land for resettlement and livelihood development in northern Sri Lanka.
  • Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony continued to remove mines and UXO in support of resettlement of displaced families in northern Sri Lanka, developing national capacity as Sri Lanka’s first demining NGO.
  • MLI began a program to train, equip, and deploy four new mine detection dogs with the Sri Lankan Army’s humanitarian demining units.
  • SoS provided mine risk education to impacted communities through its soccer-based programs and adapted its program to incorporate messages into cricket programs.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D provided funding and new technology to support mine action assistance in Sri Lanka. In partnership with MAG, HD R&D initiated an evaluation of the Rex, a versatile, lightweight armored excavator designed to clear vegetation and obstacles. HD R&D continued an evaluation with MAG of the Improved Backhoe System and rake attachments; and continued evaluations with HALO of the Light Soil Sifter and HSTAMIDS mine detector. The equipment provides area preparation, area reduction, and mine clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land. HD R&D’s partners have used its technologies in the clearance of more than 18,000 mines and pieces of UXO from 1.1 square kilometers (0.4 square mile) of land from the program’s inception through 2016.
  • U.S. Army Pacific, under USPACOM, has continued its engagement with the Sri Lankan Armed Forces in Vavuniya District, for a three-pronged approach toward their humanitarian mine action project that includes EOD Levels I and II, medical blast injury, and veterinarian training. Additionally, U.S. Pacific Fleet conducted an underwater humanitarian mine action project with the Sri Lankan Command Dive Unit East at Trincomele. The OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities, as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services.

Tajikistan

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY05–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,190 2,275 1,975 15,033
DoD 101 67 147 2,747
USAID 0 0 534 2,034
COUNTRY TOTAL 3,291 2,342 2,656 19,814

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: A demining team in Tajikistan takes a break from working on a rugged hillside. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

Following the 1989 collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging conventional ammunition, including large-caliber ordnance and explosive munitions. Due to its porous borders with Afghanistan, large quantities of poorly secured SA/LW and munitions present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine contamination along its southern, western, and northern borders that stems from Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During a five-year civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO that continue to impede socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and adversely impact farming, wood-gathering, grazing, and other activities related to rural life.

From 2005 to 2016, the United States invested more than $19.8 million in Tajikistan to support mine and UXO clearance operations, destruction of excess and aging munitions, PSSM of SA/LW, survivor assistance, and national capacity building of the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC).

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • FSD continued non-technical survey and clearance of UXO through the deployment of a weapons and ammunition disposal team. FSD also trained, equipped, and deployed two mobile humanitarian demining teams to conduct non-technical survey and clearance of mines and UXO along the southern Tajik-Afghan border.
  • NPA continued deployment of one multi-purpose male demining team and the only multi-purpose female demining team in Central Asia along the southern Tajik-Afghan border.
  • OSCE funded and supported the deployment of two national humanitarian demining units. It also continued phase II of the Integrated Cooperation on Explosive Hazards program with an emphasis on sharing regional lessons learned, developing and publishing a regional database, building a regional center of excellence for explosive hazards mitigation training, and establishing a regional response capability to mitigate and counter explosive hazards.
  • TNMAC continued to develop the capacity of its mine action program with emphasis on information analysis and strategic planning, demining training, project development, and program management.
  • UNDP supported national ownership and development of capacity and operational management skills within TNMAC with an emphasis on nationalizing the program.
  • Polus conducted a survivor assistance survey and supported design and fitting of orthopedic prostheses, counseling of survivors, and strategic planning and policy development.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the World Health Organization to improve access to quality rehabilitation care and assistive products.

South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $1.7 million for CWD activities in other South and Central Asia countries:

With funding from the Department of State, USCENTCOM conducted a regional training course on EOD Level III in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, for Central Asia students facilitated by the OSCE office in Tajikistan and Tajikistan’s Ministry of Defense. The year 2016 marks the second full year of the program. Previous graduates served as shadow instructors for the course. The program is in accordance with IMAS, which is a milestone for the ultimate goal of creating a Regional Explosive Hazards Center hosted by Tajikistan’s Ministry of Defense.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Handicap International in Nepal to improve the quality, accessibility, and sustainability of rehabilitation services through technical and financial support to five rehabilitation centers and their three satellite units.

Regional Profile: Western Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Western Hemisphere from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2016: more than $107 million

Date: 2017 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons funding in Western Hemisphere from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2016: more than $107 million: Argentina 0.54%, Belize 0.28%, Chile 3.20%, Colombia 50.28%, Dominican Republic 0.46%, Ecuador 8.19%, El Salvador 5.74%, Guatemala 0.23%, Haiti 3.25%, Honduras 0.76%, Nicaragua 3.97%, Paraguay 0.19%, Peru 22.37%, Suriname 0.36%, Uruguay 0.19%. Costa Rica received support through a regional multi-country program, no dollar amount specified. [Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 74.]- State Dept Image

While the past 35 years have seen improving political and economic trends throughout Latin America, criminal violence and illegal narcotics and arms trafficking continue, despite law enforcement’s best efforts. U.S. CWD efforts are crucial in helping the region stem the threat of violence and illicit weapons trafficking.

In 2016, the historic peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) led to collaboration on demining efforts, further reducing risks from mine and UXO contamination. As Latin America continues to make political progress, the region can focus more on humanitarian demining and building CWD capacity.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD efforts have invested more than $107 million in regional support to Latin American countries. The funds have chiefly focused on mine clearance and curbing SA/LW trafficking. These activities are vital to promote stability, security, and prosperity in the Western Hemisphere.

Colombia

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY01–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,465 7,039 3,500 33,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 0 0 742 2,421
USAID 1,300 2,000 3,085 17,685
COUNTRY TOTAL 7,765 9,039 7,327 54,155

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: The OAS accredits NPA deminers in Colombia. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

More than 50 years of conflict between the government of Colombia and the FARC, Colombia’s largest guerrilla movement, has resulted in widespread mine and UXO contamination. Colombia has recorded more than 11,000 mines and UXO casualties since 1990. Although this number remains among the highest recorded in the world, the annual number of mine and UXO casualties has continually decreased since 2007. For instance, in 2016, Colombia’s National Mine Action Authority (DAICMA) received reports of 84 casualties involving mines, IEDs, and UXO, compared to 222 in 2015. The most affected departments are Antioquia, Meta, Caquetá, Nariño, Norte de Santander, and Tolima.

As a result of the dialogue between the Colombian government and the FARC, in February 2016 the United States announced the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia, jointly led by Norway, intended to rally the international community to help Colombia meet its Ottawa Convention commitment to being mine free by 2021. Throughout the year donor countries met to discuss ways of supporting the Colombian mine action sector. The effort culminated with the United States and Norway co-hosting the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia Pledging Conference ministerial at the United Nations General Assembly. With Colombian President Santos in attendance, the United States, Norway, the European Union, and 19 other nations pledged more than $107 million to support Colombia’s mine action efforts. In November 2016, peace negotiations between the FARC and the Colombian government concluded and ratification of the final accord resulted in the clearance and then hand-over of two hazardous areas.

From 2001 to 2016, the United States invested more than $54.1 million to support CWD in Colombia, including clearance, risk education, technical assistance, equipping the Colombian Brigada, and survivor assistance programs.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued demining in southeast Antioquia and expanded survey and clearance operations into Meta.
  • NPA received demining accreditation and played a critical role in coordinating the peace gestures in El Orejon and Vista Hermosa. In addition, NPA embedded an expert within DAICMA to strengthen DAICMA’s information management database expertise.
  • The Organization of American States (OAS) provided equipment and support to military humanitarian demining units, conducted quality assurance and quality control verifications over both civilian and military operations, and supported DAICMA with technical expertise.
  • FSD provided technical expertise to DAICMA to further develop national capacity.
  • Campaña Colombiana Contra Minas, Colombia’s first national demining nongovernmental organization, carried out clearance work in Vista Hermosa.
  • Polus assisted victims from landmine incidents by providing prostheses and connecting them with the appropriate Colombian health services.
  • SoS organized community sporting events as a mine risk education method to warn children of the risks associated with mines and UXO.
  • GICHD coordinated and managed the Forum of Experts in which donor representatives, Colombian officials, and nongovernmental partners met to discuss mine action efforts.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • HD R&D provided support to HALO for mine clearance in Colombia. HD R&D and HALO also tested the dual sensor HSTAMIDS mine detector.
  • U.S. Southern Command conducted train-the-trainer courses for Colombian military humanitarian demining instructors on faculty and curriculum development, training of survey teams, accreditation of the Colombian military’s International Demining Training Center, and training and equipping of manual demining personnel.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported World Vision to strengthen rehabilitation services, including the provision of assistive products, and promote socioeconomic opportunities for civilians affected by conflict and other persons with disabilities. The Fund also supported Fundación Arcangeles to promote the inclusion of persons with disabilities, particularly victims of the armed conflict, through sport and economic empowerment and International Organization for Migration efforts to improve access to rehabilitation services in areas particularly affected by the armed conflict.

Peru

FUNDING FY14 FY15 FY16 FY01–16 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 242 11,148
DoD 0 0 0 11,944
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 0 242 24,092

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2017 Description: Golden West demonstrates proper munitions disposal to potential EOD candidates in Peru. - State Dept Image

Peruvian stockpiles contain a significant amount of excess and obsolete weapons and ordnance stemming from the military build-up that resulted from the 1990s border dispute with Ecuador. In addition, the harsh weather conditions increase the risk of unplanned depot explosions, raising the importance of depot maintenance.

From 1999 to 2016, the United States invested more than $24 million to support CWD in Peru, including SA/LW threat reduction and humanitarian mine action.

In 2016, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Golden West deployed to northeast Peru to stabilize three depots and mitigate the risk of unplanned explosions. Golden West also partnered with Peruvian soldiers to dispose of 38 tons of excess and obsolete munitions in separate locations. The team trained 35 soldiers in basic range safety and demolition practices.

Western Hemisphere--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $550,000 for CWD activities in other Western Hemisphere countries:

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D continued management and operational support for mine clearance in Chile. The Chilean National Demining Commission is evaluating HD R&D’s technology in its operations to clear anti-personnel and anti-vehicle mines from a dry riverbed in northern Chile. The technology includes a Quadcopter aerial monitoring system for mission planning and supervision, a Mine Clearing Loader providing high volume suspect soil screening, a Multi-Tooled Excavator and two Air Spade (R) demining digging tools. HD R&D’s partners have used its technologies in the clearance of 11,500 mines from 147,000 cubic meters of soil since 2007.

U.S. Department of State

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