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General Information

A Message From Under Secretary Andrea Thompson

Andrea Thompson, Under Secretary, Arms Control and International Security Affairs

Each day, I witness the vitally important work carried out by the Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement to protect civilians and advance our nation’s interests through Conventional Weapons Destruction (CWD) programs.

In today’s dynamic world, threats to U.S. national security abound. Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons remain a serious challenge. Poorly-secured munitions are illicitly diverted to terrorists and other destabilizing actors, threatening the lives of our citizens and those of our allies. Explosive hazards continue to kill and maim people long after conflicts have ended, preventing the safe use of land and suppressing economic opportunities that are crucial to prosperity and political stability. I have witnessed these threats firsthand in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and now most recently in Vietnam, where I met local villagers who survived unexploded ordnance (UXO) accidents and have benefited from survey and clearance activities funded by the United States. CWD programs were also among the early initiatives that helped set the stage for our newly-enhanced relationship with Vietnam, as well as the historic 2016 peace negotiations in Colombia. They are also—and perhaps most saliently—keeping weapons out of the hands of those who would kill American citizens abroad.

This 17th Edition of To Walk the Earth In Safety summarizes the United States’ CWD programs in 2017. CWD assistance provides the United States with a powerful and flexible tool to help partner countries manage their stockpiles of munitions, destroy excess small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) and clear explosive hazards such as landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and UXO. Our assistance also helps countries destroy or enhance security of their man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) and their threat to civilian aviation, in addition to other weapons and munitions.

Since 1993, the United States has provided more than $3.2 billion in CWD assistance to over 100 countries. In 2017, we had active CWD programs in 47 countries. These programs are implemented by commercial contractors, non-governmental organizations, and international organizations.

Since late 2015, the United States and our partners in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS have cleared IEDs from critical infrastructure in Iraq and Syria including hospitals, schools, and water pumping stations, facilitating hundreds of millions of dollars in stabilization assistance and humanitarian aid to flow into liberated areas. In this regard, explosive hazard clearance serves as an essential enabler for follow-on stabilization and humanitarian assistance.

U.S. CWD programs are not taking place in a vacuum. They are tied to key U.S. foreign policy priorities and play a direct role in keeping U.S. citizens and those of our allies safe, while also clearing the way for a stable, secure, and prosperous future in countries that are key to long-term U.S. security interests. Thanks to the U.S. Congress’ bipartisan support and support of the American people, we can attest that our goal remains one where all may walk the earth in safety.

Andrea Thompson
Under Secretary
Arms Control and International Security Affairs
U.S. Department of State

Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program 1993-2017

Date: 2018 Description: Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding from all U.S. agencies, 1993-2017: more than $3.2 billion -- Africa 13.70%; East Asia and Pacific 14.78%; Europe 12.63%; Middle East and North Africa 20.03%; South and Central Asia 17.67%; Western Hemisphere 4.41%; Global 16.78%. - State Dept Image

Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations

CWD Conventional Weapons Destruction
DCA Dan Church Aid
DDG Danish Demining Group
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
FSD Swiss Foundation for Mine Action
FY Fiscal Year
GICHD Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining
HALO The HALO Trust
HDTC Humanitarian Demining Training Center
HD R&D Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program
HSTAMIDS Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IED Improvised Explosive Device
IMAS InternationalMineActionStandards
IMSMA Information Management System for Mine Action
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
ITF ITF Enhancing Human Security
MAG Mines Advisory Group
MANPADS Man-portable Air Defense System
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO PfPTF NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund
NPA Norwegian People’s Aid
NSPA NATO Support and Procurement Agency
OAS Organization of American States
OHDACA Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid Appropriation
OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PM/WRA Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
PSSM Physical Security and Stockpile Management
QRF Quick Reaction Force
SA/LW Small Arms and Light Weapons
SoS Spirit of Soccer
UN United Nations
UNMAS United Nations Mine Action Service
U.S. United States
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAFRICOM U.S. Africa Command
USARAF U.S. Army Africa
USCENTCOM U.S. Central Command
USEUCOM U.S. European Command
USMARFORAF U.S. Marine Corp Forces Africa
USSOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command
USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command
UXO Unexploded Ordnance

The United States' Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons continue to pose a challenge to peace and prosperity worldwide. In the wrong hands, SA/LW fuel political instability and violence, while more advanced conventional weapons, such as MANPADS, pose a serious threat to international security. Aging munitions stockpiles may also explode without warning, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines and ERW, including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, continue to kill and maim people even after conflicts end. Clearing land paves the way for stabilization assistance to move forward, allowing displaced persons to return home, economic revitalization to begin, and political stability to take root.

Date: 2018 Description: Under Secretary Andrea Thompson (second from left) meets with Norwegian People's Aid (NPA) and local residents while visiting NPA clearance sites in Vietnam funded by PM/WRA. - State Dept Image

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $3.2 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. This makes the United States the world’s single largest financial supporter of CWD. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, and international and nongovernmental organizations to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) best practices at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out humanitarian mine action programs.

The Department of State, through the Political-Military Affairs Bureau’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA), manages CWD assistance and oversees programs in 47 countries in 2017. It also leads the U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force, which coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Departments of State, Defense, Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure their MANPADS. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. USAID assists mine and UXO survivors, providing medical and rehabilitative care, through its Leahy War Victims Fund.

Department of State Support for CWD

Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed more than 68 percent (over $2.2 billion) of the United States’ more than $3.2 billion contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  1. Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors;
  2. Remediate explosive remnants of war (ERW), returning land to safe and productive use; and
  3. Accelerate achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives by broadening support for CWD efforts.

PM/WRA partners with nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, educational institutions, and private sector contractors to implement its programs. Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s resource allocation decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to CWD programs strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries. We look forward to continuing this important work.

Implementing Partners

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury or death from landmines and UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in mine risk education. http://crs.org .

Conflict Recovery International (CRI) is a Florida-based nongovernmental organization that addresses humanitarian mine action. It emphasizes the development of national civil society to deliver an integrated approach to mine action within broader development and human security programs. The majority of CRI beneficiaries live in areas where greatest risk to life exists. https://www.conflictrecoveryinternational.org .

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a California-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to the development of innovative technologies to overcome the operational limitations encountered in humanitarian mine action efforts. It conducts surveys and assessments, and develops mine risk education materials, as well as mine and UXO disposal technologies. http://goldenwesthf.org .

Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI has provided medical training for the past eight years in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. http://healthleadershipinternational.org .

The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its mine and UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese mine action agencies. http://ic-vvaf.org .

The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining nongovernmental organization, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). http://landmine-relief-fund.com .

Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 14 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. http://marshall-legacy.org .

PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based nongovernmental organization founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, landmine awareness programs, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. http://peacetreesvietnam.org .

The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit nongovernmental organization. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. http://poluscenter.org .

World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support survivor assistance and mine risk education. http://worlded.org .

International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining nongovernmental organization in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and mine risk education activities. http://atc-wlfhdngo.org.af .

Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization providing its Community Based Mine Clearance Program (CBMCP) throughout the most insecure areas of Afghanistan. CBMCP transfers skills so that local communities can conduct their own mine and UXO clearance. AREA seeks to integrate demining and development through employment and procurement within the local economy. asryusufi@hotmail.com.

Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM) monitors fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention on behalf of the Colombian government, compiles reports each year for the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, and supports survivor assistance and mine risk education. http://colomniasinminas.org .

DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, which provides humanitarian assistance and mine action programs which combine mine risk education, mine clearance, and community development activities. http://dca.dk .

Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a nonprofit organization that works worldwide to help and protect refugees, internally displaced, and other conflict-affected persons. http://drc.ngo .

Danish Demining Group (DDG) is a humanitarian mine action unit in the Danish Refugee Council, which assists individuals and populations hampered by mines, UXO, and SA/LW. https://drc.ngo .

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010. DASH’s goal is to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of household. http://slnmac.gov.lk/dash .

Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.sattar_dafa@yahoo.ca or dafafinance@yahoo.com.

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance and relevance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. http://gichd.org .

The HALO Trust (HALO) is an American and British nonprofit charity specializing in the removal of mines and UXO from post-conflict zones. Since pioneering the concept of humanitarian landmine clearance in Afghanistan in 1988, HALO has been clearing explosive remnants of war and helping millions of families return home. http://halotrust.org .

Humanity and Inclusion (HI), formerly Handicap International, HI works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing risk education programs, and rendering assistance to those who have been injured. http://handicap-international.us .

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit nongovernmental organization that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. http://immap.org .

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. Since then, ITF has continued to expand its scope of activities and the geographic area of its implementation in order to reduce threats from mines, UXO, and at-risk weapons and ammunition. http://itf-fund.si .

MAG (Mines Advisory Group) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide mine risk education, and offer capacity-building support. http://maginternational.org .

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major humanitarian mine action donor states. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. http://www.mineaction.org/funding/masg .

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and mine detection dog clearance, EOD, mine risk education, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. hajiattqullah@gmail.com.

The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan of mine and UXO impact so individuals and communities can have a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. http://mdc-afghan.org .

The Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC) in Bosnia and Herzegovina trains dogs for landmine, explosives, narcotic detection, and search and rescue. It also trains dog handlers. More than 300 dogs for various purposes were trained at MDDC so far and deployed in dozens of countries. http://mddc.ba/new .

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom, is one of Norway’s primary nongovernmental organizations. For more than 20 years NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 states and territories. http://npaid.org .

Date: 2018 Description: Then-Acting Assistant Secretary Kaidanow visits an NPA clearance site in Vietnam funded by PM/WRA. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, battle area clearance, EOD, and working with mine detection dogs. http://www.landmineclearance.org/ .

Spirit of Soccer (SOS), founded in 1996, is a UK and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions. SOS has created risk education courses in more than 10 current or post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, and Moldova. http://spiritofsoccer.org .

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), established in 1997, is an international nongovernmental organization based in Geneva that has implemented mine clearance projects in 29 countries. FSD focuses on locating and destroying mines and UXO on the ground and underwater. It also engages in collecting and destroying arms and ammunition and managing stockpiles. http://fsd.ch .

Government and International Organizations

The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO PfPTF in Ukraine, the largest conventional munitions stockpile reduction project in history. NSPA has worked on PSSM and CWD programs in a number of countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Mauritania, and Serbia. http://www.nspa.nato.int .

The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. http://oas.org .

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. http://osce.org .

Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 African member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. http://recsasec.org .

Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects. muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj .

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by developing national and local capacities. http://undp.org .

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the General Assembly, is located in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions and is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 11 UN organizations involved in mine action to develop or revise policies and strategies, set priorities among UN players, and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. http://www.mineaction.org/unmas .

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC), established in 1986 by the General Assembly, is headquartered in Lima, Peru, and specializes in disarmament and non-proliferation in the Latin American and Caribbean region.

Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), established in 1996 at James Madison University (JMU), provides programs and information to post-conflict communities and practitioners in the CWD field. CISR works around the world to promote post-conflict recovery, rebuilding, and resilience. It also publishes the Journal of Conventional Weapons Destructionhttp://jmu.edu/cisr .

Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. http://smallarmssurvey.org .

Contractors

Janus Global Operations (Janus) is an employee-owned munitions management and demining company supporting government, military, and commercial organizations operating in war-affected countries. Janus provides risk management, logistics, construction, and maintenance services in support of countries emerging from conflict. http://www.janusgo.com .

Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (TtEC) is a California-based company providing consulting, engineering, remediation, and construction services worldwide. TtEC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech Inc., a publicly traded company. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. http://www.tteci.com .

Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding

From 1993 through 2017, the United States contributed more than $3.2 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The United States remains the world’s leading donor for humanitarian mine action programs, including landmine clearance, survivor assistance services, and mine risk education. Many of our ongoing programs combine humanitarian demining, UXO removal, and SA/LW, and ammunition destruction, and improve the safety and storage of conventional munitions stockpiles. This 17th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety covers programmatic activities that occurred January 1 through December 31, 2017.

The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2016 (October 1, 2015 – September 30, 2016) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2017 (October 1, 2016 – September 30, 2017) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 18th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2017 that reflect the final allocations.

TOP 10 COUNTRIES FUNDED FY1993-2017 (AGGREGATE)
(Dollars in thousands)

Date: 2018 Description: Top 10 Countries Funded FY1993-2017 (Aggregate) (Dollars in thousands) -- Afghanistan $474,658; Iraq $399,790; Laos $169,106; Cambodia $133,635; Angola $127,159; Vietnam $119,301; Bosnia & Herzegovina $113,078; Colombia $84,301; Lebanon $66,121; Sri Lanka $59,96. - State Dept Image

Legend for charts on pages 67–73:

DOS NADR-CWD Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs
DOS Other Department of State – Other funding
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DoD Department of Defense
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

 


U.S. CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION PROGRAM FUNDING HISTORY
(Dollars in thousands)

Country Sources FY93-09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 *FY17 Total

Afghanistan

DOS NADR – CWD

137,959 45,800 40,475 40,550 30,785 22,450 22,700 32,066 20,000 392,785

DOS Other

20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000

CDC

1,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,800

DoD

4,784 996 0 1,000 355 162 744 451 134 8,626

USAID

51,447 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51,477

COUNTRY TOTAL

215,990 46,796 40,475 41,550 31,140 22,612 23,444 32,517 20,134 474,658

Albania

DOS NADR – CWD

18,868 5,909 3,500 4,034 2,324 2,135 1,777 1,500 1,200 41,247

DoD

11 0 11 0 10 185 147 100 33 497

USAID

1,389 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,389

COUNTRY TOTAL

20,268 5,909 3,511 4,034 2,334 2,320 1,924 1,600 1,233 43,133

Angola

DOS NADR – CWD

54,029 10,000 7,500 8,675 6,000 6,000 5,600 4,700 4,000 106,504

DOS Other

3,170 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,170

CDC

150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150

DoD

4,864 850 0 850 1,345 179 152 551 193 8,984

USAID

8,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,351

COUNTRY TOTAL

70,564 10,850 7,500 9,525 7,345 6,179 5,752 5,251 4,193 127,159

Argentina

DoD

579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579

Country Total

579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579

Armenia

DOS NADR – CWD

2,600 0 0 391 700 301 300 0 0 4,292

DOS Other

3,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,000

DoD

2,818 0 8 9 169 187 40 10 226 3,467

USAID

1,148 0 1,000 0 0 0 997 0 0 3,145

COUNTRY TOTAL

9,566 0 1,008 400 869 488 1,337 10 226 13,904

Azerbaijan

DOS NADR – CWD

19,978 752 365 365 325 325 532 0 0 22,642

DOS Other

1,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,100

DoD

6,675 300 0 0 0 0 0 140 41 7,156

COUNTRY TOTAL

27,753 1,052 365 365 325 325 532 140 41 30,898

Bahrain

DoD

10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10

Country Total

10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10

Belize

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 300

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 300

Benin

DoD

14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14

COUNTRY TOTAL

14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14

Bosnia &Herzegovina

DOS NADR – CWD

49,902 5,425 3,685 4,300 4,445 4,400 3,974 4,500 2,750 83,381

DOS Other

1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000

CDC

3,210 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,210

DoD

4,263 0 0 0 241 156 0 78 249 4,987

USAID

20,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,500

COUNTRY TOTAL

78,875 5,425 3,685 4,300 4,686 4,556 3,974 4,578 2,999 113,078

Bulgaria

DOS NADR – CWD

3,544 0 3,100 1,585 2,250 0 0 0 0 10,479

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 8 39

COUNTRY TOTAL

3,544 0 3,100 1,585 2,250 31 0 0 8 10,518

Burkina Faso

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 0 0 0 941 600 0 1,541

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 0 0 0 941 600 0 1,541

Burma (Myanmar)

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 6 829 0 0 2,000 0 0 2,835

DOS-OTHER

0 0 0 0 0 850 0 0 0 850

USAID

0 0 0 0 1,350 1,500 0 500 500 3,850

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 6 829 1,350 2,350 2,000 500 500 7,535

Burundi

DOS NADR – CWD

1,019 400 516 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,935

DoD

74 0 155 201 322 566 118 0 0 1,436

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,093 400 671 201 322 566 118 0 0 3,371

Cambodia

DOS NADR – CWD

40,516 5,040 5,250 5,494 5,800 6,216 8,307 8,522 4,300 89,445

DOS Other

4,943 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,943

CDC

100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100

DoD

7,630 3,000 0 4,235 1,411 1,722 2,379 1,717 1,969 24,063

USAID

12,548 500 0 0 600 633 500 303 0 15,084

COUNTRY TOTAL

65,737 8,540 5,250 9,729 7,811 8,571 11,186 10,542 6,269 133,635

Central African Republic

DOS NADR – CWD

37 0 0 0 0 187 0 0 0 224

Country Total

37 0 0 0 0 187 0 0 0 224

Chad

DOS NADR – CWD

6,899 0 0 0 0 0 1,657 750 1,000 10,306

DoD

3,687 0 190 414 384 325 0 50 54 5,104

COUNTRY TOTAL

10,586 0 190 414 384 325 1,657 800 1,054 15,410

Chile

DoD

2,162 450 0 450 0 385 3 0 0 3,450

COUNTRY TOTAL

2,162 450 0 450 0 385 3 0 0 3,450

Colombia

DOS NADR – CWD

4,495 2,000 2,500 3,500 4,100 6,465 7,039 8,500 21,000 59,599

CDC

450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450

DoD

950 575 0 154 0 0 0 742 3,338 5,759

USAID

4,100 1,500 3,200 600 1,900 1,300 2,000 3,085 808 18,493

COUNTRY TOTAL

9,995 4,075 5,700 4,254 6,000 7,765 9,039 12,327 25,146 84,301

Congo, DR

DOS NADR – CWD

4,241 841 1,016 750 1,265 2,500 500 3,221 2,000 16,334

DoD

0 65 305 233 0 373 107 0 0 1,083

USAID

1,300 0 0 0 0 1,300 2,000 1,722 1,275 7,597

COUNTRY TOTAL

5,541 906 1,321 983 1,265 4,173 2,607 4,943 3,275 25,014

Congo, Republic of the

DOS NADR – CWD

1,320 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,320

DoD

0 0 0 267 371 690 191 0 0 1,519

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,320 0 0 267 371 690 191 0 0 2,839

Croatia [1]

DOS NADR – CWD

25,802 2,000 5,037 1,100 999 900 850 2,040 0 38,728

DoD

0 0 0 0 713 0 0 0 28 741

COUNTRY TOTAL

25,802 2,000 5,037 1,100 1,712 900 850 2,040 28 39,469

Cyprus

DOS NADR – CWD

10 0 0 0 0 0 250 0 0 260

DoD

0 0 0 0 76 19 18 20 196 329

COUNTRY TOTAL

10 0 0 0 76 19 268 20 196 589

Czech Republic

DOS NADR – CWD

600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600

COUNTRY TOTAL

600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600

Djibouti

DOS NADR – CWD

1,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,900

DoD

1,172 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,172

COUNTRY TOTAL

3,072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,072

Dominican Republic

USAID

0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 500

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 500

Ecuador

DOS NADR – CWD

3,323 1,002 500 0 200 0 0 0 0 5,025

DoD

2,840 433 0 518 0 0 0 0 0 3,791

COUNTRY TOTAL

6,163 1,435 500 518 200 0 0 0 0 8,816

Egypt

DoD

718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718

COUNTRY TOTAL

718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718

El Salvador [2]

DOS NADR – CWD

50 0 0 988 0 0 0 350 0 1,388

CDC

2,840 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,840

USAID

1,500 0 0 500 300 0 0 0 0 2,300

COUNTRY TOTAL

4,390 0 0 1,488 300 0 0 350 0 6,528

Eritrea

DOS NADR – CWD

11,623 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,623

DOS Other

1,560 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,560

CDC

450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450

DoD

4,485 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,485

COUNTRY TOTAL

18,118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,118

Estonia

DOS NADR – CWD

2,176 323 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,499

DoD

1,706 0 160 0 195 87 54 0 7 2,209

COUNTRY TOTAL

3,882 323 160 0 195 87 54 0 7 4,708

Ethiopia

DOS NADR – CWD

3,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,545

DOS Other

1,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,500

CDC

2,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,846

DoD

3,984 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,984

USAID

1,555 2,000 327 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,882

COUNTRY TOTAL

13,430 2,000 327 0 0 0 0 0 0 15,757

Georgia

DOS NADR – CWD

20,870 2,845 1,158 1,232 1,500 500 500 0 0 28,605

DOS Other

2,644 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,644

DoD

1,114 0 0 0 0 167 209 20 55 1,565

USAID

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998 1,998

COUNTRY TOTAL

24,628 2,845 1,158 1,232 1,500 667 709 20 2,053 34,812

Guatemala [2]

DOS NADR – CWD

0 250 0 0 0 0 0 350 0 600

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 250 0 0 0 0 0 350 0 600

Guinea

DOS NADR – CWD

103 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 103

COUNTRY TOTAL

103 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 103

Guinea-Bissau

DOS NADR – CWD

3,967 1,000 1,070 0 0 0 0 0 0 6,037

DoD

1,444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,444

COUNTRY TOTAL

5,411 1,000 1,070 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,481

Haiti

USAID

0 1,000 1,500 0 0 1,000 0 0 0 3,500

Country Total

0 1,000 1,500 0 0 1,000 0 0 0 3,500

Honduras [2]

DOS NADR – CWD

316 0 0 0 500 0 0 300 0 1,116

COUNTRY TOTAL

316 0 0 0 500 0 0 300 0 1,116

Hungary

DOS NADR – CWD

350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350

COUNTRY TOTAL

350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350

India

USAID

0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 300

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 300 0 0 0 0 0 300

Iraq

DOS NADR – CWD

57,436 24,913 22,000 25,000 23,805 23,177 37,835 30,945 48,000 293,111

DOS Other

992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 992

CDC

450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450

DoD

103,619 318 0 300 160 573 0 58 209 105,237

COUNTRY TOTAL

162,497 25,231 22,000 25,300 23,965 23,750 37,835 31,003 48,209 399,790

Jordan

DOS NADR – CWD

11,165 2,906 2,015 3,850 1,200 0 500 400 400 22,436

DOS Other

300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300

CDC

2,968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,968

DoD

2,418 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,418

COUNTRY TOTAL

16,851 2,906 2,015 3,850 1,200 0 500 400 400 28,122

Kazakhstan

DOS NADR – CWD

295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 295

COUNTRY TOTAL

295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 295

Kenya

DOS NADR – CWD

1,138 269 75 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,482

DoD

56 25 175 236 70 162 151 280 0 1,155

USAID

400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,594 294 250 236 70 162 151 280 0 3,037

Kosovo

DOS NADR – CWD

5,640 1,000 450 260 100 0 550 475 0 8,475

DoD

4,300 0 0 0 0 165 120 204 71 4,860

USAID

17,472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17,472

COUNTRY TOTAL

27,412 1,000 450 260 100 165 670 679 71 30,807

Kyrgyz Republic

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 500 0 300 0 400 285 250 1,735

DoD

7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7

COUNTRY TOTAL

7 0 500 0 300 0 400 285 250 1,742

Laos

DOS NADR – CWD

25,811 5,100 5,000 9,233 9,000 12,840 26,880 20,500 30,000 144,364

DOS Other

750 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 750

DoD

6,861 6 0 33 0 0 0 111 10 7,021

USAID

8,300 1,000 0 0 0 500 2,000 2,166 3,005 16,971

COUNTRY TOTAL

41,722 6,106 5,000 9,266 9,000 13,340 28,880 22,777 33,015 169,106

Lebanon

DOS NADR – CWD

21,929 1,997 2,225 2,524 3,000 2,500 3,324 4,500 3,000 44,999

DOS Other

2,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,000

DoD

8,141 289 0 590 80 50 44 39 39 9,272

USAID

8,300 750 800 0 0 0 0 0 0 9,850

COUNTRY TOTAL

40,370 3,036 3,025 3,114 3,080 2,550 3,368 4,539 3,039 66,121

Lesotho

DOS NADR – CWD

15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15

COUNTRY TOTAL

15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15

Liberia

DOS NADR – CWD

360 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 360

CDC

150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150

USAID

4,429 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,429

COUNTRY TOTAL

4,939 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,939

Libya

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 3,000 0 0 1,000 1,500 2,500 16,000 24,000

DOS Other

0 0 0 17,800 1,775 0 0 0 0 19,575

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 3,000 17,800 1,775 1,000 1,500 2,500 16,000 43,575

Lithuania

DOS NADR – CWD

0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500

Macedonia

DOS NADR – CWD

1,848 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,848 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998

Mali

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 0 0 0 1,200 500 1,000 2,700

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 170 182 352

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 0 0 0 1,200 670 1,182 3,052

Marshall Islands

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 0 267 361 285 295 0 1,208

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 0 267 361 285 295 0 1,208

Mauritania

DOS NADR – CWD

1,395 1,000 0 0 0 0 300 500 1,000 4,195

DoD

4,410 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,410

COUNTRY TOTAL

5,805 1,000 0 0 0 0 300 500 1,000 8,605

Moldova

DoD

71 0 0 0 154 282 132 35 78 752

COUNTRY TOTAL

71 0 0 0 154 282 132 35 78 752

Montenegro [3]

DOS NADR – CWD

3,351 1,048 1,750 1,300 0 0 0 1,750 0 9,199

DoD

0 0 0 11 294 422 428 562 30 1,747

COUNTRY TOTAL

3,351 1,048 1,750 1,311 294 422 428 2,312 30 10,946

Morocco

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 0 90

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 90 0 90

Mozambique

DOS NADR – CWD

22,747 2,000 2,175 2,635 3,000 1,525 700 0 0 34,782

DOS Other

1,600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,600

CDC

2,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,100

DoD

11,498 3 326 639 599 122 189 0 0 13,376

USAID

4,533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,533

COUNTRY TOTAL

42,478 2,003 2,501 3,274 3,599 1,647 889 0 0 56,391

Namibia

DOS NADR – CWD

3,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,351

DOS Other

670 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 670

DoD

4,400 78 165 309 151 45 110 80 0 5,338

COUNTRY TOTAL

8,421 78 165 309 151 45 110 80 0 9,359

Nepal

DOD

0 0 0 0 0 165 36 36 0 237

USAID

500 500 0 1,000 0 0 131 1,580 420 4,131

COUNTRY TOTAL

500 500 0 1,000 0 165 167 1,616 420 4,368

Nicaragua

DOS NADR – CWD

4,081 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,081

DoD

200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200

COUNTRY TOTAL

4,281 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,281

Niger

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 0 0 0 693 500 1,000 2,193

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3

Country Total

0 0 0 0 0 0 693 500 1,003 2,196

Nigeria

DOS NADR – CWD

1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,449

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 315 321 636

Country Total

1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 315 321 2,085

Oman

DOS NADR – CWD

1,785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,785

DoD

2,553 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,553

COUNTRY TOTAL

4,338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,338

Pakistan

DOS NADR – CWD

532 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 832

COUNTRY TOTAL

532 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 832

Palau

DOS NADR – CWD

85 0 0 150 390 690 505 505 0 2,325

COUNTRY TOTAL

85 0 0 150 390 690 505 505 0 2,325

Palestinian Territories
(West Bank)

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 209 782 917 1,180 1,000 1,000 1,000 6,088

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 44 64

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 209 782 917 1,180 1,020 1,000 1,044 6,152

Paraguay

DOS NADR – CWD

200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200

COUNTRY TOTAL

200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200

Peru

DOS NADR – CWD

5,906 2,000 2,000 1,000 0 0 0 2,600 0 13,506

DoD

11,944 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,944

USAID

0 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 1,000

COUNTRY TOTAL

17,850 2,000 2,000 1,000 1,000 0 0 2,600 0 26,450

Philippines

DOS NADR – CWD

670 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 920

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 173 45 335 553

USAID

1,550 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,550

COUNTRY TOTAL

2,220 250 0 0 0 0 173 45 335 3,023

Romania

DOS NADR – CWD

1,369 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,369

DoD

0 0 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 150

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,369 1,000 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,519

Rwanda

DOS NADR – CWD

3,961 242 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,203

DOS Other

700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 700

DoD

7,790 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,790

COUNTRY TOTAL

12,451 242 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12,693

São Tomé/ Príncipe

DOS NADR – CWD

50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50

COUNTRY TOTAL

50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50

Senegal

DOS NADR – CWD

2,005 500 0 0 0 0 400 400 0 3,305

DOS Other

0 0 0 0 260 0 0 0 0 260

DoD

252 0 0 0 0 367 1,147 100 10 1,876

USAID

500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500

COUNTRY TOTAL

2,757 500 0 0 260 367 1,547 500 10 5,941

Serbia [3]

DOS NADR – CWD

9,833 1,400 1,552 1,000 2,000 900 195 2,100 1,250 20,230

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 3 200 107 310

COUNTRY TOTAL

9,833 1,400 1,552 1,000 2,000 900 198 2,300 1,357 20,540

Serbia & Montenegro [3]

DOS NADR – CWD

5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646

COUNTRY TOTAL

5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646

Sierra Leone

DOS NADR – CWD

0 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 147

USAID

1,593 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,593

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,593 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,740

Slovenia

DoD

0 0 0 270 0 0 0 0 0 270

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 270 0 0 0 0 0 270

Solomon Islands

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 400 567 560 473 446 350 0 2,796

DoD

0 0 0 325 35 429 306 569 200 1,864

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 400 892 595 902 752 919 200 4,660

Somalia

DOS NADR – CWD

8,220 2,000 2,325 2,500 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 1,000 25,145

COUNTRY TOTAL

8,220 2,000 2,325 2,500 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 1,000 25,145

South Sudan [4]

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 1,100 2,800 2,500 2,135 2,000 300 2,000 12,835

DoD

0 0 0 367 459 0 0 0 0 826

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 1,100 3,167 2,959 2,135 2,000 300 2,000 13,661

Sri Lanka

DOS NADR – CWD

16,462 4,400 2,500 4,804 3,300 4,625 4,250 2,500 5,000 47,841

DOS Other

122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122

CDC

175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 175

DoD

345 280 0 262 522 715 507 601 697 3,929

USAID

5,100 300 2,000 0 500 0 0 0 0 7,900

COUNTRY TOTAL

22,204 4,980 4,500 5,066 4,322 5,340 4,757 3,101 5,697 59,967

Sudan [4]

DOS NADR – CWD

22,402 0 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,800

COUNTRY TOTAL

22,402 0 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,800

Sudan and South Sudan [4]

DOS NADR – CWD

5,350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27,752

COUNTRY TOTAL

5,350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 27,752

Suriname

DOS NADR – CWD

390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390

COUNTRY TOTAL

390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390

Eswatini
(formerly Swaziland)

DOS NADR – CWD

210 229 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 439

DoD

836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 836

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,046 229 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,275

Syria

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 0 0 550 0 8,000 9,510 38,000 56,060

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 0 0 0 550 0 8,000 9,510 38,000 56,060

Tajikistan

DOS NADR – CWD

680 2,194 1,000 1,691 2,028 3,190 2,275 1,975 1,500 16,533

DoD

32 1,200 0 1,200 0 101 67 147 0 2,747

USAID

0 0 0 1,500 0 0 0 534 440 2,474

COUNTRY TOTAL

712 3,394 1,000 4,391 2,028 3,291 2,342 2,656 1,940 21,754

Tanzania

DOS NADR – CWD

0 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 16

DoD

0 0 185 244 274 44 123 50 0 920

USAID

1,700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,700

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,700 0 201 244 274 44 123 50 0 2,636

Thailand

DOS NADR – CWD

4,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,190

DoD

4,589 1,500 0 1,500 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 518 13,435

COUNTRY TOTAL

8,779 1,500 0 1,500 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 518 17,625

Togo

DOS NADR – CWD

32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32

GLOBAL TOTAL

32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32

Tunisia

DoD

217 0 0 0 0 0 536 630 0 1,383

COUNTRY TOTAL

217 0 0 0 0 0 536 630 0 1,383
 Uganda

DOS NADR – CWD

40 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 56

DoD

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 207 0 207

USAID

1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000

COUNTRY TOTAL

1,040 0 16 0 0 0 0 207 0 1,263
 Ukraine

DOS NADR – CWD

6,442 2,590 4,500 1,500 2,000 7,095 1,940 2,000 6,000 34,067

DoD

0 177 0 0 0 0 303 108 656 1,244

USAID

0 0 0 0 0 0 1,031 920 1,048 2,999

COUNTRY TOTAL

6,442 2,767 4,500 1,500 2,000 7,095 3,274 3,028 7,704 38,310

Uruguay

DOS NADR – CWD

0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200

COUNTRY TOTAL

0 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200

Uzbekistan

DoD

30 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99

COUNTRY TOTAL

30 69 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
 Vietnam

DOS NADR – CWD

24,230 3,750 3,584 4,032 4,500 10,506 12,548 10,709 12,500 86,359

CDC

1,848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,848

DoD

763 275 0 300 471 256 340 722 1,168 4,295

USAID

23,399 1,500 1,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 26,799

COUNTRY TOTAL

50,240 5,525 5,484 4,332 4,971 10,762 12,888 11,431 13,668 119,301

Yemen

DOS NADR – CWD

11,145 1,000 1,075 3,135 2,000 700 2,000 3,500 5,000 29,555

DoD

4,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,846

COUNTRY TOTAL

15,991 1,000 1,075 3,135 2,000 700 2,000 3,500 5,000 34,401

Zambia

DOS NADR – CWD

2,050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,050

DoD

437 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 437

COUNTRY TOTAL

2,487 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,487

Zimbabwe

DOS NADR – CWD

3,086 0 0 250 500 2,750 3,000 1,000 1,500 12,086

DoD

3,265 0 0 0 0 0 173 78 153 3,669

COUNTRY TOTAL

6,351 0 0 250 500 2,750 3,173 1,078 1,653 15,755
Global/
Multi-Country

DOS NADR – CWD

123,353 9,172 4,460 5,999 16,007 20,662 6,326 8,234 34,850 229,063

DOS Other

1,450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,450

CDC

18,653 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,653

DoD

200,918 49 682 1,106 0 0 1,313 861 576 205,505

USAID

67,370 19,950 7,773 3,300 4,850 7,000 2,841 687 3,502 117,273

GLOBAL TOTAL

411,744 29,171 12,915 10,405 20,857 27,662 10,480 9,782 38,928 571,944

Grand Total

1,613,484 201,132 163,917 189,858 165,283 175,708 200,223 202,668 291,434 3,203,706

*Initial planned allocations

 

 


U.S. CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION PROGRAM FUNDING HISTORY
(Totals by Source)

Sources

FY93-09 FY10 FY11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 *FY17 Total

DOS NADR – CWD

837,027 161,194 142,405 149,105 142,417 150,688 177,779 179,232 266,500 2,205,997

DOS Other [5]

47,501 0 0 17,800 2,035 850 0 0 0 68,186

CDC

38,190 3,040 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38,190

DoD [6]

440,782 10,938 2,512 15,753 10,331 10,937 10,944 11,939 11,938 526,074

USAID [7]

249,984 29,000 19,000 7,200 10,500 13,233 11,500 11,497 12,996 364,910

GRAND TOTAL

1,613,484 201,132 163,917 189,858 165,283 175,708 200,223 202,668 291,434 3,203,706

*Initial planned allocations

 

Footnotes for charts on pages 67-73:

1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
2. Funding not from FY2016 appropriation.
3. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007.
4. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
5. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
6. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction fund. All U.S.Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
7. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.

U.S. Government Interagency Partners

U.S. Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund assists civilian victims of conflict in developing countries. Established in 1989, it is a dedicated source of financial and technical support for people with disabilities, particularly those who sustain injuries from anti-personnel mines, UXO, and other injuries resulting from armed conflict and civil strife. To date, the Fund has provided approximately $275 million in assistance to more than 50 countries.

The Leahy War Victims Fund was originally tasked with the delivery of immediate care to civilians impacted by landmines and UXO, including the provision of prosthetics, orthotics, and rehabilitation services. Its scope subsequently widened to include initiatives that accommodate the changing needs of the populations it serves and to promote sustainable rehabilitation services in conflict-affected countries. The Fund also supports the development of international standards as well as training on those standards to ensure that rehabilitation practitioners and institutions have sufficient capacity.

A good example of programming supported by the Leahy War Victims Fund in 2017 is the $5 million TEAM project implemented by World Vision in Colombia. From July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017, the project partnered with three local institutions to focus on: training for rehabilitation service personnel; economic empowerment; assistive technology delivery; and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities. The project was implemented in areas particularly affected by conflict, high poverty rates, and a shortage of quality services. Over the life of the initiative, more than 1,000 people with disabilities received assistive products; over 1,600 people received rehabilitation services; over 1,900 rehabilitation service providers received training; and over 400 people with disabilities and their families enjoyed increased economic opportunity.

The Leahy War Victims Fund also launched two new activities in 2017, one in Laos in partnership with PM/WRA, and one in Georgia. Both activities strengthen in-country provision of rehabilitation services and expand access to assistive products. This includes direct support to beneficiaries; the strengthening of service providers through physical therapy associations, academic programs, and on the job training; and the promotion of rehabilitation-related policies and standards that reflect international best practices. Spending approximately $12 million in 2017, the Leahy War Victims Fund also continued to support activities in Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti, Laos, Nepal, Tajikistan and Ukraine. The Fund also continues to support several global initiatives spanning multiple countries. This includes support to the International Committee of the Red Cross MoveAbility Foundation with a geographic emphasis on Africa, and the World Health Organization to support the development of international standards related to rehabilitation, assistive technology, and increased access to appropriate assistive products.

http://usaid.gov 

Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC), headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia, is managed and funded by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. HDTC trains and prepares U.S. military forces, U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to build partner-nation capacity in land-based and underwater unexploded ordnance disposal, and PSSM. In addition to HDTC’s training function, the center provides program management support to the U.S. military’s geographic combatant command mine action programs in USAFRICOM, USCENTCOM, USEUCOM, USPACOM, and USSOUTHCOM. HDTC’s responsibilities include validating humanitarian mine action project plans and budgets, and monitoring and evaluating global Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) funded humanitarian mine action activities.

HDTC has courses on landmine clearance, battle area clearance, PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions, and underwater UXO disposal. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, international guidelines governing physical security, ammunition management, and UXO disposal. The HDTC quality management system for the provision of curricula and training in disposal of UXO and physical security of stockpiled conventional munitions is certified to conform to International Organization of Standardization 9001:2008 (https://www.iso.org/standard/46486.html ).

The center utilizes a three-phase approach to provide support to the geographic combatant command humanitarian mine action programs. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, HDTC deploys program analysts to assess the current state of a partner nation’s demining program. The assessment, or requirements determination site survey (RDSS), identifies partner nation capability gaps in order to develop humanitarian mine action project objectives and resource requirements to assist the partner nation in achieving its demining goals. The completed RDSS establishes objectives and outcomes that support the request for OHDACA funded resources. The Director of HDTC, in consultation with the Defense Security Cooperation Agency Office of the General Counsel and humanitarian assistance program managers, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability and Humanitarian Affairs, and PM/WRA, approves mine action projects.

HDTC also conducts capacity-building training or technical assistance activities in support of combatant command mine action projects. HDTC personnel provide tools and expertise to perform PSSM, landmine clearance and EOD, and underwater UXO disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The target audience for capacity building is junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, or civil servants who conduct mine action operations. To sustain the capabilities of partner nation mine action programs, HDTC, in coordination with PM/WRA, executes mine action projects designed to enhance the skills of mine action managers and ministerial or executive level personnel. These projects include seminars and workshops to address legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic level.

http://www.lee.army.mil/hdtc 

Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program

Initiated in 1994, the Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program delivers the latest technology solutions to the most challenging landmine and UXO detection and clearance efforts, with emphasis on improving technologies for mine/UXO detection, and mechanical mine/UXO and vegetation clearance. The program rapidly develops, tests, demonstrates, and validates internationally shareable technologies that increase the effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of humanitarian demining. Such technologies operate in high-risk areas where manual clearance or mine detection dogs are deemed impractical. Without these technologies, operations partners would be unable to demine and release sites. Host-nation demining partners (foreign militaries, nongovernmental organizations, and mine action centers) test and operate equipment in active minefields and provide feedback for future R&D enhancements.

Date: 2018 Description: MAG uses the HD R&D's Mini MineWolf to clear a minefield in Cambodia. © Photo courtesy of MAG

In 2017, the HD R&D Program’s technologies cleared 7.9 million square meters (approximately 2,000 acres) of the world’s toughest minefields, removing or destroying 19,100 mines and items of UXO. Of particular note was the program’s Raptor low-metal content anti-tank mine clearance systems operating in Afghanistan. Afghanistan is one of the most mine-affected countries in the world, with half of the hazardous area contaminated by anti-tank mines. The HALO Trust is operating three Raptor systems and clearing very large areas of suspect land: 6.3 million square meters in Afghanistan to date (approximately 1,556 acres). The recovered land is utilized for roads and agriculture.

To date, the HD R&D Program’s technologies have cleared 53.2 million square meters (approximately 13,146 acres) and removed or destroyed approximately 187,400 mines and UXO worldwide. Since 1995, the program has fielded technologies in support of 203 operational field evaluations in 39 countries and the Palestinian Territories. In 2017, HD R&D performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Iraq, Kosovo, Laos, Lebanon, Palestinian Territories, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe.

http://humanitarian-demining.org 

Implementation Tools and Fora

Senior Managers' Course in Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Senior Managers’ Course (SMC), organized by the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) at James Madison University (JMU), brings together senior-level managers from mine action and other CWD programs for training in organizational management and technical skills. Funded by PM/WRA, the SMC hones the expertise of senior managers of national mine action programs and local implementing partners so that countries can more effectively and efficiently clear landmines and ERW. During three weeks of instruction and field visits, participants refine their management and strategic planning skills, share expertise and exchange best practices in CWD, and develop a professional network for collaboration with colleagues, international experts, JMU faculty, CISR staff, and donor representatives.

Date: 2017 Description: SMC participants conduct a field visit during the 2017 Regional SMC in Croatia. © Photo courtesy of CISR

While previous course iterations focused on ERW and mine action, CISR updated the course name in 2018 to reflect a broader CWD scope. Conducted since 2004, CISR has trained 267 senior managers representing 46 countries through 2017. Since 2010, PM/WRA has sponsored the SMC, including global courses held at JMU in the United States, and a series of regionally focused SMCs hosted with the help of local implementing partners in Tajikistan, Vietnam, and Croatia. In 2018, CISR is hosting another regional SMC for countries in Central and South Asia, in partnership with the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center. With each course, CISR staff and JMU College of Business faculty tailor the curriculum and materials to the latest trends in CWD programming, and to the unique challenges of the country programs represented.

In 2017, CISR, along with the Croatian Mine Action Center, implemented a Regional SMC for Europe and Eurasia in Biograd na Moru, Croatia, for 17 senior managers representing CWD programs in Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kosovo, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey, and Ukraine. Due to the working relationship between Croatia and Colombia’s mine action authorities, three participants from Colombia also joined the course to learn from and contribute their experiences to programs in the region. The course strengthened regional partnerships and collaboration and focused on issues critical to the region, including program sustainability, SA/LW, PSSM, and managing programs through transitional phases.

http://www.jmu.edu/cisr 

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force: Protecting Global Aviation

What are MANPADS?

Date: 2018 Description: An Iraqi insurgent fires a MANPADS. - State Dept Image

MANPADS (man-portable air defense system) are shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles first developed in the 1960s for national militaries to protect troops and facilities. A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS. Their relative compactness makes them easy to transport and conceal. Some of the most commonly produced MANPADS can fit into an automobile trunk. In the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world.

Most MANPADS consist of three primary components: a missile packaged in a tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), and a battery or battery cooling unit. The tube, which protects the missile until it is fired, is disposable. The single-use batteries powers the missile for a short period prior to launch.

MANPADS are usually 1.2 to 2 meters (4 feet to 6.5 feet) in length and about 76 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter. With gripstocks, they weigh about 13 to 25 kilograms (28 pounds to just over 55 pounds). Although they look similar, a MANPADS missile should not be confused with a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG). MANPADS missiles can travel at twice the speed of sound and hit aircraft flying as high as 4.57 kilometers (about 25,000 feet) out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). RPGs—unguided weapons designed for use against ground targets at much closer range—are generally much less effective against aircraft. Some RPG attacks on aircraft flying at low altitudes and relatively slow speeds have been mistaken for MANPADS attacks.

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force

Date: 2018 Description: A DHL cargo plane with a fire on the wing due to a MANPADS hit. - State Dept Image

Since 1973, more than 40 civilian airliners have been hit by MANPADS. In 2002, terrorists used two MANPADS to try to shoot down an Israeli civilian airliner in Mombasa, Kenya. In 2006, National Security Presidential Directive 47 (NSPD-47) established a comprehensive strategy for aviation security to guide the U.S. government in dealing with evolving threats to aviation. NSPD-47 includes the International MANPADS Threat Reduction Plan, which established the Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF) to coordinate a whole of government approach to countering illicit MANPADS proliferation and mitigating the threat of MANPADS held by terrorist groups and other violent non-state actors. The MTF is comprised of representatives from numerous departments and agencies and is chaired by the Department of State.

In recent years, arms traffickers and violent extremists have looted MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons from unsecured state stockpiles in Libya, Syria, and Yemen, making efforts to reduce the threat to aviation even more crucial. PM/WRA’s stockpile security management and CWD programs, which have resulted in the reduction of over 39,000 MANPADS missiles, are critical to preventing further illicit proliferation of these dangerous weapons.

The MTF engages foreign partners to advance cooperation on MANPADS threat mitigation and counter proliferation initiatives. Foreign partners play a vital role in raising international awareness, curbing illicit proliferation, and mitigating local and regional MANPADS threats.

Specifically, the MTF works with partners to incorporate MANPADS recognition training into border and security training programs. This training helps prevent the illicit trafficking of MANPADS by providing essential personnel the ability to recognize and seize MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons when discovered. In addition, the U.S. government—through the Transportation Security Administration—has conducted more than 70 MANPADS Assist Visits (MAV) and basic training programs at airports all over the world. MAV and related training programs help build the capacity of partners to identify and mitigate potential MANPADS threats at international airports.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

U.S. PM/WRA Quick Reaction Force (QRF) -- Preventing or Remediating Catastrophic Munitions Explosions Worldwide

The Quick Reaction Force (QRF) is a team of civilian EOD-qualified experts who serve as PM/WRA’s first responders to CWD-related emergencies including munitions depot explosions, ammunition depots at risk of imminent explosion, and UXO that pose an imminent threat to civilians. These situations require rapid action to secure loose and unstable munitions, save lives, protect property, and conduct needs assessments for further CWD activities. Headquartered in Northern Virginia, the QRF can deploy globally within 48 hours.

Date: 2018 Description: A QRF EOD expert carefully examines an unexploded World War II-era bomb that was blocking construction of a new wind farm on the island of Yap in the Federated States of Micronesia. © Photo courtesy of Golden West.

Golden West, a U.S.-based charity and implementing partner for the QRF, specializes in humanitarian demining, battle area clearance, and PSSM.

The QRF enabled the United States to assist four countries in 2017.

  • Ukraine: In October the QRF provided technical assistance following a large explosion at a military depot in Kalynivka that led to the evacuation of 30,000 civilians. The team provided expert advice on post-blast clearance efforts, assessed ammunition storage practices at several depots, and recommended steps to protect against future explosions.
  • Serbia: The QRF deployed in March to provide technical assistance following an accidental explosion at an ammunition demilitarization facility in Kragujevac. This deployment reinforced Serbia’s response to the accident and confirmed Serbian authorities were handling the accident response in a safe and well-coordinated manner.
  • Guatemala: In January the QRF conducted PSSM assessments of Guatemalan government munitions depots to identify conditions and practices that could lead to unplanned explosions or illicit proliferation. The assessment reinforced the importance of strong PSSM practices, highlighted areas for improvement, and identified opportunities for U.S.-Guatemala cooperation on PSSM.
  • Federated States of Micronesia: From June to November the QRF deployed to Pohnpei and Yap to destroy World War II-era UXO and abandoned munitions that endangered local communities, schools, and power plants. The QRF safely destroyed these hazards and removed the threat they posed to the Micronesian people.

QRF

Since 2001 the QRF and its precursor the Quick Reaction Demining Force have deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Federated States of Micronesia, Guatemala, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

Mine Action Support Group

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, endeavors to coordinate international humanitarian mine action programs funded by the world’s major donor states, harmonize the prioritization of their respective mine action programs, and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The United States is currently serving as the Chair of the MASG for 2018–2019. Chairmanship of the MASG rotates every two years.

Date: 2018 Description: Stan Brown (seated on the right in white shirt), Director of the U.S. Department of State's Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA), chairs the first MASG meeting of 2018 held in Geneva, Switzerland. - State Dept Image

Composed of over 30 donor states, the MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. It meets twice a year and adheres to the Chatham House Rule. In this informal setting donor states engage in a frank exchange aimed at effectively and efficiently supporting humanitarian mine action amidst shrinking resources, increased demand generated by recent and on-going conflicts, and varying national priorities.

Observer organizations include members of the United Nations Inter-Agency Coordination Group for Mine Action (IACG-MA), the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), the Organization of American States (OAS), the International Trust Fund (ITF) and James Madison University’s Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (JMU/CISR). PM/WRA funds a small Secretariat that collects information, provides reports, organizes meetings, and facilitates visits to certain mine-affected countries as agreed to by the MASG members.

The UN Mine Action Gateway website posts MASG notices, minutes, and presentations at http://www.mineaction.org/resources/documents/masg .

Frontline Reports: Improving Lives Through the U.S. CWD Program

Africa: Supporting Burkina Faso Water & Forestry Services To Fight the Illicit Proliferation of Weapons

Lieutenant-Colonel Isabelle Ouedraogo is the Director of Logistics for the Burkina Faso Water & Forestry Services. Supervising the national weapons and ammunition stockpiles for Water & Forestry Services, Lieutenant-Colonel Ouedraogo and her personnel have witnessed the devastating effects of the illicit proliferation of weapons on communities and on the environment.

Date: 2018 Description: Lieutenant-Colonel Isabelle Ouedraogo (center) is the Director of Logistics for the Burkina Faso Water & Forestry Services. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Water & Forestry Services are a well-respected force in Burkina Faso with personnel posted across the country to fight poaching and banditry, especially in rural areas. In recent years, they have faced theft from their weapons and ammunition stockpiles, which are vulnerable due to infrastructure challenges and their remote presence where security is limited.

In 2016, MAG (Mines Advisory Group) conducted a technical assessment of their PSSM needs. With PM/WRA funding, MAG was able to equip them with a containerized armory to safely store weapons and ammunition. The Water & Forestry Services personnel responsible for armories have also received MAG training in weapons storekeeping and management. Lieutenant-Colonel Ouedraogo commented on the course, “After receiving the training we revised and improved our registry management procedures. We made a note to the Director General and requested that the store’s access be limited to a few people.”

East Asia and Pacific: One Task, Three Stories in Laos

Date: 2018 Description: Boua Li. © Photo courtesy of MAG
Date: 2018 Description: Boua Li on her plot of farmland. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Mrs. Boua Li, Mr. Xue Mai, and Mr. Kham Si, all from Xieng Di Village, Xieng Khouang Province, Laos, met with MAG representatives to discuss how the removal of UXO from their farmland has improved their lives. Over 0.122 square kilometers (30 acres) have been cleared so far, with 20 cluster submunitions and 10 rifle grenades removed. Their stories below provide a glimpse into the profound impact that clearance operations have had on local people’s livelihood and future.

In 2002, fragmentation from a UXO explosion wounded Mrs. Boua Li’s husband while he was working on their farm. Ever since, Boua Li and her family had been reluctant to farm their land. “I was afraid to use the land. I am so happy now that it has been cleared. Here is the cassava we planted after clearance,” she says pointing at her plot of land. “And you can see MAG teams are clearing my paddy field now.”

Date: 2018 Description: Photo shows a pair of hands holding sharp pieces of metal from bombing. © Photo courtesy of MAG
Date: 2018 Description: Xue Mai. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Mr. Xue Mai, a farmer and father of three, owns a paddy and small vegetable plot which MAG cleared of UXO in 2017. “We are normally barefoot when working in the paddy. But our paddy was full of sharp pieces of metal from the bombing and we kept cutting our feet.” MAG subsequently removed many of these bomb fragments with the aid of metal detectors. This meant that Xue Mai and his family can now work their land free from fear of UXO and without risk of injuring their feet.

Date: 2018 Description: Kham Si. © Photo courtesy of MAG
Date: 2018 Description: Photo shows a pair of hands holding seeds/grain. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Mr. Kham Si is a math teacher who participated in MAG’s mine risk education teacher training program and now delivers safety messages every month. He admits that until the training, he did not fully understand the UXO risks. MAG also cleared Mr. Kham Si and his wife’s land where they can now work free from fear of UXO. Now that they have a deeper appreciation of the dangers posed by UXO, Mr. Kham Si and his wife are happy to see MAG is continuing to clear land in their village. “We hear the demolitions every day so we know that MAG is still clearing the land in this area.”

Europe: Returning Land to Productive Use in Bosnia and Herzegovina

As Slavko Puketa stood on his land for the first time in 23 years, he reminisced about his childhood before his village became mined by both Bosnians and Serbs during the Bosnian War. “Life was wonderful here before the war,” Slavko explained. “My father worked for the railroad and my mother was a housewife. We didn’t want for anything. We had a shop as well, and had plans for the future.”

Date: 2018 Description: A MAG deminer funded by PM/WRA uncovers an anti-personnel landmine. © Photo courtesy of MAG

By the time MAG finished clearing the area in October 2017, they had found and destroyed 131 landmines and 18 pieces of UXO. MAG found 24 mines on Slavko’s land’s alone, with two of these mines buried on his mother and brother’s graves in the small graveyard close to his old house.

As he walked along the safe track toward the remains of his house, a smile spread across his face and tears filled his eyes, “…After 23 years I can at last come home. I come here to clean up, chop wood and light a candle by my brother’s grave. I want to come back and live here but it is probably too late. You see, I had a stroke and I can’t work like before. Many of the people from here went overseas after the fighting started, but now that MAG has cleared the mines I think many will come back. This is their home. There is now thick vegetation on the land, so we will need help to clear it for agriculture. The wells are blocked, and there is no electricity. But [it] is amazing to come back here with no fear. People were injured here trying to come home; one was killed. Life would have been very different if landmines had not been planted here. We grew plums and pears and made amazing brandy. I am so, so happy to be able to come back. I will slowly clean up and try to rebuild. I hope I will be able to spend the summers here in the future. At least I can now put candles on the graves of my mother and my brother. That means so much to me.”

Date: 2018 Description: Slavko Puketa rejoices in being able to stand on his cleared land for the first time in 23 years. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Middle East and North Africa: Facilitating Access to Education in Iraq

In December 2015, seven months after ISIS first entered the city, Iraqi Security Forces recaptured Ramadi with support from Coalition Forces, rescuing civilians along the way and bringing hope to a long-suffering region. During the occupation, ISIS seeded homes and critical infrastructure with IEDs in order to deter the return of displaced populations and perpetuate its reign of terror. ISIS used Ramadi’s Al Anbar University as a headquarters during its occupation, covering the entire facility with IEDs and destroying numerous buildings after they began to lose control of the city.

Date: 2018 Description: An ERW education area at Al Anbar University. © Photo courtesy of Janus Global Operations

In July 2016, Janus Global Operations first entered Al Anbar University to conduct an initial clearance assessment. There, a sparse teaching staff was delivering courses to a small group of students who had braved the constant threat of explosive hazards to pursue an education. Students and educators continued to walk within meters of active IEDs and other explosive hazards on their way to and from classes even after an accidental explosion killed one student and injured three others.

Over the next year, Janus and its local partner Al-Fahad worked tirelessly to clear over 300 IEDs and more than 700 other explosive hazards from 1.5 million square meters (371 acres) of land and buildings at Al Anbar University. Clearance operations continued until July 2017. Janus and Al-Fahad also deployed MRE techniques by using posters and a safe demonstration area with inert explosive devices to educate students, teachers, and construction and cleanup crews about the risks of IEDs, UXO, and other explosive hazards.

Six months after the completion of clearance operations, the university had grown to over 20,000 students, with 1,900 teaching staff and employees. Fifteen out of the 27 reconstruction and building projects requiring clearance after Ramadi’s liberation are completed. U.S.-funded clearance operations in Iraq, including that of Al Anbar University, play a critical role in facilitating access to education and supporting the broader stabilization process as the Iraqi people recover from the atrocities perpetrated by ISIS. The dedication and tenacity of the students and faculty of Al Anbar University are a testament to the unrelenting strength and perseverance of the Iraqi people.

South and Central Asia: C and D Sectors of Muhamalai Pachchilappali Division, Kilinochchi District, Sri Lanka

The recently released C and D Sectors of Muhamalai lay quiet except for the odd rustle of leaves, birdsong, and a few local residents silently milling about picking up branches for firewood. It is mid-December 2017, and after more than 20 years of being contaminated, it is now cleared and back in the community’s hands. From November 2012 to completion in June 2017, HALO cleared 256,225 square meters (63 acres) of land and removed 5,322 landmines.

Date: 2018 Description: Sinnathampy Rasaratinam stands in front of the fence post he erected to mark the boundary of his land, cleared with PM/WRA funding. © Photo courtesy of HALO

HALO finds Mr. Sinnathampy Rasaratinam walking around this section of land, which the Government Agent for Kilinochchi District officially released on December 12, 2017, during a handover ceremony. More than 50 people attended, most of whom were of the 24 families expected to return, plus officers from the Ministry of Resettlement, Reconstruction and Hindu Religious Affairs who assisted returnees in filling out land registration forms. While HALO’s work on this section of the minefield is now over, it marks a new start for the families returning home after decades of war.

Rasaratinam shows us the cement posts he has been planting to mark the boundary of his land, around 500 square meters (.12 acres) which he plans to split among his four children. Currently, he makes the journey from northernmost Sri Lanka, Point Pedro, while he waits for the construction of a semi-permanent shelter and toilet through HALO’s subcontractor, RAHAMA. Rasaratinam’s family plans to move as soon as possible to save money and be among their nearby relatives. They are hopeful their land in T Sector will soon be released.

In 2000, Rajakumaran Sarasu was displaced from Muhamalai village and her land became a minefield. Shortly afterwards, her husband passed away, leaving her alone with five children. Over the past 18 years, Sarasu and her family moved between welfare camps, temples, schools and relatives having no permanent home. However in January 2017, when their land was released following clearance, they were able to move back home. Like Rasaratinam, Sarasu received a temporary shelter and toilet from RAHAMA. Sarasu remarks on her return to Muhamalai with optimism, “This is just the beginning. Right now, the land is covered in bushes, but within a year’s time it will look very different.”

Date: 2018 Description: Sarasu in front of her temporary shelter and permanent bathroom, happy to be back home. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Western Hemisphere: Destroying Excess Ammunition in El Salvador

A civil war in the 1980’s left more than 70,000 dead in El Salvador. Today El Salvador’s murder rate is among the highest in the world, in large part due to gang violence. The government of El Salvador is working to contain trafficking of illicit weapons and destroy surplus ammunition stockpiles in hopes of maintaining security. In October 2017, funded by PM/WRA, HALO began operations to upgrade and restore munitions, destroy civil war-era weapon parts and explosive debris, and provide EOD and PSSM training to local Salvadorean authorities. While some of the activities are still in the planning phase, HALO had some recent demolition success.

On June 7, 2017, with local armed forces approval, a HALO EOD specialist initiated the incineration of 100,000 rounds of different calibers of ammunition.

The incineration, led by the HALO EOD specialist using two ovens, was finalized in three days with an average of four incinerations per day. During the period approved for the incineration, an extra 3,300 rounds were proposed for destruction. HALO and the Estado Mayor Conjunto de Fuerzas Armadas (EMCFA) carried it out in three burns since the rounds were .50 caliber.

On June 13, 2017, with local armed forces approval, HALO melted 622 obsolete weapons.

Date: 2018 Description: Five photos depicting various stages of the incineration of surplus military ammunition by El Salvador's military with HALO technical assistance and funded by PM/WRA. © Photos courtesy of HALO

Regional Profile: Africa

Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $438.9 million

While some countries in Africa continue to suffer extensive ERW contamination, others face ongoing threats from terrorist organizations like Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, and other extremist groups that have declared support to ISIS. Elsewhere, dense minefields and UXO hotspots endanger civilians and obstruct economic progress.

Illicit trafficking of SA/LW in the Sahel and in East and Central Africa has threatened regional security and provided the means for cross-border violence and terrorist attacks in the region and beyond. State-held stockpiles of excess conventional arms and munitions are poorly-secured in many countries, creating a risk for illicit weapons diversion. Weak security institutions and porous state borders make it easier for violent extremist groups and other non-state actors to obtain SA/LW and launch attacks throughout the Sahel, East and Central Africa, and beyond. For example, the greater Sahel region continues to suffer the influx of illicit SA/LW, with these weapons ending up in the hands of Boko Haram fighters in Nigeria and the Lake Chad basin.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD programs have provided more than $438.9 million of assistance to 35 African countries. Through these programs, the United States supports international efforts to reduce stockpiles and improve PSSM. CWD efforts by the United States and international partners promote peacebuilding and set the stage for economic growth and opportunity, facilitating greater stability throughout the continent.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN AFRICA BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in Africa by Country -- Angola 28.97%; *Benin 0.00%; Burkina Faso 0.35%; Burundi 0.77%; CAR 0.05%; Chad 3.51%; DRC 5.70%; Congo 0.65%; Djibouti 0.70%; Eritrea 4.13%; Ethiopia 3.59%; Guinea 0.02%; Guinea-Bissau 1.70%; Kenya 0.69%;*Lesotho 0.00%; Liberia 1.13%; Mali 0.70%; Mauritania 1.96%; Mozambique 12.85%; Namibia 2.13%; Niger 0.50%; Nigeria 0.48%; Rwanda 2.89%; Sao Tome/Principe 0.01%; Senegal 1.35%; Sierra Leone 0.40%; Somalia 5.73%; South Sudan 3.11%; Sudan 6.96%; Eswatini (Swaziland) 0.29%; Tanzania 0.60%; Togo 0.01%; Uganda 0.29%; Zambia 0.57%; Zimbabwe 3.59%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. * less than 0.01%. - State Dept Image

Angola

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY95–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,600 4,700 4,000 106,504
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 152 551 193 8,984
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
COUNTRY TOTAL 5,752 5,251 4,193 127,159

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: A HALO weapons and ammunition destruction team funded by PM/WRA in Benguela, Angola, cuts state-held weapons to render them useless. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Angola is still recovering from more than 40 years of conflict that ended in 2002. It is one of the world’s most landmine and UXO-affected countries, with all of its 18 provinces reporting some level of contamination. According to the Angolan government’s March 2015 nationwide census, 88,716 people were living with a disability caused by landmines or UXO. Several accidents in 2016 highlighted the need for increased clearance efforts. In late 2016, the Angolan government reported 118 square kilometers (about 45 square miles) of contamination remaining. Through targeted resurvey of suspected hazardous areas and continued clearance efforts, international operators estimate that less than 100 square kilometers (38.6 square miles) of contamination remain. Aging weapons and munitions, as well as legacy of the conflict, pose risks for illicit proliferation and accidental detonation and placed thousands of civilian lives in danger. While over two million SA/LW were distributed to civil defense forces during the civil war and massive government stockpiles and excess munitions remain, the government of Angola has made great strides in reducing their threat. Since 2006, the United States has provided the majority of funding to The HALO Trust (HALO) to destroy 125,000 SA/LW, 1,500 metric tons of surplus ammunition, and over three million bullets.

From 1995 to 2017, the United States invested more than $127.1 million for CWD in Angola and improved access to land and infrastructure through mine and UXO removal and disposal; other activities included destroying unserviceable, excess, and unsecured SA/LW and munitions; and developing Angola’s CWD capacity.

In 2017, CWD programs began a gradual transition from demining to focus limited funding on SA/LW destruction and PSSM enhancements. Angolan security forces requested continued assistance to destroy their excess weapons and munitions, as well as to improve the security and storage conditions of their serviceable stockpiles. These efforts will prevent weapons from falling into the hands of criminals and other nefarious actors, mitigate the risk of accidental depot explosions, and improve the capacity of Angolan authorities to manage their stockpiles properly.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued its programs to conduct humanitarian demining in Huambo and Cuando Cubango Provinces, surveyed suspected hazardous areas, cleared confirmed hazardous areas, performed explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) “spot” tasks, and provided mine risk education. HALO also destroyed 9,650 SA/LW and safely destroyed or reduced other at-risk and excess munitions throughout the country.
  • MAG continued to survey suspected hazardous areas, cleared confirmed hazardous areas in Moxico Province, conducted EOD “spot” tasks, and safely destroyed munitions found during those “spots” tasks.
  • Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) continued to survey suspected hazardous areas in Malanje and Uige Provinces, clear confirmed hazardous areas in Malanje Province, conduct EOD “spot” tasks, and provide mine risk education.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, evaluated an aerial survey system and the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) in densely cluttered minefields. The teams also evaluated the Rex, a versatile, light weight armored excavator designed to clear vegetation and obstacles, and mechanically remove and neutralize anti-personnel landmines and UXO. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 1.5 million square meters (371 acres) of land and 940 mines and pieces of UXO since 2006.

Burkina Faso

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY05–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 941 600 0 1,541
COUNTRY TOTAL 941 600 0 1,541

Dollars in thousands

Burkina Faso is a major transit point for illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and conventional munitions. Flush with this weaponry, violent extremist groups pose a threat to the stability of the region’s governments. The January 2016 terrorist attack on the Splendid Hotel in Ouagadougou killed 30 people from several countries, including an American citizen. In August 2017, terrorists killed 18 people at the nearby Aziz Istanbull café. These high-profile attacks, and several others on security force outposts and schools along the border, demonstrate the ongoing instability and threats to good governance in Burkina Faso. Remote police, gendarmerie, and army outposts are particularly vulnerable to attack. In light of increasing terrorist activity in Burkina Faso, CWD programs bolster security in the Sahel by preventing the illicit diversion of weapons.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • MAG upgraded or constructed 37 weapons storage facilities in the capital, Ouagadougou, in the town of Bobo- Dioulasso, and in various towns in the north and southeast. MAG also improved the capacity of Burkinabe security forces to properly manage their stockpiles by providing training in armory storekeeping and management, as well as train-the-trainer sessions.

Chad

FUNDING* FY15 FY16 FY17 FY98–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,657 750 1,000 10,306
DoD 0 50 54 5,104
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,657 50 1,054 15,410

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

The Sahel region has experienced a surge of instability from violent extremist organizations bolstered by the influx of illicitly-trafficked SA/LW from Libya. Chad is a transit point for illicit weapons coming from Libya into northern Chad and from Sudan into eastern Chad. With U.S. support, Chad has made substantial efforts to counter the threats from violent extremist organizations that it faces on two fronts: against al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb in the north and Boko Haram in the southwest.

From 1998 to 2017, the United States invested more than $15.4 million in Chad for the destruction of excess SA/LW and munitions, improved PSSM, and landmine clearance.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG built or refurbished 31 armories for the Special Anti-Terrorism Group, National and Nomadic Guard, gendarmerie, and police, and assessed priority sites for future work. MAG also provided training in storekeeping and stockpile management and destroyed surplus small arms ammunition. These efforts have increased Chad’s ability to reduce illicit trafficking of SA/LW and better repel direct attacks on its stockpile facilities and infrastructure by violent extremist organizations.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) conducted two missions in Chad focused on developing a cadre to teach basic EOD Level I Awareness and PSSM to assist Chad’s National Demining Center’s ability to respond to Boko Haram activities. All EOD Level I courses are based on the International Mine Action Standard (IMAS) EOD Level I curriculum.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY02–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 3,221 2,000 16,334
DoD 107 0 0 1,083
USAID 2,000 1,722 1,275 7,597
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,607 4,943 3,275 25,014

Dollars in thousands

Several of the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) provinces remain contaminated with landmines and UXO following two decades of war with neighboring states, non-state actors, and the recent resurgence of conflict in several eastern border areas. In 2015, the Congolese Armed Forces (FARDC) conducted a countrywide assessment of storage facilities to identify unstable, obsolete, and excess stockpiles of arms and ammunition. The FARDC identified 336.7 metric tons of ammunition that threaten a population of more than 7.5 million people.

In addition to landmine and UXO contamination, illicit flows of SA/LW easily pass through porous borders unchecked by governmental controls, as illegally armed groups have de facto control of some of these areas. Non-state actors in the eastern and northern provinces of the DRC continue to terrorize civilians and conduct cross-border operations against neighboring countries.

From 2002 to 2017, the United States invested more than $25 million in funding for CWD efforts in the DRC, destroying more than 158,000 SA/LW, 1,403 metric tons of munitions, 345 anti-vehicle mines, 2,028 anti-personnel landmines, and 14 MANPADS, as well as improving the DRC’s PSSM capacity and supporting the DRC government’s ability to mark and trace state-owned weapons.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG disposed of 174 metric tons of obsolete and surplus ammunition and 8,397 weapons; and trained the DRC military and Congolese police personnel in PSSM best practices and on how to make basic security improvements to arms storage facilities.
  • DanChurchAid (DCA) continued to advance sustainable development in the DRC by clearing mines and UXO in areas of priority humanitarian need in the northeast, conducting EOD call-outs, and educating the public about the risks of mines and UXO.
  • Polus conducted prosthetic training for 10 Congolese technicians in Goma, provided prosthetic limbs to landmine survivors, developed individual treatment plans for 20 landmine survivors, and helped to form three survivor assistance associations in the Lake Kivu region. These efforts helped communities affected by conflict, particularly cooperatives and local farmers, who benefit from increased economic opportunities through the DRC’s emerging coffee industry.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Humanity and Inclusion (HI) efforts to provide training for rehabilitation service personnel and economic empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

Mali

FUNDING* FY15 FY16 FY17 FY13–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,200 500 1,000 2,700
DoD 0 170 182 352
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,200 670 1,182 3,052

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

An armed insurrection in northern Mali and a subsequent coup d’état in 2012 engendered an international response. Malian and French forces, together with UN peacekeepers, have continued to engage in mid-intensity conflict with violent extremist organizations (VEOs) in central and northern Mali. In 2017, the G5 Sahel (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger) established a Joint Force to address terrorism and banditry in the Sahel. Illicit weapons from Libya fuel conflict, and VEOs frequently loot Malian stockpiles of conventional weapons and ammunition to sustain their fight.

CWD programs aim to strengthen the capacity of the government of Mali to manage its SA/LW stockpiles independently of donor support, thus securing Mali as a counter-terrorism partner of the United States. From 2013 to 2017, the United States invested more than $3 million in Mali. These projects supported the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved the host nation’s PSSM capacity, and managed surveys and assessments to scope future work.

The objective of CWD efforts is to improve security and stability in Mali and in the Sahel by denying weapons and ammunition to terrorists and mitigating the risk of accidental depot explosions. Since MAG began PSSM operations in Mali in 2015, it has secured more than 27,990 weapons, built three storehouses for explosives, and trained 256 security force personnel in SA/LW management. Mali Security and Defense Forces authorities have asked for continued support to strengthen security and reduce the risk of diversion of state-owned SA/LW to illicit markets.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG strengthened the capacity of the military, police, and other security forces to manage state-held weapons and ammunition effectively. MAG trained 87 personnel in PSSM, built or refurbished 22 armories, and assisted the national security sector in further prioritizing its PSSM needs.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARAF conducted two missions in Mali focused on developing a cadre to teach basic EOD Level I Awareness, with training and an initial shipment of equipment provided.

Mauritania

FUNDING* FY15 FY16 FY17 FY99–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 500 1,000 4,195
DoD 0 0 0 4,410
COUNTRY TOTAL 300 500 1,000 8,605

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

Date: 2018 Description: One of a handful of Mauritanian Army soldiers guards a remote munitions storage point in the Sahara Desert. - State Dept Image

Most of Mauritania is located in the Sahara Desert, which offers a safe haven for terrorists and the illicit trafficking of SA/LW. Poorly secured stockpiles of arms and munitions remain vulnerable to attacks by extremists and diversions to arms traffickers, jeopardizing the country’s efforts to remain stable and prosperous and export security in the Sahel.

In 2010, the government of Mauritania requested specific CWD assistance to counter the illicit proliferation of SA/LW by enhancing the Mauritania National Army’s (MNA) capacity to properly manage and safeguard its weapons and ammunition. Alongside other donors, this initial project supported the first NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund (PfPTF), which built two ammunition storage depots and destroyed excess SA/LW, ammunition, and 141 MANPADS between 2011 and 2014. Following the successful implementation of the Trust Fund, the government of Mauritania requested that NATO develop a second Trust Fund with three phases. In early 2015, the United States agreed to serve as lead nation for the first phase.

From 1999 to 2017, the United States invested more than $8.6 million in Mauritania. These projects supported the destruction of SA/LW and ammunition, and improve the MNA’s PSSM capacity.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) destroyed 1,360 metric tons of ammunition, 96 MANPADS, and 82 decommissioned weapons systems. Including outputs from 2016, NSPA destroyed 159 MANPADS in the first phase. NSPA also planned for the construction of two ammunition storage depots and a training course in ammunition stockpile management to occur in 2018.

Niger

FUNDING* FY15 FY16 FY17 FY13–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 693 500 1,000 2,193
DOD 0 0 3 3
COUNTRY TOTAL 693 500 1,003 2,196

Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

As a transit country for SA/LW rather than a destination country, Niger faces threats from illicit trafficking of weapons, looting from poorly-secured government stockpiles, and an inability to track and trace government-owned as well as confiscated weapons.

From 2015 to 2017, the United States invested more than $2.1 million in CWD funding for the destruction of SA/LW and munitions, improved PSSM capacity, and surveys and assessments to identify priority sites for future assistance.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • HI provided PSSM training to the Nigerien Armed Forces and the National Guard and secured previously poorly-managed weapons and ammunition by constructing storage facilities and providing equipment. HI also embedded a technical expert in the National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illegal Arms to improve its management and coordination of PSSM activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARAF conducted a feasibility study for expanding programs in Niger.

Senegal

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY02–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 400 0 3,305
DOS Other 0 0 0 260
DoD 1,147 100 10 1,876
USAID 0 0 0 500
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,547 500 10 5,941

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: Mechanical demining in Senegal. © Photo courtesy of HI

More than 30 years of internal conflict between the government of Senegal and the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance left the country’s Casamance region littered with landmines and UXO. With the successful clearance of most landmines from the rest of Senegal, the United States began assistance for projects in the Casamance region in 2008. Landmine clearance in the region has continued to facilitate the Casamance peace process and the return of internally displaced persons, encouraging stability.

From 2002 to 2017, the United States invested more than $5.9 million in CWD funding toward mine and UXO clearance, mine risk education, technical and non-technical surveys of suspected hazard areas, and capacity building.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • HI returned 60,923 square meters (15 acres) of priority land to productive use in Sédhiou and Ziguinchor regions by conducting technical survey with mechanical and manual clearance teams. HI also provided EOD training to build Senegalese capacity to clear ERW independently from international support.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USAFRICOM, U.S. Marine Corp Forces Africa (USMARFORAF), the Vermont National Guard, and the Austrian Verification Unit conducted a mission to Senegal to launch a PSSM program. The Senegal Humanitarian Mine Action Training Center will continue to use international and intergovernmental partners to provide a holistic approach to building capacity within the Senegalese Armed Forces.

Somalia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY98–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,800 2,000 1,000 25,145
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,800 2,000 1,000 25,145

Dollars in thousands

The Ethiopian-Somali wars and more than 22 years of internal conflicts among clans have left much of Somalia contaminated with landmines and UXO. Many abandoned stockpiles of arms and munitions are located near residential areas in major cities. Trafficking of military SA/LW is also widespread and constitutes a grave threat to Somalia’s civilian population and regional stability.

From 1998 to 2017, the United States invested more than $25.1 million in CWD programs in Somalia for humanitarian mine clearance, SA/LW destruction, MANPADS stockpile reduction, survivor assistance, and other programs to increase access to critical infrastructure and promoting overall stability. U.S. efforts focus on improving the Federal Government of Somalia’s ability to capably manage its weapons and munitions stockpiles, particularly in South Central Somalia, where the risk of illicit diversion to Al-Shabab and other terrorist organizations is the highest.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to implement a final humanitarian mine action project in Somaliland, clearing over 149,000 square meters (36 acres) in 2017 and build capacity by training, equipping, and mentoring two Somaliland regional authority teams. It also deployed weapons and ammunition disposal teams in South Central Somalia that destroyed 877 unsecured items of UXO vulnerable to looting. Finally, HALO constructed an armory for the Somalia National Army in Hirshabelle State.
  • MAG improved the physical security of 6,640 weapons by upgrading 11 priority armories and trained 641 Somaliland and Darawish (Puntland forces) security personnel in armory management.

South Sudan

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY11–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 300 2,000 12,835
DoD 0 0 0 826
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,000 300 2,000 13,661

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: An EOD team in Mogir, South Sudan, prepares for demolition. © Photo courtesy of DCA

Decades of civil war have resulted in serious neglect of South Sudan’s economy and infrastructure. Residual landmines and UXO and loose SA/LW, including MANPADS, continue to threaten communities throughout the country and compromise security in the region. Recent conflict has renewed concern about access to land for IDPs. Lack of access in certain northern provinces due to conflict and the pressing needs of IDPs in southern provinces has prompted the United States to transition away from traditional humanitarian mine action projects to focus on UXO clearance. In addition, instability from renewed fighting in July 2016 made all but small-scale projects impossible to execute. Current implementing partners continue to adapt to the security situation and reorient their plans to the needs of IDPs.

From 2003 to 2010, the United States provided more than $27.7 million in CWD funding to Sudan prior to southern Sudan’s secession, directing much of it to southern provinces.

From South Sudan’s independence in 2011 to 2017, the United States invested more than $13.6 million directly to South Sudan for mine and UXO removal, survivor assistance programs, and enhanced SA/LW stockpile security.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • DCA continued to deploy an EOD call-out team to survey, clear, and release land in stable provinces around the capital of Juba. The team conducted 96 call outs, resurveyed 86 suspected hazardous areas, and cleared 105 confirmed hazardous areas. DCA also provided mine risk education for 4,492 people and trained 48 community focal points to continue educating vulnerable communities without international support.

Zimbabwe

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY98–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 1,000 1,500 12,086
DoD 173 78 153 3,669
COUNTRY TOTAL 3,173 1,078 1,653 15,755

Dollars in thousands

After 40 years of independence, Zimbabwe is still contaminated with landmines. Zimbabwe Security Forces’ records indicate more than 2.5 million anti-personnel mines, 76,000 anti-personnel fragmentation mines, and an unknown number of anti-vehicle mines that were laid in belts with booby traps and UXO contamination. In the northeast, the mine density ratio could be as high as 5,500 landmines per linear kilometer (0.62 mile). As of July 2017, the Republic of Zimbabwe confirmed mine contamination of over 62 square kilometers (24 square miles).

From 1998 to 2017, the United States invested more than $15.7 million in Zimbabwe for CWD capacity building, including funding nongovernmental organizations and training multiple military engineer companies to facilitate the removal and safe disposition of mines and UXO, the return of land for agricultural use, mine risk education, and survivor assistance.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to clear highly impacted communities along the northeastern border with Mozambique and survey suspected hazard areas. HALO manually cleared 282,318 square meters (70 acres) of land, processed 8,964 cubic meters with mechanical assets, and conducted 29 EOD call-outs, resulting in the destruction of 4,084 anti-personnel mines. HALO returned a further 531,156 square meters (131 acres) to productive use through technical survey, and cancelled 486,486 square meters (120 acres) of suspected hazardous area through non-technical survey. Finally, HALO held mine risk education sessions for 3,221 persons and provided 12 survivors with prosthetic limbs.
  • NPA continued to clear highly impacted communities along the eastern border with Mozambique and survey suspected hazard areas. NPA cleared 315,708 square meters (78 acres) of land, destroyed 4,797 anti-personnel mines, and returned a further 603,630 square meters (149 acres) to productive use through technical survey. NPA also provided mine risk education for 1,460 people.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated the HSTAMIDS in densely cluttered minefields. HD R&D technologies were used in the clearance of 6,698 mines from 618,000 square meters (153 acres) of land to date.

Great Lakes Region

Cross-border trafficking of SA/LW coupled with decades of conflict continue to affect the countries in the African Great Lakes region. Porous borders and inadequate security checkpoints contribute to SA/LW proliferation, which exacerbates regional insecurity. Remote weapons depots remain at significant risk of exploitation by violent non-state actors. Assisting the countries in the Great Lakes region to better protect stockpiles and destroy excess items will reduce the possibility of spontaneous explosions of ammunition and illicit trafficking in SA/LW.

To address the SA/LW challenge, the governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004. The Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) in the Great Lakes region and the Horn of Africa was created to implement the Nairobi Protocol. From 2006 through 2017, the United States has provided more than $6.3 million in support of RECSA’s initiatives, including $500,000 in FY17. During 2017, CWD funding supported these initiatives in KenyaRwandaTanzania, and Uganda to strengthen stockpile security, increase accountability, and reduce the threat of proliferation. RECSA destroyed 130 metric tons of excess munitions in Rwanda, 13,417 surplus weapons in Kenya, and 5,608 weapons in Tanzania. RECSA also provided 130 steel boxes to Kenya and 150 boxes to Tanzania to improve the physical security of SA/LW stored in remote police stations. RECSA improved stockpile management by training 38 Tanzanian police officers, holding a refresher course in electronic SA/LW recordkeeping for Rwandan and Ugandan police, and supported weapons marking programs for the police and military in Kenya and Uganda.

Africa--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $2.28 million for CWD in other African countries.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the OHDACA appropriation funded humanitarian mine action activities as well as supplies, travel, equipment, and services in the following countries:

  • Kenya: USAFRICOM and U.S. Naval Forces Africa (NAVAF), in partnership with U.S. Embassy and the British Peace Support Team, conducted a training mission focusing on the development of cadre at the Kenyan Humanitarian Peace Support School (HPSS) to teach basic EOD Level I skills, building on the foundation of additional Counter-IED courses taught at HPSS.
  • Nigeria: USARAF and NAVAF conducted three EOD Level I training missions that focused on the identification and development of a cadre capable of teaching EOD Level I Awareness at the Nigerian EOD training center at the Nigerian Army School of Military Engineers. An initial shipment of equipment and training aids was also provided.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the following:

  • HI in Mali, Niger, and Senegal strengthened rehabilitation services, including the provision of assistive products, promoted international accreditation of select physical therapy academic programs, and provided direct support to persons with disabilities.
  • ICRC MoveAbility Foundation in Sub-Saharan Africa worked on developing low cost and sustainable prosthetic and orthotic technology, and physical rehabilitation centers in developing countries.

Regional Profile: East Asia and Pacific

East Asia and Pacific Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in East Asia and Pacific from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $473.6 million

Landmines and UXO have remained a persistent threat in many countries in the East Asia and Pacific region since World War II. With the Vietnam War and the related bombing of Laos and Cambodia by U.S. forces, Southeast Asia has suffered perhaps the most from the lingering dangers of explosive hazards. According to the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, Laos is the most heavily bombed country per capita in the world. Cambodia underwent 30 years of conflict that ended in the 1990s and resulted in additional landmine and UXO contamination. And now Burma must contend with new contamination as landmines laid in 2016 and 2017 along the border between northern Rakhine State and Bangladesh claim lives.

For over 20 years, efforts to clear mines and UXO have strengthened our relationships with countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. Thanks to smart investments in targeted clearance operations and survivor assistance, the United States and its implementing partners are building local CWD capacity, enabling countries to better manage these challenges themselves over the long term.

Since 1997, the U.S. CWD program has provided more than $473.6 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for building local capacity, clearing legacy ordnance, providing mine risk education, survivor assistance, and reducing SA/LW proliferation.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in East Asia and Pacific by Country -- Burma 1.59%; Cambodia 28.22%; Laos 35.71%; Marshall Islands 0.26%; Palau 0.49%; Philippines 0.64%; Solomon Islands 0.98%; Thailand 3.72%; Vietnam 25.19%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. - State Dept Image

Burma

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY11–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 0 0 2,835
DOS-OTHER 0 0 0 850
USAID 0 500 500 3,850
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,000 500 500 7,535

Dollars in thousands

As a result of decades of internal conflict between the Burmese army and armed ethnic groups, landmines concentrated along Burma’s borders with Bangladesh, China, and Thailand remain a threat, particularly to ethnic minority communities. Landmines continue to be deployed in conflict areas, including in 2017 along the border between northern Rakhine State and Bangladesh, while World War II-era legacy UXO still affects the country.

While no comprehensive estimate of the level of contamination exists, the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported at least 298 casualties in 2016, a marked increase from 2015. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor identified 3,991 as the number of all known casualties from 1999 through the end of 2016 from mine and UXO incidents in Burma, but the total number of casualties is unknown and expected to be much higher.

From 2011 to 2017, the United States invested more than $7.5 million for programs that provided survivor assistance and risk education in Burma.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (using FY15 funds):

  • Danish Demining Group (DDG) conducted risk education and survivor assistance in Kachin and northern Shan States.
  • HI provided risk education, survivor assistance, and livelihoods support in Bago and Kayin States.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Development Alternatives International to ensure survivor participation at all levels of work related to survivor assistance and promote inclusion and support for people with disabilities through a small grants program.

Cambodia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY93–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 8,307 8,522 4,300 89,445
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 2,379 1,717 1,969 24,063
USAID 500 303 0 15,084
COUNTRY TOTAL 11,186 10,542 6,269 133,635

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: HALO interviews Cambodian villagers during a non-technical survey. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Nearly three decades of armed conflict has left Cambodia seriously affected by landmines and UXO, and kept poor communities impoverished by limiting their access to farmland. The Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), and Vietnamese and Thai militaries laid extensive minefields during the Indochina wars, Vietnamese occupation, and factional fighting that ended in 1999. However, casualty figures have decreased significantly from 83 in 2016 to 58 in 2017.

The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports that Cambodia’s anti-personnel mine problem is concentrated in, but not limited to, 21 northwestern districts along the border with Thailand that account for the great majority of mine casualties. Contamination includes the remains of the 1,046 kilometer (650 mile)-long K-5 mine belt installed along the Thai border in the mid-1980s to block insurgent infiltration and ranks among the densest contamination in the world.

Additionally, U.S. air and artillery strikes during the Vietnam War left behind heavy concentrations of UXO in the eastern and northeastern areas of the country along the border with Vietnam. The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) has worked with international development partners and operators to develop the National Mine Action Strategy 2017–2025, which is intended to be the roadmap for releasing all known mine-contaminated areas by 2025. Cambodia now has the right technical tools in place to meet this goal, but declining international contributions could jeopardize it.

From 1993 to 2017, the U.S. government invested more than $133.6 million for CWD programs in Cambodia that cleared mines and UXO, provided mine risk education, assisted the RCAF with destruction and PSSM of SA/LW and ammunition, and supported national capacity development.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Golden West, in partnership with RCAF, supported an explosive harvesting system and the development of appropriate PSSM. In a joint project with the Department of Defense, Golden West’s underwater EOD capacity development team mentored, trained, and sustained the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) Dive Unit. Golden West is also continuing a global engineering initiative, an accountability program for demolition charges in Cambodia, and joint research and development with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States) and Singapore University.
  • HALO provided survey and clearance assets in some of the densest minefields along the K-5 mine belt in western Cambodia.
  • Landmine Relief Fund supported two Cambodia Self Help Demining EOD teams conducting clearance of small villages in northwestern Cambodia.
  • MAG provided survey and clearance assets in western Cambodia and cluster munition clearance assets in eastern Cambodia. MAG also partnered with the Department of Defense HD R&D Program to perform technology testing through survey and clearance in Ratanakiri Province.
  • NPA collaborated with CMAC to support Demining Unit Five, focused on the survey and clearance of U.S.-origin UXO contamination in eastern Cambodia, and conducted its own cluster munition survey activities in eastern Cambodia while supporting information management support and national capacity development of the CMAA.
  • Spirit of Soccer (SOS) delivered mine risk education to primary school children through soccer coaching activities and sport.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • HD R&D provided new technologies that have been used in the clearance of 40,332 mines and UXO in 25.3 million square meters (6,252 acres) of land in Cambodia to date. These included two Traxx remote area preparation platforms, wet soil sifting buckets, the VMX10 UXO detection system, and an aerial survey system. Additionally, HD R&D continued to support the Mini MineWolf; Minehound dual sensor handheld detector; Piranha minefield area reduction and technical survey system; Badger tracked excavator; Bearcat vegetation clearance system; Quadcopter aerial survey system; Scorpion UXO detection system; and two Rambo demining team support vehicles that it provided in years past. With funding and support from both the Department of State and HD R&D, HALO and MAG continued their operations of the dual-sensor HSTAMIDS in manual mine-clearance of densely cluttered minefields. HSTAMIDS operators have accurately discriminated 20.8 million detections as metallic clutter rather than mines, each discrimination saving 10–15 minutes of excavation.
  • USPACOM continued assistance to the government of Cambodia to enhance humanitarian mine action capacity. During FY17, USPACOM conducted the following programs: Phase I EOD/Blast Trauma and DeMiner, Phase II EOD/Blast Trauma, Phase I, Phase II Deminer, Phase III Deminer, and Phase III EOD/Blast Trauma train-the-trainer.

Laos

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY95–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 26,880 20,500 30,000 144,364
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 0 111 10 7,021
USAID 2,000 2,166 3,005 16,971
COUNTRY TOTAL 28,880 22,777 33,015 169,106

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: A Lao member of an NPA cluster munitions remnants survey team, funded by PM/WRA, carefully exposes an unexploded cluster munition. © Photo courtesy of NPA

Cluster munitions, known locally as “bombies,” accounts for the bulk of UXO contamination in Laos, though landmines were also laid during the Indochina Wars of the 1960s and 1970s. The majority of the country’s 17 provinces are contaminated with UXO, most of which is of U.S. origin. Experts suggest that over 3,000 villages are still contaminated. Population growth in rural areas and other socioeconomic factors have increased demands to put UXO-contaminated land into productive use, which leads to greater risk of death and injury. In September 2016, the United States announced a plan to invest $90 million over a three-year period. These additional funds are supporting the first-ever comprehensive national UXO contamination survey while ongoing clearance and survivor assistance operations continue at 2015’s historically-high levels. To help manage this substantial increase in dedicated CWD funding, the Department of State hired an in-country UXO program advisor to oversee Phase I Survey projects on the ground.

From 1995 to 2017, the United States invested more than $169.1 million in CWD programs in Laos that supported survey and clearance activities, risk education, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support UXO clearance teams tasked with survey and removal of UXO in Savannakhet Province.
  • Health Leadership International continued to provide medical education and training to improve diagnostic capabilities and the overall competency of district-level medical personnel in UXO-affected districts.
  • Janus Global Operations (Janus) continued to partner with UXO Laos on UXO survey and clearance efforts, and provided managerial support to the National Regulatory Authority, which oversees all UXO-related activity in Laos.
  • MAG continued to support survey and clearance teams in Xieng Khouang Province.
  • NPA continued its evidence-based UXO survey work in the Sekong, Salavan, and Attapu Provinces.
  • SOS continued to provide risk education for schoolchildren through soccer activities in the Xieng Khouang and Salavan Provinces.
  • World Education, Inc. continued to support UXO survivors and their families through various projects including supporting the War Victim Medical Fund, which provides financial support for UXO victims and their families. It focuses on emergency medical, funeral, and other critical activities. World Education also continued to support the integration of risk education in the grade five school curriculum and development of a comprehensive case management system for UXO survivors in Xieng Khouang Province. Finally, World Education worked with government of Laos agencies to conduct a needs assessment of services available to UXO survivors.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, provided an aerial survey system to facilitate project planning and supervision.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported World Education in providing training for rehabilitation service personnel, economic empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities. Also, in partnership with the Department of State’s PM/WRA, USAID Leahy War Victims Fund supported World Education to improve and sustain the ability of people with disabilities to live and function independently. This assistance has prioritized UXO victims, victims of war and conflict, and people with disabilities with mobility limitations.

Marshall Islands

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY13–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 285 295 0 1,208
COUNTRY TOTAL 285 295 0 1,208

Dollars in thousands

More than 70 years after World War II’s end, UXO from both U.S. and Japanese forces continues to pose a threat in the Marshall Islands. In spite of massive clearance efforts in the 1950s, UXO contamination still affects some of the Marshall Islands’ atolls.

From 2013 to 2017, the United States invested more than $1.2 million in CWD in the Marshall Islands.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • Golden West cleared UXO on Wotje and Jaluit atolls.

Palau

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY09–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 505 505 0 2,325
COUNTRY TOTAL 505 505 0 2,325

Dollars in thousands

Many of Palau’s islands are contaminated with UXO remaining from World War II. The greatest concentration, a result of fighting between U.S. and Japanese forces in 1944, threatens the civilians living on the island of Peleliu.

From 2009 to 2017, the United States invested more than $2.3 million in CWD in Palau.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • NPA has continued to work with the government of Palau to create a sustainable UXO program and respond to current UXO needs. This has included creating a national UXO survey plan, conducting UXO surveys, and building the national capacity of the Palau government to manage UXO issues.

Solomon Islands

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY11–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 446 350 0 2,796
DoD 306 569 200 1,864
COUNTRY TOTAL 752 919 200 4,660

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: A Golden West team, funded by PM/WRA, carefully excavates a WWII Japanese aerial bomb used as an improvised beach mine in Wotje atoll in the Solomon Islands. © Photo courtesy of Golden West

The Solomon Islands faces serious impacts from World War II-era UXO. From 2011 to 2017, the United States invested more than $4.6 million in CWD in the Solomon Islands. Support for the remediation of UXO in the Solomon Islands is a capacity building effort funded by the United States and Australia.

  • In 2017, PM/WRA and the government of Australia along with the U.S. Department of Defense, conducted a jointreview and assessment of UXO support to the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF).

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Golden West continued training members of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) to EOD Level II and limited EOD III procedures to support public safety UXO clearance tasks. The RSIPF EOD team also used its mobile cutting system and detonation sites to destroy UXO, which contaminates Hell’s Point in Guadalcanal and other neighboring islands.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, through its implementing partner Golden West, continued an evaluation of the Badger armored excavator on the island of Guadalcanal. So far, the Badger has cleared 1.4 million square meters (346 acres) of extremely dense jungle vegetation in difficult terrain and found 6,100 UXO/AXO. The Badger, which has a suite of attachments for removing thick, mature, tropical vegetation and processing soil, is clearing access points for EOD teams to locate and clear UXO/ AXO at Hell’s Point.
  • USPACOM, Australian Defense Force, and PM/WRA continued supporting the Royal Solomon Island Police Force’s underwater UXO clearance capacity that began in 2014 as a series of train-the-trainer events.

Vietnam

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY93–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 12,548 10,709 12,500 86,359
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 340 722 1,168 4,295
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
COUNTRY TOTAL 12,888 11,431 13,668 119,301

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: A PeaceTrees EOD technician points to UXO found in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam, part of a program funded by PM/WRA. © Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees

Thirty years of conflict from World War II through the Vietnam War left much of Vietnam contaminated with UXO. The majority of this UXO is concentrated along the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Nam Provinces. Parts of southern Vietnam and the country’s border with China also remain contaminated with UXO and some landmines.

The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported nine casualties in 2016, slightly up from seven reported in 2015. In 2016, the Vietnam National Mine Action Center (VNMAC) officially opened its new headquarters in Hanoi and has continued to establish itself as its government’s lead for issues related to UXO and landmines. U.S. capacity development support for VNMAC continued in 2017 through the provision of a technical advisor and the establishment of an information management unit within VNMAC headquarters. Supporting VNMAC’s development will ensure that Vietnam has the capacity to deal with residual UXO and landmine threats. President Trump visited Vietnam in November 2017 and cooperation on UXO clearance was highlighted in the resulting U.S.-Vietnam joint statement as an important bilateral area of cooperation.

From 1993 to 2017, the United States invested more than $119.3 million for CWD programs in Vietnam that cleared mines and UXO, provided mine risk education and survivor assistance, and supported national capacity development.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS) continued to provide support to survivors of UXO and mine accidents and/or their families in Quang Tri Province. Support is customized for each beneficiary and includes medical assistance, vocational training, and education. Additionally, CRS continued a 48-month project aimed at helping provincial governments in Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Quang Nam, and the city of Danang to institutionalize risk education materials and training in schools.
  • Golden West continued to develop the capacity of the Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Tri provincial demining units so they are certified to IMAS and equipped to deal with UXO contamination in their respective provinces. Additionally, Golden West provided IMAS training to PeaceTrees Vietnam EOD teams.
  • The International Center-Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation continued to help develop the capacity of VNMAC and the executive office of the National Mine Action Program to plan, coordinate, and manage the program in Vietnam.
  • With further co-funding from PM/WRA and Japan, MAG continued providing the clearance component for a comprehensive UXO survey and clearance project in Quang Binh Province.
  • NPA continued to provide the survey component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards. NPA also supported capacity development of VNMAC through provision of a technical advisor, development of a technical survey standard operating procedure, and establishment of an information management unit.
  • PeaceTrees Vietnam continued to field EOD response teams and fund clearance operations along the heavily contaminated Quang Tri border with Laos.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 5,200 mines and UXO from 730,000 square meters (180 acres) of land to date. HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued an operational field evaluation of soil processing and vegetation cutting attachments.
  • USPACOM’s EOD Mobile Unit Five continued to partner with the Vietnamese Navy to provide underwater humanitarian demining, in support of President Trump’s November 2017 joint statement with President Tran Dai Quang, which committed both governments to cooperate in the removal of ERW. USPACOM/USARPAC also expanded upon its five-year collaboration with VNMAC and the VNM Engineering Command by conducting a Phase I EOD/Blast Trauma train-the-trainer program.

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Support

From 1942 to1945, the U.S. armed forces engaged in an “island hopping” strategy to roll back the Empire of Japan’s territorial holdings in the Pacific Islands. This campaign unfortunately resulted in massive UXO contamination and abandoned munitions caches by all combatants across the region. The Pacific Regional Program was initiated in 2009 to address the legacies of World War II in the region.

In 2017, the Department of State supported work of the following implementing partners:

  • The PM/WRA Quick Reaction Force (QRF), operated by Golden West, deployed to the Federated States of Micronesia to destroy UXO that posed a direct threat to communities on Pohnpei and Yap islands.
  • The Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) provided risk management capacity building with in LaosVietnam, and Cambodia.

East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided $527,400 for CWD in other East Asia and Pacific countries.

  • Philippines: USPACOM continued to partner with the Philippine Naval Special Operations Group Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Philippine Army Support Command on underwater humanitarian demining to improve indigenous capacity for UXO clearance and humanitarian aspects of EOD.
  • Thailand: HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 724 mines and UXO from 7 million square meters (1,729 acres) of land to date. HD R&D, in partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center, continued evaluating the Mini MineWolf and Medium MineWolf, which are earth tilling systems capable of clearing anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines, as well as an aerial survey system, and the Armored Remote Control Chase Vehicle. USPACOM/MARFORPAC also deepened its partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center and Royal Thai Armed Forces Engineering Command by conducting Program Development Visit Pre-Deployment Site Survey; and Phase I, II, and III EOD/Blast Trauma train-the-trainer programs.

Regional Profile: Europe

Europe Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Europe from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $404.2 million

Our enduring CWD priorities for Europe are to prevent illicit transfers of SA/LW and unplanned ammunition depot explosions through PSSM programs, and to clear the landmines and UXO left from the Yugoslav Wars. The United States continues to support regional security and build national capacity through a military stockpile reduction initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, clear cluster munitions from the Kosovo War, reduce stockpiles in Serbia, clearance of UXO hotspots in Albania, and perform battle area clearance in Ukraine. These programs help return land back to productive use.

Since 1993, the United States has supported extensive efforts to rid Europe of the vestiges of past conflicts, providing more than $404.2 million in CWD support. Funding and clearance efforts by the United States and other donors have already freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and UXO.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN EUROPE BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in Europe by Country -- Albania 10.67%; Armenia 3.44%; Azerbaijan 7.64%; Bosnia & Herzegovina 27.97%; Bulgaria 2.60%; Croatia 9.76%; Cyprus 0.15%; s Czech Republic 0.15%; Estonia 1.16%; Georgia 8.61%; Hungary 0.09%; Kosovo 7.62%; Lithuania 0.12%; Macedonia 0.49%; Moldova 0.19%; Montenegro 2.71%; Romania 0.62%; Serbia 5.08%; Serbia & Montenegro 1.40%; Slovenia 0.07%; Ukraine 9.48%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. - State Dept Image

Albania

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY00–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,777 1,500 1,200 41,247
DoD 147 100 33 497
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,924 1,600 1,233 43,133

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: UXO found in a tree trunk during clearance of the area at the Picar site in Albania. An explosion at the Picar ammunition storage depot took place in 1997. Twenty years after the explosion, U.S. funding to ITF enabled NPA to clear the area consisting of 28,285 square meters (6.99 acres). © Photo courtesy of ITF and NPA

Although Albania declared itself “mine free” in 2009, it continues to face UXO contamination following unplanned munitions stockpile explosions. After the fall of the communist dictatorship in 1991, Albania was left with immense stockpiles of obsolete, deteriorating, and poorly maintained weapons and munitions. During civil unrest in the 1990s, many weapons and munitions depots were looted or burned. Significant amounts of ammunition were scattered, leaving large swaths of land that were dangerous, uninhabitable, and unfit for use. UXO at former military impact ranges and depot explosion sites, known in Albania as “UXO Hotspots,” remain a threat.

From 2000 to 2017, the United States provided more than $43.1 million to Albania for CWD efforts. However, in 2017 CWD funding began its transition from solely “hotspot” clearance to PSSM and SA/LW projects.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF and NPA completed a technical survey of the Sinanaj-Tepelenë hotspot site, cleared Picar-Gjirokastër and Korçë-Gjirokastër sites, and returned all known Gjirokastër hotspot sites back to local residents. ITF and NPA also reduced threats to civilian safety and economic livelihood posed by UXO through technical survey and clearance of contaminated hotspots in Jube Sukth, while also performing post-clearance assessments in the Berat area on hotspots in Gjerovan, Mbreashtan, and Palikesht.
  • ITF and UNDP continued supporting the Albanian Mine and Munitions Coordination Office. Additionally, ITF provided assistance to landmine and UXO survivors at the Kukës Hospital in northeastern Albania and completed vocational training with 25 victims of UXO accidents.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE), and the United States European Command (USEUCOM) conducted a Requirements Determination Site Survey for future EOD engagements scheduled in early FY18.

Armenia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY93–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 0 0 4,292
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,000
DoD 40 10 226 3,467
USAID 997 0 0 3,145
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,337 10 226 13,904

Dollars in thousands

The 1988–1994 war between Armenia and Azerbaijan over the Nagorno-Karabakh region left parts of Armenia heavily contaminated by landmines and UXO. Armenia made significant gains in its demining program and now manages clearance operations independently, due in part to previous U.S. training and capacity building programs that led to the Department of State concluding CWD funding to Armenia in 2015. Programs funded by the United States finished in 2017.

From 1993 to 2017, the United States provided more than $13.9 million to Armenia aimed at building its government’s capacity to manage its residual UXO problem.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY15 funds):

  • ITF, in partnership with MLI and the Mine Detection Dog Center of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MDDC), continued to support Armenia’s national capacity to clear landmines by providing instruction to mine detection dog (MDD) trainers at the Armenia Center for Humanitarian Demining and Expertise. However, after six MDDs funded by MLI did not maintain certification standards, they were removed from Armenia for rehabilitation and re-certification. Five of the MDDs were donated to other organizations in the European region where they are performing successfully. One MDD was retired from service due to health concerns.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the U.S. Air Forces in Europe and the United States European Command (USEUCOM) conducted a Requirements Determination Site Survey for EOD engagements scheduled in early FY18.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY96–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,974 4,500 2,750 83,381
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 0 78 249 4,987
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
COUNTRY TOTAL 3,974 4,578 2,999 113,078

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: Signs are placed around an area being cleared in Bosnia and Herzegovina. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Over 20 years after the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts, Bosnia and Herzegovina remains heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO. It also inherited an aging stockpile of conventional arms and unstable ammunition from the former Yugoslav National Army. Most remaining minefields are in the area of separation between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska, and around strategic facilities such as ammunition or weapons depots. As of December 2017, there were reportedly 1,061 square kilometers (409 square miles) of mine-contaminated land, representing 2.2 percent of the country’s territory.

From 1996 to 2017, the United States provided more than $113 million in CWD programs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including landmine clearance, mine risk education, survivor assistance, weapons and munitions stockpile destruction, and PSSM initiatives.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • In coordination with the Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo, Janus destroyed over 570 metric tons (3,878,060 items) of excess, unsafe arms and ammunition.
  • Small Arms Survey used Bosnia and Herzegovina as a case study for its continued research into the life-cycle management of ammunition. The published results will be used to enhance stockpile security and management in Bosnia and Herzegovina and around the world.
  • ITF cleared 918,770 square meters (227 acres) of land through manual demining or technical survey throughout the country by utilizing local, private operators working in close coordination with the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo and the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center. This work benefited more than 11,450 people across 16 different municipalities.
  • ITF and the MDDC released 3.7 million square meters (914.2 acres) of land at 15 locations in the municipality of Konjic.
  • The United States and the government of Japan partnered with ITF to enable the return of 295,638 square meters (73 acres) of land through manual clearance and technical survey in the municipalities of Ilijaš and Busova?a. This joint effort lowered administrative costs and enabled both countries to clear more territory than if they had each funded separate projects.
  • The United States utilized ITF to donate demining visors and mine detectors to the Bosnia and Herzegovina Armed Forces Demining Battalion, the Federation’s Department of Civil Protection, and the Republika Srpska’s Civil Protection Administration.
  • MAG initiated pilot land release projects reducing 204,801 square meters (over 50 acres) of land through technical survey and clearing 67,248 square meters (over 16 acres) of land in the Pale-Pra?a municipality. MLI and the MDDC joined forces to focus on the last known contaminated area in the Kreševo Municipality, clearing and returning 55,421 square meters (13.7 acres) back to productive use.
  • MLI continued its Children Against Mines Program (CHAMPS) and the Mine Detection Dog Partnership Program, which enhance indigenous demining capacity, provide mine risk education to various local ethnic groups, assist landmine survivors, and connect schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina with schools in the United States.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, provided an aerial survey system to facilitate project planning and supervision.

Croatia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY99–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 850 2,040 0 38,728
DoD 0 0 28 741
COUNTRY TOTAL 850 2,040 28 39,469

Dollars in thousands

Croatia was left with extensive landmine and UXO contamination from the Yugoslav Wars, which occurred between 1992 and 1995. Croatia is still affected by these legacy mines and UXO, but despite this it maintains a robust commercial demining sector that has many Croatian companies competing for demining tasks, both in Croatia and the rest of Europe. The Croatian government funds more than 90 percent of demining tasks performed on its territory, and the country also has a research and development sector for demining-related technologies. Croatia maintains a sizeable stockpile of conventional arms and munitions inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds national defense requirements. Much of this materiel is beyond its shelf life and is in need of destruction or demilitarization.

From 1999 to 2017, the United States provided more than $39.4 million for CWD in Croatia.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY15 and FY16 funds):

  • ITF worked closely with the Ministry of Defense to demilitarize or destroy over 523 metric tons of excess or aging munitions stockpiles and released 39,800 square meters (9.8 acres) of land in Zadar County and 16,450 square meters (four acres) in Moslava County.
  • ITF also collaborated with the Ministry of Interior during the planning phase to upgrade the munitions storage facility near ?akovo, and with the Ministry of Defense to upgrade its munitions storage facility near Doljani.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM and Naval Forces Europe completed site visits and an EOD Level I train-the-trainer event.

Georgia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY98–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 0 28,605
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 209 20 55 1,565
USAID 0 0 1,998 1,998
COUNTRY TOTAL 709 20 2,053 34,812

Dollars in thousands

In addition to inheriting large stockpiles of old and deteriorating Soviet munitions, Georgia is also wrestling with landmine and UXO contamination from the conflicts in the South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions of Georgia, and the more recent 2008 conflict with Russia. This contamination is concentrated along the boundary lines between these regions, and around former Soviet military bases. In November 2011, all 336 known minefields in the Abkhazia region were declared by HALO to be “mine free.” While Department of State CWD funding to Georgia concluded in 2015, program activities continued into 2017 focusing on final clearance and land release. The government of Georgia’s goal is to clear all residual UXO contamination independently, using national funds and EOD resources.

From 1998 to 2017, the United States provided more than $34.8 million in CWD programs in Georgia aimed at training, clearance, safe disposal of mines and UXO, and destruction of excess and aging conventional military weapons and ammunition.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY15 funds):

  • HALO cleared and released 2.2 million square meters (544 acres) of land at the former Soviet training range at Udabno through UXO remediation.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM continued to collaborate with the Georgian military for the fourth year providing EOD, battle area clearance, and emergency medical assistance train-the-trainer engagements. USEUCOM also completed two EOD Level I events in 2017.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Emory University to strengthen the capacity of local physical rehabilitation professionals.

Kosovo

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY96–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 550 475 0 8,475
DoD 120 204 71 4,860
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
COUNTRY TOTAL 670 679 71 30,807

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: NPA, funded by PM/WRA, conducts a clearance training exercise in Kryshec, Kosovo. - State Dept Image

UXO contamination in Kosovo resulted primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later between the FRY and NATO forces in 1999. At the end of 2016, according to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, mine contamination covered 1.9 square kilometers (0.7 square miles). Just over 150,000 square meters (37 acres) were cleared in 2016.

From 1996 to 2017, the United States provided more than $30.8 million in CWD efforts in Kosovo supporting capacity development of the Kosovo Mine Action Center, non-technical surveys, and ERW clearance activities (with FY16 funds).

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO returned 624,184 square meters (154 acres) of land back to local populations in Kryshec, Dumnice, Bradash, and Lebane by conducting technical survey and sub-surface battle area clearance.
  • NPA returned 806,757 square meters (199 acres) of land back to local communities in the areas of Zvecan, Mokra Gora, Zubin Potok, and Boljetin by performing clearance and land release activities at cluster munition strike sites.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, cleared 10,000 square meters (2.47 acres) of land in the first months of 2017 using HSTAMIDS dual-head mine detectors loaned by HD R&D.
  • USEUCOM conducted a comprehensive assessment of the Kosovo Security Force’s EOD capability to assess current equipment shortfalls and capability gaps. This assessment outlined future requirements which would benefit long-term engagement and growth.

Montenegro

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY07–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,750 0 9,199
DoD 428 562 30 1,747
COUNTRY TOTAL 428 2,312 30 10,946

Dollars in thousands

Montenegro’s UXO contamination stems from the conflicts during the breakup of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. NATO air strikes in Montenegro between March and June 1999 dropped cluster bombs, which scattered approximately 4,000 submunitions, some of which failed to explode. Currently 1.7 million square meters (420 acres) of land contains cluster munition remnants.

From 2007 to 2017, the United States invested more than $10.9 million in CWD efforts in Montenegro to support SA/LW and PSSM activities in addition to mine and UXO contamination destruction programs.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • ITF began a PSSM project to reduce national stocks of excess and obsolete arms and ammunition and improve conventional weapons and ammunition PSSM.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM deployed a humanitarian demining training expert to provide mentorship and oversight to the Montenegrin Navy Hydrographic Institute to assist in training new navy personnel on the Humanitarian Underwater Explosive Detection System. They also provided a new platform the navy can use to conduct future underwater scanning operations.

Serbia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY07–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 195 2,100 1,250 20,230
DoD 3 200 107 310
COUNTRY TOTAL 198 2,300 1,357 20,540

Dollars in thousands

Serbia’s landmine and UXO contamination is the result of the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s and NATO air strikes targeting military sites during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. In addition to UXO, landmine contamination persisted along Serbia’s shared borders with Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. As of April 2017, Bujanovac (along the border with Kosovo and Macedonia) was the only municipality still contaminated with landmines. Cluster munition contamination was confirmed or suspected in six municipalities for a total area of 2.8 square kilometers (1.8 square miles). Serbia also faces additional risks of illicit proliferation and unplanned detonation of the large stockpile of aging munitions it inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army. An accidental explosion in March 2017 at Tehnicki Remontni Zavod Kragujevac (TRZK) demilitarization and ammunition testing facility resulted in four fatalities and destroyed vital equipment and infrastructure.

From 2007 to 2017, the United States invested more than $20.5 million in CWD efforts in Serbia supporting SA/LW and munitions destruction programs and addressing mine and UXO contamination.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF cleared and released 275,000 square meters (68 acres) at the Uški potok and Ravno Bu?je sites and continued clearance of high-priority sites utilizing national technical survey methods in the Bujanovac municipality.
  • The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) conducted site surveys and completed the initial stages of a project to destroy excess stockpiles of outdated and at-risk conventional munitions at the TRZK facility.
  • UNDP began PSSM upgrades and aimed to increase the Serbian capacity to safely store and secure SA/LW stockpiles near Avala.

Ukraine

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY04–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,940 2,000 6,000 34,067
DoD 303 108 656 1,244
USAID 1,031 920 1,048 2,999
COUNTRY TOTAL 3,274 3,028 7,704 38,310

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: Ethan Rinks (second from right, top row) PM/WRA program manager for CWD in Europe, visits a HALO demining team in Ukraine funded by PM/WRA. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Ukraine continues to address the legacy of the large quantities of excess and aging conventional arms and munitions that it inherited after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2005, NSPA estimated Ukraine held as many as seven million SA/LW and stored as much as two million metric tons of ammunition in more than 80 depots. Much of these munitions are excess, aging, potentially unstable, and are no longer suitable for military use. They represent a significant security threat to the country and to the region as a whole. In 2017, two major explosions at the Kalynivka and Balakliya munitions depots resulted in mass evacuations and at least one casualty.

In addition, ongoing Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine, including through Russian military personnel arming, training, and fighting alongside Russian-led separatists, has resulted in a line of contact between the Ukrainian government and combined Russian-separatist forces. The line of contact running through the Donetsk and Luhansk regions is marked by extensive landmine and UXO contamination. These explosive hazards represent a major threat to combatants and civilians alike. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor identified 785 mine/ERW causalities in 2016, an increase from 706 in 2015.

From 2004 to 2017, the United States provided more than $38.3 million for SA/LW and ammunition destruction, as well as clearance activities in Ukraine.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The United States funded the destruction or demilitarization of 1,048 metric tons of munitions via the NATO PfPTF, with NSPA as our implementing partner. The United States is the lead nation for the NATO PfPTF, which has the objective of continuing to remove excess munitions to lower the risk of unplanned depot explosions and reduce the security threat they pose.
  • The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Project Coordinator Unit continued its role advising the government of Ukraine on establishing a national authority in humanitarian mine action. The OSCE also expanded Ukraine’s capacity for humanitarian demining with key stakeholders within the government.
  • HALO returned 391,859 square meters (96.8 acres) of land back to communities after the official beginning of clearance operations under U.S. funding on March 1. HALO also completed IMAS training with government stakeholders.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM completed two EOD train-the-trainer events with the Ukrainian State Emergency Service and Ministry of Defense Forces.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported UCP/Wheels for Humanity to provide training for rehabilitation service personnel and economic empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

Europe--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided $322,000 for CWD in other European countries.

  • Azerbaijan: U.S. Army Europe and USEUCOM conducted training and provided Azerbaijan’s National Mine Action Authority with vehicle-towed detection systems to complete the remediation of a Soviet-era bombing range and return land to civilian use.
  • Cyprus: USEUCOM worked with the Cyprus National Guard to provide PSSM to reduce the likelihood of additional unplanned explosions of munitions. USAREUR conducted an EOD Level I train-the-trainer event which will increase the capacity of the Cyprus National Guard to conduct basic EOD skills.
  • Estonia: USEUCOM completed a site visit for a future underwater dive train-the-trainer event with the Estonian Rescue Board.
  • Moldova: USEUCOM partnered with Moldova for the fourth year to provide EOD Level I train-the-trainer engagements. Renovations on the Moldovan Engineer Battalion began in 2017 and will be completed in 2018, significantly increasing the effectiveness of future humanitarian mine action training.

Regional Profile: Middle East and North Africa

Middle East and North Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Middle East & North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $641.6 million

United States CWD programs play a critical role in enhancing stability and improving human security in the Middle East and North Africa. In Iraq, Libya, and Syria, ISIS-emplaced IEDs and landmines continue to terrorize returning communities and impede stabilization. In Libya, illicit trafficking of SA/LW fuels both domestic and regional violence. In Yemen, significant quantities of ERW and the widespread use of landmines continue to kill civilians and hinder the delivery of humanitarian aid.

According to the 2017 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, 2016 saw a continued rise in the global total number of casualties caused by mines and ERW. This was due in large part to an increase in casualties recorded in armed conflicts in Libya, Syria, and Yemen. In 2016, significant underreporting of casualties for Iraq continued. This seemed to be exacerbated by a severe deficiency in the recording of improvised mine casualties. Final casualty figures are not yet available for 2017. Despite uncertainty and the difficulties posed by ongoing conflicts, the United States has invested more than $641.6 million in CWD funding since 1993 to help build regional stability in the Middle East and North Africa. Survey, marking, and clearance projects enable the safe return of displaced families to their communities, as well as develop strong and capable local humanitarian mine action capacities. Mine risk education projects prevent deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provide rehabilitation and reintegration support. Lastly, U.S. funds support capacity-building programs to further develop partner nations’ expertise and ensure an enduring capability exists to address ERW over the long term.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in the Middle East and North Africa by Country -- *Bahrain 0.00%; Egypt 0.11%; Iraq 62.30%; Jordan 4.38%; Lebanon 10.30%; Libya 6.79%; Morocco 0.01%; Oman 0.68%; West Bank 0.96%; Syria 8.74%; Tunisia 0.22%; Yemen 5.36%.. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. * less than 0.01% - State Dept Image

Iraq

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY03–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 37,835 30,945 48,000 293,111
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 0 58 209 105,237
COUNTRY TOTAL 37,835 31,003 48,209 399,790

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: An FSD team supported by the Department of State prepares to destroy ISIS IEDs in northern Iraq. © Photo courtesy of FSD

ISIS’s prolonged occupation of extensive territory in Iraq, in some cases lasting more than three years, resulted in an unprecedented level of explosive contamination in the form of IEDs, UXO, and landmines. ISIS used mass-produced, technologically advanced IEDs to defend captured territory and target Iraqi Security Forces, as well as to booby trap homes, public spaces, farmland, and infrastructure to discourage the return of IDPs. As IDPs return to their communities, these devices continue to perpetuate ISIS’s reign of terror by indiscriminately killing civilians and impeding stabilization operations. In addition to ISIS-related contamination, other parts of Iraq remain impacted by millions of mines and ERW from conflicts dating back to the 1940s. Numerous large barrier minefields and ERW remain along the Iran/Iraq border as a result of the 1980s conflict between the two nations. In addition, the Gulf War and the conflict that began in 2003 resulted in ERW contamination in southern Iraq.

From 2003 to 2017, the United States invested more than $399.7 million in Iraq for the clearance and disposal of IEDs, mines, ERW, and excess conventional munitions that were vulnerable to illicit trafficking.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG cleared more than 3,000 explosive hazards from over seven million square meters (1,729 acres) of land in southern Iraq, including U.S.-origin ERW. They assisted in developing the program capacity of the Regional Mine Action Center-South (RMAC-S) in coordination with the Directorate of Mine Action (DMA) and delivered mine risk education to more than 16,000 men, women, and children in southern Iraq.
  • FSD cleared over 2,000 IEDs in towns liberated from ISIS between Mosul and Erbil, thereby increasing civilian security and facilitating the return of IDPs.
  • Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) provided operational information management assistance and strategic planning capacity building support to Iraqi national mine action authorities. They also helped to coordinate demining efforts between Iraqi demining authorities and the organizations conducting demining operations, in support of broader stabilization efforts.
  • MAG cleared more than 4,000 explosive hazards in Iraqi Kurdistan and areas liberated from ISIS in the Ninewa Plains, increasing human security and allowing IDPs, including those from predominantly Christian, Shabak, and Yazidi villages, to safely return to their homes. MAG also provided mine risk education to increase the security of civilians affected by ISIS-emplaced and other legacy ERW.
  • NPA cleared over 4,000 explosive hazards in southern Iraq and provided technical advisors to the RMAC-S to assist in its role as a regulatory body to coordinate and monitor mine action activities.
  • SOS held soccer workshops across Iraq that reached over 40,000 children to provide education and outreach to children about the risks posed by ERW, provide trauma resilience training for those affected by ISIS-related violence, and to offer a meaningful alternative to Iraqi youths at risk of joining extremist groups.
  • Janus cleared more than 4,700 explosive hazards from critical infrastructure in liberated areas associated with the delivery of clean water, power, healthcare, and education as well as facilities used for manufacturing building materials.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, has cleared 2,200 mines and UXO from 269,000 cubic meters (9.5 million cubic feet) of soil to date, through the use of an experimental Rebel rock crusher, which they continue to evaluate. The Rebel is a complete contaminated soil processing plant, with several excavator sifting attachments, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and several commercial front-loader attachments. This technology is helping to automate complicated, low density mine clearance tasks around villages and agricultural areas in northern Iraq that have been mine-affected for decades.

Jordan

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY96–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 400 400 22,436
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
COUNTRY TOTAL 500 400 400 28,122

Dollars in thousands

Jordan continues to suffer the effects of landmines and ERW contamination from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war. In April 2012, Jordan declared itself “free from the threat of all known minefields,” yet residual minefields exist in three main areas: its northern border with Syria, the Jordan River Valley, and the Wadi Araba region in the south.

From 1996 to 2017, the United States invested more than $28.1 million in assistance to clear mines and ERW, deliver mine risk education, provide rehabilitation and reintegration support for survivors of mine and UXO accidents, as well as destroy unserviceable and obsolete weapons and ammunition.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Polus continued its survivor assistance project, which provides rehabilitative care, vocational training, and prosthetics to Jordanian and Syrian survivors of mine and UXO accidents.

Lebanon

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY98–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,324 4,500 3,000 44,999
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 44 39 39 9,272
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
COUNTRY TOTAL 3,368 4,539 3,039 66,121

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: DCA deminers, funded by PM/WRA, use a large loop detector to conduct sub-surface clearance in Lebanon. © Photo courtesy of DCA

Lebanon remains contaminated with mines and ERW from the 1975–1991 civil war, the Israel-Hezbollah conflict of 2006, and recent operations against ISIS and other extremist groups in northeast Lebanon. As of January 2017, approximately 52 million square meters (12,849 acres) of contaminated land remained according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center (LMAC). Since 1975, mines and ERW have killed more than 900 people and injured over 2,800. The threat of ERW, especially in southern Lebanon, continues to hamper development. The presence of ISIS and other terrorist organizations operating along Lebanon’s northeast border with Syria has resulted in new and complex ERW contamination in the form of IEDs and improvised munitions. The LMAC reviewed Lebanon’s national mine action standards in 2017 and made updates that will make clearance operations more efficient.

From 1998 to 2017, the United States invested more than $66.1 million in CWD for Lebanon.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA cleared more than 700 explosive hazards, returned over 233,000 square meters (58 acres) of previously contaminated land back to local communities, provided risk education to over 800 Lebanese men, women, and children affected by ERW and continued to build the capacity of the national nongovernmental organization LAMiNDA.
  • HI cleared more than 150 mines and other explosive hazards and returned over 179,000 square meters (44 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities in North Lebanon.
  • MAG cleared over 480 mines and other explosive hazards, returned more than 108,000 square meters (27 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities for economic development, and provided risk education to 950 men, women, and children in southern and central Lebanon.
  • NPA cleared over 175 explosive hazards and returned more than 91,000 square meters (22 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities in South Lebanon.
  • MLI continued to develop the LMAC’s capacity to use mine detection dogs and also provided prosthetics and vocational training to Lebanese civilians injured by mines and ERW.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate several soil excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments on their own armored excavators. In addition, the Terrapin small excavator is speeding manual clearance by cutting and removing thick vegetation and excavating rocky areas to expose UXO. Since 2017, HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 6,350 mines and ERW from 150,000 square meters (37 acres) of land.

Libya

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY11–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 2,500 16,000 24,000
DOS OTHER 0 0 0 19,575
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,500 2,500 16,000 43,575

Dollars in thousands

Stockpiles of conventional weapons and ammunition proliferated throughout Libya and adjoining regions during the 2011 revolution. Since mid-2014, fierce fighting among Libyan militias and rival governing factions, as well as Libyan forces and ISIS, caused further mine and ERW contamination. The U.S. government is working with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to better coordinate activities that counter the illicit trafficking of weapons throughout the region by violent extremist organizations operating in Libya, and mitigate the threats to civilians posed by ERW. The greatest immediate threats are ERW and IEDs found in areas recently liberated from ISIS and other extremist groups.

From 2011 to 2017, the United States invested more than $43.5 million working with partners and allies to coordinate a CWD response with a focus on MANPADS destruction and ERW clearance.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG worked to mitigate the threat of mines and ERW through non-technical surveys on the outskirts of Sirte. Following the liberation of Sirte in December 2016, DDG continued to conduct EOD spot tasks in areas of the city and on the outskirts where mines and ERW posed a heavy threat to civilians, including returning families.
  • ITF continued sustainment of the Libya Mine Action Center, supporting the maintenance of staff and facilities and the development of standard operating procedures and national standards while building explosive mine risk education capacity.
  • Janus began to train a cadre of IED disposal operators from the Libyan Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior.

Syria

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY13–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 8,000 9,510 38,000 56,060
COUNTRY TOTAL 8,000 9,510 38,000 56,060

Dollars in thousands

The Syrian civil war (2011–present) and the rise of ISIS have resulted in massive contamination of explosive hazards, from traditional landmines and ERW to highly complex IEDs. While no country-wide survey has been conducted, mine action and humanitarian organizations believe it is one of the most contaminated countries in the world.

From 2015 to 2017, the Department of State, in coordination with the Coalition to Defeat ISIS, provided CWD assistance to areas liberated from ISIS in north east Syria. Clearance operations are essential for the safe return of IDPs whose homes and essential services have been targeted with explosive devices left by ISIS. In addition to clearance activities, MRE programs teach civilians and returnees how to identify and respond if they encounter explosive hazards in their communities.

Yemen

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY97–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 3,500 5,000 29,555
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,000 3,500 5,000 34,401

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: Using heavy equipment on a clearance task funded by PM/WRA, HALO demines in the West Bank. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Extensive ground combat, use of landmines, and bombing has resulted in heavy ERW contaminationacross much of Yemen. U.S. assistance seeks to reduce the negative impact of ERW contamination on human security and access to essential social services. While U.S. support has historically focused on addressing ERW contamination from various conflicts between the 1960s and 1990s, current assistance has shifted to addressing recent contamination associated with ongoing fighting between Iran-backed Houthi elements and the Saudi-led coalition backing the Yemeni government, which started in 2014. Extensive ground combat, use of landmines, and bombing has resulted in heavy UXO contamination across much of Yemen.

From 1997 to 2017, the United States invested more than $34.4 million in CWD programs in Yemen.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • UNDP is building Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) capacity through technical advisors and information management support while also providing operational support for YEMAC survey, mapping, and clearance operations. In 2017, UNDP’s engagement with the YEMAC enabled the clearance of over eight million square meters (over 1,977 acres) of contaminated land and the removal of approximately 350,000 explosive hazards across 55 of Yemen’s most highly impacted districts. More than 223,000 Yemenis benefited from UNDP’s ERW risk education efforts.
  • MLI continued to conduct the CHAMPS and Survivor’s Assistance programs in partnership with the Yemeni Association of Landmine Survivors and YEMAC to provide mine risk education, medical assistance, and rehabilitative care to more than 100 mine survivors.

West Bank

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY11–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 6,088
DoD 20 0 44 64
COUNTRY TOTAL 1,020 1,000 1,044 6,152

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: Using heavy equipment on a clearance task funded by PM/WRA, HALO demines in the West Bank. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Landmines and UXO contaminate the West Bank after decades of conflict beginning in 1948. The exact amount of contamination is unknown, but a 2012 survey of the West Bank identified 90 minefields. The Jordanian military laid 13 of these fields from 1948 to 1967, and the Israeli military laid 77 more following the 1967 war. Subsequently, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) conducted training exercises in parts of the West Bank resulting in additional UXO contamination, often discovered by the local population while herding and farming. Following years of negotiations, clearance activities started in April 2014. This milestone marked the beginning of the first humanitarian mine action program to clear mines and UXO in the West Bank in nearly 50 years, continuing through 2017.

From 2011 to 2017, the United States invested more than $6.1 million in CWD funding for survey and clearance operations in the West Bank.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO completed clearance at five mutually agreed upon minefields and worked on three additional sites in 2017 with a combination of demining and mechanical teams. HALO continued close cooperation with the Israeli National Mine Action Authority, the IDF, and the Palestinian Mine Action Center to approve more minefields for clearance.
  • ITF conducted quality assurance and quality control on the minefields being cleared by HALO in the West Bank.

With funding from the U.S. Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated an aerial survey system and a Target Reacquisition and Positioning System—a low-cost differential global positioning system—to accurately map humanitarian demining tasks.

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $785,065 for CWD in other Middle Eastern and North Africa countries.

With funding from the Department of Defense, Utah National Guard and the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa conducted three missions in Morocco that focused on developing a Moroccan EOD cadre to teach basic landmine clearance operations, while also conducting a mine victim’s assistance mission.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the Al Hussein Society in JordanLebanon, the West Bank, and Gaza to strengthen physical therapy associations and service providers, promote international accreditation of select physical therapy academic programs, and improve wheelchair service provision and access.

Regional Profile: South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in South and Central Asia from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $566 million

While volatility in Afghanistan continues to create challenges for the United States’ largest CWD program, the United States remains committed to deepening the relationships that further its CWD goals in the region.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $566 million in CWD funding to South and Central Asia. Funding for Afghanistan accounts for more than $474.6 million of that amount. Due in part to their inherent indigenous capability and their significant need, Afghanistan has one of the most established mine action programs in the world. The Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpiles, which are located close to or within populated areas. In Sri Lanka, landmines and UXO threaten regional security and impede the resettlement of communities. The United States has continued its emphasis on capacity-building by further supporting the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center.

U.S. assistance aims to enable recipient countries to take the lead in CWD activities, which are essential to regional stabilization and economic development. It is critical for regional and global security that the United States and South and Central Asian countries continue to foster a partnership with the goal of securing military weapons and ammunition that might fall into the wrong hands, promoting peace and stability, and strengthening economic ties.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN SOUTH AND CENTRAL ASIA BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in South and Central Asia by Country -- Afghanistan 83.85%; India 0.05%; Kazakhstan 0.05%; Kyrgyz Republic 0.31%; Nepal 0.77%; Pakistan 0.15%; Sri Lanka 10.59%; Tajikistan 3.84%; Uzbekistan 0.02%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. *Turkmenistan benefited in FY13 from Defense Threat Reduction Agency programs. The funding does not appear on the chart above or the funding charts beginning on page 68 because the Defense Threat Reduction Agency does not assign dollar amounts to countries.- State Dept Image

Afghanistan

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY93–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 22,700 32,066 20,000 392,785
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 744 451 134 8,626
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
COUNTRY TOTAL 23,444 32,517 20,134 474,658

Dollars in thousands

Afghanistan remains an invaluable partner for the United States in the fight against terrorism by working to help eliminate al-Qa’ida and its affiliates. In order to strengthen Afghanistan’s capabilities as a partner and to improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides CWD resources to help Afghanistan clear legacy landmine and UXO contamination left by the 1979 Soviet invasion and internal armed conflict from 1992 to 2001. U.S. CWD programs also work to clear UXO left from more recent conflicts. The extensive use of IEDs by non-state actors (e.g., Taliban, ISIS-Khorasan) accounted for approximately 60 percent of all casualties recorded by the Directorate for Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) from January 2016 to February 2017.

As of December 2017, DMAC reported 862 square kilometers (332 square miles) of contamination (suspected and confirmed minefields, battlefields, and high explosive training ranges), directly impacting over six million people—those living within 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) of a known hazard area and indirectly affecting the entire population of Afghanistan.

From 1993 to 2017, the United States provided more than $474.6 million for CWD and demining assistance to Afghanistan. As of December 2017, implementing partners have cleared over 237 square kilometers (91 square miles) of land and removed or destroyed approximately eight million landmines and pieces of UXO, stockpiled munitions, and homemade explosives.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Janus and NPA assisted PM/WRA in the monitoring and evaluation of more than 200 mine clearance projects, five Afghan nongovernmental organizations, and two international nongovernmental organizations.
  • Afghan Technical Consultants continued clearance operations in Parwan, Laghman, and Baghlan Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by the DMAC in coordination with Janus.
  • The Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan conducted a community-based mine clearance program in high-threat hazard areas in Kunar and Nangarhar Provinces.
  • The Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) conducted its fifth year of community-based demining projects in the Zharey District of Kandahar Province and the Nahri-Seraj District of Helmand Province. DAFA also began clearance of hazard sites and conducted clearance operations in Nimroz Province on high-priority tasks.
  • FSD continued clearance operations in northern Badakhshan Province on high-priority tasks selected by the DMAC in coordination with Janus.
  • GICHD held its annual Afghanistan Donor and Implementing Partner Workshop to support DMAC. This four-day workshop allowed Afghan nationals and international representatives to discuss program management and donor mobilization.
  • HALO continued weapons and ammunition disposal and assessments throughout central, western, and northern Afghanistan. HALO also deployed eight CWD teams that responded to call-outs to identify, secure, and destroy SA/LW, ammunition, and explosive material. In addition, HALO managed demining projects in Kabul, Nangarhar, Baghlan, Kapisa, and Panjshir Provinces, conducting clearance operations on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with Janus.
  • ITF continued its support to DMAC with emphasis on developing host-nation capacity through enhanced Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) training and program management skills development. The ITF also continued to support a medical clinic at the Mine Detection Center (MDC) in Kabul, a collaborative project between the United States and the government of Slovenia.
  • The Mine Clearance Planning Agency continued non-technical surveys in 26 UXO-contaminated districts located within 10 provinces throughout Afghanistan.
  • MDC continued its fourth year of community-based demining in the Garmsir District of Helmand Province and conducted clearance operations in Panjshir Province on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with Janus.
  • The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) conducted clearance operations in Takhar and Nangarhar Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with Janus. OMAR also provided explosive risk education to school children in Kabul Province.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued evaluations of equipment to clear mines and perform technical surveys in villages and agricultural areas throughout Afghanistan. The equipment included the Storm Steep Slope Excavator; Minehound, a hand-held detector for minimum-metal anti-tank mines; Orbit Screen, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders; and the Raptor I & II, armored tractors with the Rotary Mine Comb anti-tank mine clearance attachment. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 10.2 million square meters (2,520 acres) of land and 22,600 mines and UXO to date.

Date: 2018 Description: With PM/WRA funding, HALO conducts mechanical clearance near communication towers in Samangan Province, Afghanistan. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Kyrgyz Republic

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY09–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 285 250 1,735
DoD 0 0 0 7
COUNTRY TOTAL 400 285 250 1,742

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: With funding from PM/WRA, military ammunition handlers in the Kyrgyz Republic safely destroy unstable and expired ammunition. © Photo courtesy of ITF

Like many former Soviet republics, the Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpile storage sites that threaten civilians’ safety due to their proximity to populated areas.

From 2009 to 2017, the United States invested more than $1.7 million to assist the Kyrgyz Republic to rehabilitate existing explosive storage facilities and to segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable conventional munitions. Such activities develop host nation capacity to prevent spontaneous explosions and injuries to civilian populations living near storage depots and reduce the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions from stockpiles.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF continued national capacity training and developed and deployed Ministry of Defense assets to secure, demilitarize, and destroy excess and unserviceable munition stockpiles. This included the demilitarization of more than 30,000 pieces of large-caliber ammunition and the destruction of 290 metric tons of other munitions.
  • OSCE completed a complex PSSM project to assist, support, and enhance the storage and maintenance of excess stockpiles of SA/LW and ammunition.

Sri Lanka

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY95–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,250 2,500 5,000 47,841
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 507 601 697 3,929
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
COUNTRY TOTAL 4,757 3,101 5,697 59,967

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: A HALO deminer at a clearance site in Sri Lanka funded by PM/WRA conducts a full excavation of a landmine. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Landmines and UXO still contaminate Sri Lanka following almost three decades of armed conflict between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, which sought a separate homeland in the north and east. After the war ended in 2009, demining activities immediately commenced in the north. However, contamination remains a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and other development initiatives. This is particularly true as the government seeks to return land previously held in high security zones, the borders of which were heavily mined. The widespread presence of mines and UXO present an ongoing threat to the safety of returnees to such areas. According to the National Mine Action Center, approximately 27 square kilometers (247 acres) of confirmed hazardous area remain.

From 1995 to 2017, the United States invested more than $59.9 million in CWD funding for mine clearance, survey, risk education, and capacity building.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support the government of Sri Lanka’s efforts to return displaced families to their homes in the Northern Province by conducting survey, clearance, and risk education.
  • MAG continued to clear mines and other explosive hazards, restoring access to land for resettlement and livelihood development in northern and eastern Sri Lanka.
  • Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony continued to remove mines and UXO in support of resettlement of displaced families in northern Sri Lanka, developing national capacity as Sri Lanka’s first demining NGO.
  • MLI finalized a program to train, equip, and deploy mine detection dogs with the Sri Lankan Army’s humanitarian demining units.
  • SOS provided mine risk education to impacted communities through its soccer-based programs.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D continued to support existing technology, including evaluations of the Rex light weight armored excavator; the Improved Backhoe system and rake attachments; the Light Soil Sifter; and HSTAMIDS. The equipment provided area preparation, area reduction, and mine-clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 16,500 mines and UXO from 781,000 square meters (193 acres) to date.
  • USINDOPACOM continued to support underwater humanitarian demining with EOD Mobile Unit Five, the Sri Lankan Navy Special Boat Squadron and Naval Dive Unit to develop a bilateral partnership that builds capacity for the remediation of ERW and removal of underwater explosive hazards. USINDOPACOM/USARPAC also conducted Phase I EOD/Blast Trauma/Vet/GIS and Phase I EOD/Blast Trauma/Vet/GIS train-the-trainer programs.

Tajikistan

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY95–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,275 1,975 1,500 16,533
DoD 67 147 0 2,747
USAID 0 534 440 2,474
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,342 2,656 1,940 21,754

Dollars in thousands

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging conventional ammunition, including large-caliber ordnance and other explosives. Due to its porous borders with Afghanistan, large quantities of poorly secured SA/LW and ammunition present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine contamination along its southern, western, and northern borders that stems from Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During a five-year civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO that continue to impede socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and adversely impact farming, wood-gathering, grazing, and other rural activities.

From 2005 to 2017, the United States invested more than $21.7 million in Tajikistan to support mine and UXO clearance operations, destruction of excess and aging munitions, PSSM of SA/LW, survivor assistance, and national capacity building of the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC).

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • FSD continued non-technical survey and clearance of UXO through the deployment of a weapons and ammunition disposal team. FSD also trained, equipped, and deployed two mobile humanitarian demining teams to conduct non-technical survey and clearance of mines and UXO along the Tajik-Afghan border.
  • NPA continued deployment of one multi-purpose male demining team and the only multi-purpose female demining team in Central Asia along the southern Tajik-Afghan border.
  • OSCE funded and supported the deployment of two national humanitarian demining units. It also continued Phase II of the Integrated Cooperation on Explosive Hazards program with an emphasis on sharing regional lessons learned, building a regional center of excellence for explosive hazards mitigation training, and establishing a regional response capability to mitigate and counter explosive hazards.
  • TNMAC continued to develop the capacity of its mine action program with emphasis on information analysis, strategic planning, demining training, project development, and program management.
  • UNDP supported national ownership and development of capacity and operational management skills within TNMAC with an emphasis on nationalizing the program.
  • Polus conducted a survivor assistance survey and supported design and fitting of orthopedic prostheses, counseling of survivors, and strategic planning and policy development.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARCENT continued to partner with the Department of State, OSCE, and the Office of Military Cooperation through FY18 to achieve a fully functional and self-sustaining humanitarian mine action training center in Tajikistan. In 2017, USARCENT conducted three separate training events in Dushanbe with 44 participants from five different countries (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, and Tajikistan). During these three training events, U.S. military EOD personnel and previous graduates from the 2016 classes, mentored and trained participants. Instructors taught EOD Level I, II, and III courses in accordance with the IMAS, and provided inert ordnance, inert demolition material, course program of instruction, and classroom automation to enhance the training environment. The OSCE, together with the Tajikistan Ministry of Defense, began building the new regional training center. Once operational, USARCENT will transition to an advise and assist role, and consider establishing a partnership between the U.S. Army EOD Directorate and the Tajikistan Explosive Hazards Training Center.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support the World Health Organization to improve access to quality rehabilitation care and assistive devices.

South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

Nepal: USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support HI to improve the quality, accessibility, and sustainability of rehabilitation services through technical and financial support to five rehabilitation centers and their three satellite units.

Regional Profile: Western Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Western Hemisphere from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2017: more than $141.2 million

While the past 35 years have seen improving political and economic trends throughout Latin America, criminal violence, illegal narcotics, and arms trafficking continue to endanger many communities across the region. U.S. CWD efforts, including increased SA/LW and PSSM assistance, are crucial in helping the region stem armed violence and illicit weapons trafficking.

In 2016, the historic peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) led to collaboration on demining efforts, further reducing risks from landmine and UXO contamination. The Northern Triangle’s (Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador) interconnected black market and porous borders lead to the easy transfer of illicit SA/LW.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD efforts invested more than $141.2 million in regional support to Latin American countries. The funds chiefly focused on landmine clearance and curbing SA/LW trafficking. These activities are vital to promote stability, security, and prosperity in the Western Hemisphere.

PERCENT OF U.S. CWD FUNDING IN THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE BY COUNTRY

Date: 2018 Description: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in the Western Hemisphere by Country -- Argentina 0.41%; Belize 0.21%; Chile 2.44%; Colombia 59.70%; Dominican Republic 0.35%; Ecuador 6.24%; El Salvador 4.62%; Guatemala 0.42%; Haiti 2.48%; Honduras 0.79%; Nicaragua 3.03%; Paraguay 0.14%; Peru 18.73%; Suriname 0.28%; Uruguay 0.14%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 75. * Costa Rica received support through a regional multi-country program, no dollar amount specified. - State Dept Image

Colombia

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY01–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 7,039 8,500 21,000 59,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 0 742 3,338 5,759
USAID 2,000 3,085 808 18,493
COUNTRY TOTAL 9,039 12,327 25,146 84,301

Dollars in thousands

Date: 2018 Description: An NPA deminer uses a mine detector to clear landmines in Vista Hermosa, Meta Department, Colombia. © Photo courtesy of NPA

Due to more than 50 years of conflict between the government of Colombia and the FARC, Colombia’s largest guerrilla movement, widespread mine and UXO contamination continues to affect the country. Colombia has recorded more than 11,500 mine and UXO casualties since 1990. However, the annual number of mine and UXO causalities has continually decreased from 2007. In 2017, Colombia’s national mine action authority, Decontaminate Colombia (DAICMA), received reports of 56 victims of mines, IEDS, and UXO, compared to 84 in 2016. The most affected departments are Antioquia, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, Norte de Santander, and Tolima.

As a result of the dialogue between the Colombian government and the FARC, in February 2016 the United States announced the Global Demining Initiative for Colombia, jointly led by Norway, to rally the international community to help Colombia clear all of its mines. In September 2016, the effort culminated with the United States and Norway co-hosting a ministerial pledging conference at the United Nations General Assembly. With Colombian President Santos in attendance, the United States, Norway, the European Union, and 19 other nations pledged over $107 million to support Colombia’s mine action efforts. In November 2016, peace negotiations between the FARC and the Colombian government concluded and ratification of the final accord resulted in the clearance and subsequent handover of two hazardous areas.

From 2001 to 2017, the United States invested more than $84.3 million to support CWD in Colombia, including clearance, risk education, technical assistance, equipping the Colombian military’s Humanitarian Demining Brigade, and survivor assistance programs.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued demining in southeast Antioquia, and survey and clearance operations into Meta.
  • NPA continued work to clear Vista Hermosa in Meta Department.
  • The Organization of American States (OAS) continued to provide equipment and support to military humanitarian demining units, conducted quality assurance and quality control verifications over both civilian and military operations, and supported DAICMA with technical expertise.
  • FSD continued to provide technical expertise to DAICMA to further develop national capacity.
  • Colombian Campaign Against Landmines, Colombia’s first national demining nongovernmental organization, continued clearance work in Vista Hermosa.
  • Polus continued to assist victims from landmine incidents by providing prostheses and connecting them with the appropriate Colombian health services.
  • SOS continued to organize community sporting events as a mine risk education method to warn children of the risks associated with mines and UXO.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued evaluations of the HSTAMIDS and began testing the Bearcat vegetation clearance system.
  • USSOUTHCOM invested in building the Colombian military’s (COLMIL) capacity to conduct humanitarian demining operations. USSOUTHCOM’s support to COLMIL humanitarian demining units included the procurement of supplies and equipment; a Joint Strategic Command and Control Center to ensure COLMIL’s direct connection with the command posts of tactical units conducting humanitarian demining missions; guaranteeing a national-level coverage of all deployed humanitarian demining units; and funded travel of COLMIL officers and subject-matter experts to humanitarian demining workshops, including a visit to the Humanitarian Demining Training Center in Fort Lee, VA.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support World Vision to provide training for rehabilitation service personnel, economic and social empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

Date: 2018 Description: HALO formally releases cleared land in Colombia. © Photo courtesy of HALO.

El Salvador

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY95–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 350 0 1,388
CDC 0 0 0 2,840
USAID 0 0 0 2,300
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 350 0 6,528

Dollars in thousands

Weapons pilfered from legacy stockpiles stemming from the 1980–1992 civil war continue to be used today by criminals in El Salvador to commit homicides. Firearms were used in approximately 78 percent of the homicides in 2015.

From 1994 to 2017, the United States invested more than $6.5 million to support CWD in El Salvador, including SA/LW threat reduction.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • HALO destroyed excess munitions to prevent illicit proliferation and assisted in stockpile management.

Guatemala

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY10–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 350 0 600
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 350 0 600

Dollars in thousands

Guatemalan stockpiles contain excess weapons that have made their way into the illicit SA/LW trade. The National Civil Police of Guatemala regularly confiscates military-grade weapons from local gangs. Improperly stored items contributed to a 2005 unplanned munitions explosion that destroyed several depots at Mariscal Zavala.

From 2010 to 2017, the United States invested $600,000 to support CWD in Guatemala, including SA/LW threat reduction.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • HALO worked to destroy excess weapons in state-held stockpiles in addition to weapons provided by the government that they seized from armed groups.

Honduras

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY06–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 300 0 1,116
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 300 0 1,116

Dollars in thousands

SA/LW from Honduran government stockpiles have found their way into the illicit weapons trade. Improving the security and safety of existing stockpiles and destroying excess, at-risk stockpiles will strengthen regional stability, support existing democratic institutions, and reduce the hazards posed by such weapons.

From 2006 to 2017, the United States invested more than $1.1 million to support CWD in Honduras, including SA/LW threat reduction.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (using FY16 funds):

  • HALO, with the Government of Honduras, worked to destroy excess munitions. HALO also supported some of the Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement’s work to assist with physical improvements to vulnerable depots.

Peru

FUNDING FY15 FY16 FY17 FY99–17 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 2,600 0 13,506
DoD 0 0 0 11,944
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
COUNTRY TOTAL 0 2,600 0 26,450

Dollars in thousands

Peruvian stockpiles contain a significant amount of excess, obsolete weapons and ordnance stemming from the military build-up that resulted from the 1990s border dispute with Ecuador. In addition, the harsh weather conditions increase the risk of unplanned depot explosions, raising the importance of depot maintenance. Proper maintenance also reduces the risk of illicit proliferation.

From 1999 to 2017, the United States invested more than $26.4 million to support CWD in Peru, including SA/LW threat reduction, EOD training, and humanitarian mine action.

In 2017, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (using FY16 funds):

  • MAG provided weapons destruction training and programming to the Peruvian Army to develop their own EOD capabilities.
  • NPA assisted the Peruvian Air Force on a program to destroy cluster munitions. In 2017 PM/WRA granted a project extension to support the Peruvian Army with additional disposal of excess weapons and munitions.
  • The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean worked with the Peruvian military to upgrade their weapons storage facilities, and destroy excess and obsolete weapons currently in state-held stockpiles.

Western Hemisphere--Other U.S. Support

The United States provided $3.15 million for CWD activities in other Western Hemisphere countries:

Chile: With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, began evaluations of the HSTAMIDS and the Bearcat vegetation clearance system.

U.S. Department of State

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