General Information

A Message From Deputy Assistant Secretary Marik String

Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs

This 18th Edition of To Walk the Earth In Safety summarizes the United States’ Conventional Weapons Destruction (CWD) programs in 2018. CWD assistance provides the United States with a powerful and flexible tool to help partner countries manage their stockpiles of munitions, destroy excess small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) and clear explosive hazards such as landmines, improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our assistance also helps countries destroy illicitly-held or poorly-secured man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) and mitigate their threat to civilian aviation and public safety.

In today’s dynamic world, threats to U.S. national security abound. The work carried out by the Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA) through its CWD programs is essential to protecting civilians and advancing our nation’s interests. From my work as a Reserve Naval Officer and as a staff member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, I understand the need for a robust effort to secure weapons so they do not fall into the hands of nefarious actors.

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons remain a serious challenge to peace and prosperity in many countries. Poorly-secured munitions are illicitly diverted to terrorists and other destabilizing actors. Explosive hazards continue to kill and maim people long after conflicts have ended, preventing the safe return of displaced people and suppressing economic opportunities that are crucial to prosperity and political stability. As long as these dangers persist, it is difficult for communities to recover from conflict.

Since late 2015, the United States and our partners in the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS have cleared IEDs from critical infrastructure in Iraq and Syria including hospitals, schools, and water pumping stations, facilitating the flow of hundreds of millions of dollars in stabilization assistance and humanitarian aid into liberated areas. In this regard, explosive hazard clearance serves as an essential enabler for follow-on stabilization and humanitarian assistance. CWD programs such as this lay the foundation for long-term benefits. U.S. humanitarian demining assistance to Vietnam began in 1993 and helped set the stage for our current bilateral relationship. In the near term, across Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia, CWD programs focused on excess and poorly-secured weapons have helped keep those weapons out of the hands of criminals and terrorists.

Since 1993, the United States has provided more than $3.4 billion in CWD assistance to over 100 countries. In 2018, we had active CWD programs in 59 countries. These programs are implemented by commercial contractors, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations.

United States CWD programs are tied to key U.S. foreign policy priorities and play a direct role in keeping U.S. citizens and our allies safe, while also clearing the way for a stable, secure, and prosperous future in countries that are key to U.S. security interests. Thanks to the U.S. Congress’ bipartisan support and generosity of the American people, we can attest that our goal remains a future in which all may walk the earth in safety.

Marik String
Deputy Assistant Secretary
Political-Military Affairs

Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction (CWD) Program 1993-2018

Date: 2019 Description: Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program 1993-2018: Map of countries shows: U.S. supported activity in 2018; received U.S. support in the past; mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2018; mine-impact free with past U.S. support. - State Dept Image
alt="Date: 2019 Description: Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program 1993-2018: Map Legend: U.S. supported activity in 2018; received U.S. support in the past; mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2018; mine-impact free with past U.S. support. - State Dept Image"
Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding By Region: Africa 13.26%; East Asia and Pacific 15.12%; Europe 12.04%; Middle East and North Africa 22.31%; South and Central Asia 17.03%; Western Hemisphere 4.87%; Global 15.37%. Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding From All U.S. Agencies, 1993-2018: More Than $3.4 Billion. - State Dept Image

Commonly Used Acronyms and Abbreviations

CWD Conventional Weapons Destruction
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
FY Fiscal Year
HDTC Humanitarian Demining Training Center
HD R&D Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program
HSTAMIDS Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IED Improvised Explosive Device
IMAS International Mine Action Standards
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
MANPADS Man-portable Air Defense System
MRE Mine Risk Education
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO PfPTF NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund
NSPA NATO Support and Procurement Agency
OAS Organization of American States
OHDACA Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid Appropriation
OSCE Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
PM/WRA Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
PSSM Physical Security and Stockpile Management
QRF Quick Reaction Force
RECSA Regional Centre on Small Arms in the Great Lake Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States
SA/LW Small Arms and Light Weapons
UN United Nations
UNMAS United Nations Mine Action Service
U.S. United States
USAID United States Agency for International Development
USAFRICOM U.S. Africa Command
USARAF U.S. Army Africa
USCENTCOM U.S. Central Command
USEUCOM U.S. European Command
USMARFORAF U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa
USSOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command
USINDOPACOM U.S. Indo-Pacific Command
UXO Unexploded Ordnance
VEO Violent Extremist Organization
WAD Weapons and Ammunition Destruction

The United States' Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

Date: 2019 Description: Illicit proliferation of SA/LW in the Great Lakes region of Africa is being curbed by the efforts of the Regional Centre on Small Arms in the Great Lake Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States (RECSA). © Photo courtesy of RECSA

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons continue to pose a challenge to peace and prosperity worldwide. In the wrong hands, SA/LW fuel political instability and violence, while more advanced conventional weapons, such as MANPADS, pose a serious threat to international security. Aging munitions stockpiles may also explode without warning, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, continue to kill and maim people even after conflicts end. Clearing land paves the way for stabilization assistance to move forward, allowing displaced persons to return home, economic revitalization to begin, and political stability to take root.

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $3.4 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. This makes the United States the world’s single largest financial supporter of CWD. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, and international and nongovernmental organizations to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) best practices at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out humanitarian mine action programs.

In 2018, PM/WRA managed global overseas programs with $189 million* in CWD assistance. It also led the U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force, which coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Departments of State, Defense, Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure their MANPADS. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. USAID assists mine and UXO survivors, providing medical and rehabilitative care, through its Leahy War Victims Fund.

Department of State Support for CWD

Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed more than 70 percent (over $2.4 billion) of the United States’ more than $3.4 billion contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  1. Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors;
  2. Remediate ERW, returning land to safe and productive use; and
  3. Accelerate achievement of U.S. foreign policy objectives by broadening support for CWD efforts.

PM/WRA partners with nongovernmental organizations, international organizations, educational institutions, and private sector contractors to implement its programs. Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s resource allocation decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to CWD programs strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries. We look forward to continuing this important work.

*Initial planned allocations

Implementing Partners

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury or death from landmines and UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in MRE. http://crs.org.

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a California-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to the development of innovative technologies to overcome the operational limitations encountered in humanitarian mine action efforts. It conducts surveys and assessments, and develops MRE materials, as well as mine and UXO disposal technologies. http://goldenwesthf.org.

Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI has provided medical training for the past eight years in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. http://healthleadershipinternational.org.

The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its mine and UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese mine action agencies. http://ic-vvaf.org.

The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining nongovernmental organization, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). http://landmine-relief-fund.com.

Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 14 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. http://marshall-legacy.org.

PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based nongovernmental organization founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, landmine awareness programs, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. http://peacetreesvietnam.org.

The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit nongovernmental organization. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. http://poluscenter.org.

World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support survivor assistance and MRE. http://worlded.org.


International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) is an Afghan non-government organization that is concerned with the rehabilitation and socio-economic integration of disabled people and other vulnerable groups into the community. In its inception in 1992, AABRAR began a bicycle-training program for amputees to improve mobility and increase their independence, enabling them to travel to and from work, and save on transportations costs. Since then, AABRAR has expanded its activities.

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining nongovernmental organization in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and MRE activities. http://atc-wlfhdngo.org.af.

Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization providing its Community Based Mine Clearance Program (CBMCP) throughout the most insecure areas of Afghanistan. CBMCP transfers skills so that local communities can conduct their own mine and UXO clearance. AREA seeks to integrate demining and development through employment and procurement within the local economy. asryusufi@hotmail.com.

Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM) monitors fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention on behalf of the Colombian government, compiles reports each year for the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, and supports survivor assistance and MRE. http://colomniasinminas.org.

DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, which provides humanitarian assistance and mine action programs which combine MRE, mine clearance, and community development activities. http://dca.dk.

Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a nonprofit organization that works worldwide to help and protect refugees, internally displaced, and other conflict-affected persons. http://drc.ngo.

Danish Demining Group (DDG) is a humanitarian mine action unit in the Danish Refugee Council, which assists individuals and populations hampered by mines, UXO, and SA/LW. https://drc.ngo.

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010. DASH’s goal is to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of household. http://slnmac.gov.lk/dash.

Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration. sattar_dafa@yahoo.ca or dafafinance@yahoo.com.

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. http://gichd.org.

The HALO Trust (HALO) is an American and British nonprofit charity specializing in the removal of mines and UXO from post-conflict zones. Since pioneering the concept of humanitarian landmine clearance in Afghanistan in 1988, HALO has been clearing explosive remnants of war and helping millions of families return home. http://halotrust.org.

Humanity and Inclusion (HI), Humanity and Inclusion (HI), formerly Handicap International, works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing risk education programs, and rendering assistance to those who have been injured. https://www.hi-us.org/.

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit nongovernmental organization that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. http://immap.org.

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. Since then, ITF has continued to expand its scope of activities and the geographic area of its implementation in order to reduce threats from mines, UXO, and at-risk weapons and ammunition. http://itf-fund.si.

Date: 2019 Description: A MAG deminer conducts manual demining in Iraq. © Photo courtesy of MAG

MAG (Mines Advisory Group) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide MRE, and offer capacity-building support. http://maginternational.org.

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major humanitarian mine action donor states. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. http://www.mineaction.org/funding/masg.

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan nongovernmental organization founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and mine detection dog clearance, EOD, MRE, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. hajiattqullah@gmail.com.

The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan of mine and UXO impact so individuals and communities can have a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. http://mdc-afghan.org.

The Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC) in Bosnia and Herzegovina trains dogs for landmine, explosives, narcotic detection, and search and rescue. It also trains dog handlers. More than 300 dogs for various purposes were trained at MDDC so far and deployed in dozens of countries. http://mddc.ba/new.

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom, is one of Norway’s primary nongovernmental organizations. For more than 20 years NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 states and territories. http://npaid.org.

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, battle area clearance, EOD, and working with mine detection dogs. http://www.landmineclearance.org/.

Spirit of Soccer (SOS), founded in 1996, is a UK and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions. SOS has created risk education courses in more than 10 current or post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, and Moldova. http://spiritofsoccer.org.

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), established in 1997, is an international nongovernmental organization based in Geneva that has implemented mine clearance projects in 29 countries. FSD focuses on locating and destroying mines and UXO on the ground and underwater. It also engages in collecting and destroying arms and ammunition and managing stockpiles. http://fsd.ch.


Government and International Organizations

Date: 2019 Description: PeaceTrees uses a Large Loop detector in Vietnam. © Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees Vietnam.

The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO PfPTF in Ukraine. NSPA has worked on PSSM and CWD programs in a number of countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Mauritania, and Serbia. http://www.nspa.nato.int.

The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. http://oas.org.

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. http://osce.org.

Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 African member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. http://recsasec.org.

Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects.muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by developing national and local capacities. http://undp.org.

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the General Assembly, is located in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions and is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 11 UN organizations involved in mine action to develop or revise policies and strategies, set priorities among UN players, and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. http://www.mineaction.org/unmas.

United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC), established in 1986 by the General Assembly, is headquartered in Lima, Peru, and specializes in disarmament and non-proliferation in the Latin American and Caribbean region.


Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), established in 1996 at James Madison University (JMU), provides programs and information to post-conflict communities and practitioners in the CWD field. CISR works around the world to promote post-conflict recovery, rebuilding, and resilience. It also publishes the Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction. http://jmu.edu/cisr.

Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. http://smallarmssurvey.org.


Contractors

Janus Global Operations (Janus) is an employee-owned munitions management and demining company supporting government, military, and commercial organizations operating in war-affected countries. Janus provides risk management, logistics, construction, and maintenance services in support of countries emerging from conflict. http://www.janusgo.com.

Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (TtEC) is a California-based company providing consulting, engineering, remediation, and construction services worldwide. TtEC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech Inc., a publicly traded company. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. http://www.tteci.com.

Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding

From 1993 through 2018, the United States contributed more than $3.4 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The United States remains the world’s leading donor for humanitarian mine action programs, including landmine clearance, survivor assistance services, and MRE. Many of our ongoing programs combine humanitarian demining, UXO removal, and SA/LW and ammunition destruction, and improve the safety and storage of conventional munitions stockpiles. This 18th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety covers programmatic activities that occurred January 1 through December 31, 2018.

The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2017 (October 1, 2016 – September 30, 2017) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2018 (October 1, 2017 – September 30, 2018) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 19th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2018 that reflect the final allocations.

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Top 10 Countries Funded FY1993-2018 (Aggregate) (Dollars in thousands) Iraq $498,225; Afghanistan $495,383; Laos $200,856; Cambodia $140,388; Vietnam $132,037; Angola $131,338; Bosnia and Herzegovina $115,204; Colombia $111,460; Syria $81,060; Lebanon $71,143. - State Dept Image

Legend for charts:

DOS NADR-CWD Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs
DOS Other Department of State – Other funding
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DoD Department of Defense
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

U.S. CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION PROGRAM FUNDING HISTORY

(Dollars in Thousands)

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Afghanistan DOS NADR – CWD

183,759

40,475

40,550

30,785

22,450

22,700

32,066

20,500

20,000

413,285

DOS Other

20,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20,000

CDC

1,800

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,800

DoD

5,780

0

1,000

355

162

744

451

134

225

8,851

USAID

51,447

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

51,477

Country Total

262,786

40,475

41,550

31,140

22,612

23,444

32,517

20,634

20,225

495,383

Albania DOS NADR – CWD

24,777

3,500

4,034

2,324

2,135

1,777

1,500

1,200

1,000

42,247

DoD

11

11

0

10

185

147

100

33

80

577

USAID

1,389

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,389

Country Total

26,117

3,511

4,034

2,334

2,320

1,924

1,600

1,233

1,080

44,213

Angola DOS NADR – CWD

64,029

7,500

8,675

6,000

6,000

5,600

4,700

4,000

4,000

110,504

DOS Other

3,170

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,170

CDC

150

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

150

DoD

5,714

0

850

1,345

179

152

551

193

179

9,163

USAID

8,351

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8,351

Country Total

81,414

7,500

9,525

7,345

6,179

5,752

5,251

4,193

4,179

131,338

Argentina DoD

579

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

579

Country Total

579

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

579

Armenia DOS NADR – CWD

2,600

0

391

700

301

300

0

0

0

4,292

DOS Other

3,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,000

DoD

2,818

8

9

169

187

40

10

226

237

3,704

USAID

1,148

1,000

0

0

0

997

0

0

0

3,145

Country Total

9,566

1,008

400

869

488

1,337

10

226

237

14,141

Azerbaijan DOS NADR – CWD

20,730

365

365

325

325

532

0

0

0

22,642

DOS Other

1,100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,100

DoD

6,975

0

0

0

0

0

140

41

62

7,218

Country Total

28,805

365

365

325

325

532

140

41

62

30,960

Bahrain DoD

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

Country Total

10

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

Belize DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

300

0

0

0

0

0

0

300

Country Total

0

0

300

0

0

0

0

0

0

300

Benin DoD

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

Country Total

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

Bosnia &
Herzegovina
DOS NADR – CWD

55,327

3,685

4,300

4,445

4,400

3,974

4,500

2,750

2,000

85,381

DOS Other

1,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,000

CDC

3,210

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,210

DoD

4,263

0

0

241

156

0

78

249

126

5,113

USAID

20,500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

20,500

Country Total

84,300

3,685

4,300

4,686

4,556

3,974

4,578

2,999

2,126

115,204

Bulgaria DOS NADR – CWD

3,544

3,100

1,585

2,250

0

0

0

0

0

10,479

DoD

0

0

0

0

31

0

0

8

12

51

Country Total

3,544

3,100

1,585

2,250

31

0

0

8

12

10,530

Burkina Faso DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

0

0

941

600

0

0

1,541

Country Total

0

0

0

0

0

941

600

0

0

1,541

Burma
(Myanmar)
DOS NADR – CWD

0

6

829

0

0

2,000

0

0

0

2,835

DOS-OTHER

0

0

0

0

850

0

0

0

0

850

USAID

0

0

0

1,350

1,500

0

500

500

500

4,350

Country Total

0

6

829

1,350

2,350

2,000

500

500

500

8,035

Burundi DOS NADR – CWD

1,419

516

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,935

DoD

74

155

201

322

566

118

0

0

0

1,436

Country Total

1,493

671

201

322

566

118

0

0

0

3,371

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Cambodia DOS NADR – CWD

45,556

5,250

5,494

5,800

6,216

8,307

8,522

6,352

3,100

94,597

DOS Other

4,943

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,943

CDC

100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

100

DoD

10,630

0

4,235

1,411

1,722

2,379

1,717

1,969

1,601

25,664

USAID

13,048

0

0

600

633

500

303

0

0

15,084

Country Total

74,277

5,250

9,729

7,811

8,571

11,186

10,542

8,321

4,701

140,388

Central African Republic DOS NADR – CWD

37

0

0

0

187

0

0

0

0

224

Country Total

37

0

0

0

187

0

0

0

0

224

Chad DOS NADR – CWD

6,899

0

0

0

0

1,657

750

1,000

1,000

11,306

DoD

3,687

190

414

384

325

0

50

54

86

5,190

Country Total

10,586

190

414

384

325

1,657

800

1,054

1,086

16,496

Chile DoD

2,612

0

450

0

385

3

0

0

0

3,450

Country Total

2,612

0

450

0

385

3

0

0

0

3,450

Colombia DOS NADR – CWD

6,495

2,500

3,500

4,100

6,465

7,039

8,500

21,000

21,000

80,599

CDC

450

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

450

DoD

1,525

0

154

0

0

0

742

3,338

3,285

9,044

USAID

5,600

3,200

600

1,900

1,300

2,000

3,085

808

2,874

21,367

Country Total

14,070

5,700

4,254

6,000

7,765

9,039

12,327

25,146

27,159

111,460

Congo, DR DOS NADR – CWD

5,082

1,016

750

1,265

2,500

500

3,221

3,000

4,000

21,334

DoD

65

305

233

0

373

107

0

0

0

1,083

USAID

1,300

0

0

0

1,300

2,000

1,722

1,275

0

7,597

Country Total

6,447

1,321

983

1,265

4,173

2,607

4,943

4,275

4,000

30,014

Congo, 
Republic of the
DOS NADR – CWD

1,320

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,320

DoD

0

0

267

371

690

191

0

0

0

1,519

Country Total

1,320

0

267

371

690

191

0

0

0

2,839

Croatia [1] DOS NADR – CWD

27,802

5,037

1,100

999

900

850

2,040

0

0

38,728

DoD

0

0

0

713

0

0

0

28

55

796

Country Total

27,802

5,037

1,100

1,712

900

850

2,040

28

55

39,524

Cyprus DOS NADR – CWD

10

0

0

0

0

250

0

0

0

260

DoD

0

0

0

76

19

18

20

196

32

361

Country Total

10

0

0

76

19

268

20

196

32

621

Czech
Republic
DOS NADR – CWD

600

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

600

Country Total

600

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

600

Djibouti DOS NADR – CWD

1,900

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,900

DoD

1,172

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,172

Country Total

3,072

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,072

Dominican Republic USAID

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

Country Total

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

Ecuador DOS NADR – CWD

4,325

500

0

200

0

0

0

0

0

5,025

DoD

3,273

0

518

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,791

Country Total

7,598

500

518

200

0

0

0

0

0

8,816

Egypt DoD

718

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

718

Country Total

718

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

718

El Salvador [2] DOS NADR – CWD

50

0

988

0

0

0

350

300

0

1,688

CDC

2,840

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,840

USAID

1,500

0

500

300

0

0

0

0

0

2,300

Country Total

4,390

0

1,488

300

0

0

350

300

0

6,828

Eritrea DOS NADR – CWD

11,623

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11,623

DOS Other

1,560

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,560

CDC

450

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

450

DoD

4,485

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,485

Country Total

18,118

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18,118

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Estonia DOS NADR – CWD

2,499

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,499

DoD

1,706

160

0

195

87

54

0

7

236

2,445

Country Total

4,205

160

0

195

87

54

0

7

236

4,944

Eswatini
(formerly
Swaziland)
DOS NADR – CWD

439

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

439

DoD

836

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

836

Country Total

1,275

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

00

1,275

Ethiopia DOS NADR – CWD

3,545

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,545

DOS Other

1,500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,500

CDC

2,846

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,846

DoD

3,984

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,984

USAID

3,555

327

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,882

Country Total

15,430

327

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15,757

Georgia DOS NADR – CWD

23,715

1,158

1,232

1,500

500

500

0

500

0

29,105

DOS Other

2,644

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,644

DoD

1,114

0

0

0

167

209

20

55

55

1,620

USAID

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,998

1,000

2,998

Country Total

27,473

1,158

1,232

1,500

667

709

20

2,553

1,055

36,367

Guatemala [2] DOS NADR – CWD

250

0

0

0

0

0

350

300

0

900

Country Total

250

0

0

0

0

0

350

300

0

900

Guinea DOS NADR – CWD

103

0

0

0

0

0

500

500

0

1,103

Country Total

103

0

0

0

0

0

500

500

0

1,103

Guinea-Bissau DOS NADR – CWD

4,967

1,070

0

0

0

0

0

500

0

7,337

DoD

1,444

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,444

Country Total

6,411

1,070

0

0

0

0

800

500

0

8,781

Haiti USAID

1,000

1,500

0

0

1,000

0

0

0

0

3,500

Country Total

1,000

1,500

0

0

1,000

0

0

0

0

3,500

Honduras [2] DOS NADR – CWD

316

0

0

500

0

0

300

348

0

1,464

Country Total

316

0

0

500

0

0

300

348

0

1,464

Hungary DOS NADR – CWD

350

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

350

Country Total

350

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

350

India USAID

0

0

300

0

0

0

0

0

0

300

Country Total

0

0

300

0

0

0

0

0

0

300

Iraq DOS NADR – CWD

82,349

22,000

25,000

23,805

23,177

37,835

30,945

106,350

40,000

391,461

DOS Other

992

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

992

CDC

450

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

450

DoD

103,937

0

300

160

573

0

58

209

85

105,322

Country Total

187,728

22,000

25,300

23,965

23,750

37,835

31,003

106,559

40,085

498,225

Jordan DOS NADR – CWD

14,071

2,015

3,850

1,200

0

500

400

400

400

22,836

DOS Other

300

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

300

CDC

2,968

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,968

DoD

2,418

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,418

Country Total

19,757

2,015

3,850

1,200

0

500

400

400

400

28,522

Kazakhstan DOS NADR – CWD

295

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

295

Country Total

295

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

295

Kenya DOS NADR – CWD

1,407

75

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,482

DoD

81

175

236

70

162

151

280

0

0

1,155

USAID

400

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

400

Country Total

1,888

250

236

70

162

151

280

0

0

3,037

Kosovo DOS NADR – CWD

6,640

450

260

100

0

550

475

1,250

0

9,725

DoD

4,300

0

0

0

165

120

204

71

86

4,946

USAID

17,472

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17,472

Country Total

28,412

450

260

100

165

670

679

1,321

86

32,143

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Kyrgyz Republic DOS NADR – CWD

0

500

0

300

0

400

285

750

0

2,235

DoD

7

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7

Country Total

7

500

0

300

0

400

285

750

0

2,242

Laos DOS NADR – CWD

30,911

5,000

9,233

9,000

12,840

26,880

20,500

30,000

30,000

174,364

DOS Other

750

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

750

DoD

6,867

0

33

0

0

0

111

10

0

7,021

USAID

9,300

0

0

0

500

2,000

2,166

3,005

1,750

18,721

Country Total

47,828

5,000

9,266

9,000

13,340

28,880

22,777

33,015

31,750

200,856

Lebanon DOS NADR – CWD

23,926

2,225

2,524

3,000

2,500

3,324

4,500

4,000

4,000

49,999

DOS Other

2,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,000

DoD

8,430

0

590

80

50

44

39

39

22

9,294

USAID

9,050

800

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

9,850

Country Total

43,406

3,025

3,114

3,080

2,550

3,368

4,539

4,039

4,022

71,143

Lesotho DOS NADR – CWD

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

Country Total

15

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

Liberia DOS NADR – CWD

360

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

360

CDC

150

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

150

USAID

4,429

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,429

Country Total

4,939

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,939

Libya DOS NADR – CWD

0

3,000

0

0

1,000

1,500

2,500

16,000

1,000

25,000

DOS Other

0

0

17,800

1,775

0

0

0

0

0

19,575

Country Total

0

3,000

17,800

1,775

1,000

1,500

2,500

16,000

1,000

44,575

Lithuania DOS NADR – CWD

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

Country Total

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

Mali DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

0

0

1,200

500

1,000

1,000

3,700

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

0

170

182

110

462

Country Total

0

0

0

0

0

1,200

670

1,182

1,110

4,162

Marshall Islands DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

267

361

285

295

460

113

1,781

Country Total

0

0

0

267

361

285

295

460

113

1,781

Mauritania DOS NADR – CWD

2,395

0

0

0

0

300

500

0

1,000

4,195

DoD

4,410

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,410

Country Total

6,805

0

0

0

0

300

500

0

1,000

8,605

Mexico DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

275

0

275

Country Total

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

275

0

275

Moldova DoD

71

0

0

154

282

132

35

78

78

830

Country Total

71

0

0

154

282

132

35

78

78

830

Montenegro [3] DOS NADR – CWD

4,399

1,750

1,300

0

0

0

1,750

0

0

9,199

DoD

0

0

11

294

422

428

562

30

141

1,888

Country Total

4,399

1,750

1,311

294

422

428

2,312

30

141

11,087

Morocco DoD

0

0

0

0

0

0

90

0

368

458

Country Total

0

0

0

0

0

0

90

0

368

458

Mozambique DOS NADR – CWD

24,747

2,175

2,635

3,000

1,525

700

0

0

0

34,782

DOS Other

1,600

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,600

CDC

2,100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,100

DoD

11,501

326

639

599

122

189

0

0

0

13,376

USAID

4,533

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,533

Country Total

44,481

2,501

3,274

3,599

1,647

889

0

0

0

56,391

Namibia DOS NADR – CWD

3,351

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3,351

DOS Other

670

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

670

DoD

4,478

165

309

151

45

110

80

0

42

5,380

Country Total

8,499

165

309

151

45

110

80

0

42

9,401

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Nepal DOD

0

0

0

0

165

36

36

0

0

237

USAID

1,000

0

1,000

0

0

131

1,580

420

406

4,537

Country Total

1,000

0

1,000

0

165

167

1,616

420

406

4,774

Nicaragua DOS NADR – CWD

4,081

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,081

DoD

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

Country Total

4,281

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,281

North
Macedonia
DOS NADR – CWD

1,998

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,998

Country Total

1,998

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,998

Niger DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

0

0

693

500

1,250

1,000

3,443

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

325

328

Country Total

0

0

0

0

0

693

500

1,253

1,325

3,771

Nigeria DOS NADR – CWD

1,449

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,449

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

0

315

321

55

691

Country Total

1,449

0

0

0

0

0

315

321

55

2,140

Oman DOS NADR – CWD

1,785

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,785

DoD

2,553

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,553

Country Total

4,338

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,338

Pakistan DOS NADR – CWD

832

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

832

Country Total

832

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

832

Palau DOS NADR – CWD

85

0

150

390

690

505

505

600

655

3,580

Country Total

85

0

150

390

690

505

505

600

655

3,580

Palestinian
Territories 

(West Bank)
DOS NADR – CWD

0

209

782

917

1,180

1,000

1,000

1,000

1,000

7,088

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

20

0

44

85

149

Country Total

0

209

782

917

1,180

1,020

1,000

1,044

1,085

7,237

Paraguay DOS NADR – CWD

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

Country Total

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

Peru DOS NADR – CWD

7,906

2,000

1,000

0

0

0

2,600

500

0

14,006

DoD

11,944

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11,944

USAID

0

0

0

1,000

0

0

0

0

0

1,000

Country Total

19,850

2,000

1,000

1,000

0

0

2,600

500

0

29,950

Philippines DOS NADR – CWD

920

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

920

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

173

45

335

0

553

USAID

1,550

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,550

Country Total

2,470

0

0

0

0

173

45

335

0

3,023

Romania DOS NADR – CWD

2,369

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,369

DoD

0

150

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

150

Country Total

2,369

150

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,519

Rwanda DOS NADR – CWD

4,203

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,203

DOS Other

700

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

700

DoD

7,790

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7,790

Country Total

12,693

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12,693

Sao Tome/
Príncipe
DOS NADR – CWD

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

50

Country Total

50

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

50

Senegal DOS NADR – CWD

2,505

0

0

0

0

400

400

450

0

3,755

DOS Other

0

0

0

260

0

0

0

0

0

260

DoD

252

0

0

0

367

1,147

100

10

90

1,966

USAID

500

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

500

Country Total

3,257

0

0

260

367

1,547

500

460

90

6,481

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Serbia [3] DOS NADR – CWD

11,233

1,552

1,000

2,000

900

195

2,100

1,250

1,000

21,230

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

3

200

107

0

310

Country Total

11,233

1,552

1,000

2,000

900

198

2,300

1,357

1,000

21,540

Serbia & Montenegro [3] DOS NADR – CWD

5,646

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5,646

Country Total

5,646

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5,646

Sierra Leone DOS NADR – CWD

147

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

147

USAID

1,593

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,593

Country Total

1,740

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,740

Slovenia DoD

0

0

270

0

0

0

0

0

0

270

Country Total

0

0

270

0

0

0

0

0

0

270

Solomon Islands DOS NADR – CWD

0

400

567

560

473

446

350

567

550

3,913

DoD

0

0

325

35

429

306

569

200

234

2,098

Country Total

0

400

892

595

902

752

919

767

784

6,011

Somalia DOS NADR – CWD

10,220

2,325

2,500

3,300

2,000

1,800

2,000

2,740

2,000

28,885

Country Total

10,220

2,325

2,500

3,300

2,000

1,800

2,000

2,740

2,000

28,885

South Sudan [4] DOS NADR – CWD

0

1,100

2,800

2,500

2,135

2,000

300

300

2,000

13,135

DoD

0

0

367

459

0

0

0

0

0

826

Country Total

0

1,100

3,167

2,959

2,135

2,000

300

300

2,000

13,961

Sri Lanka DOS NADR – CWD

20,862

2,500

4,804

3,300

4,625

4,250

2,500

5,000

3,500

51,341

DOS Other

122

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

122

CDC

175

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

175

DoD

625

0

262

522

715

507

601

697

310

4,239

USAID

5,400

2,000

0

500

0

0

0

0

0

7,900

Country Total

27,184

4,500

5,066

4,322

5,340

4,757

3,101

5,697

3,810

63,777

Sudan [4] DOS NADR – CWD

0

2,800

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,800

Country Total

0

2,800

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,800

Sudan and South Sudan [4] DOS NADR – CWD

24,427

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

24,427

Country Total

24,427

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

24,427

Suriname DOS NADR – CWD

390

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

390

Country Total

390

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

390

Syria DOS NADR – CWD

0

0

0

550

0

8,000

9,510

63,000

0

81,060

Country Total

0

0

0

550

0

8,000

9,510

63,000

0

81,060

Tajikistan DOS NADR – CWD

2,874

1,000

1,691

2,028

3,190

2,275

1,975

2,450

1,500

18,983

DoD

1,232

0

1,200

0

101

67

147

0

98

2,845

USAID

0

0

1,500

0

0

0

534

440

406

2,880

Country Total

4,106

1,000

4,391

2,028

3,291

2,342

2,656

2,890

2,004

24,708

Tanzania DOS NADR – CWD

0

16

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

16

DoD

0

185

244

274

44

123

50

0

0

920

USAID

1,700

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,700

Country Total

1,700

201

244

274

44

123

50

0

0

2,636

Thailand DOS NADR – CWD

4,190

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,190

DoD

6,089

0

1,500

1,200

1,805

561

1,762

518

608

14,043

Country Total

10,729

0

1,500

1,200

1,805

561

1,762

518

608

18,233

Togo DOS NADR – CWD

32

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

32

Country Total

32

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

32

Tunisia DoD

217

0

0

0

0

536

630

0

0

1,383

Country Total

217

0

0

0

0

536

630

0

0

1,383

Uganda DOS NADR – CWD

40

16

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

56

DoD

0

0

0

0

0

0

207

0

0

207

USAID

1,000

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,000

Country Total

1,040

16

0

0

0

0

207

0

0

1,263

Country Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

Ukraine DOS NADR – CWD

9,032

4,500

1,500

2,000

7,095

1,940

2,000

6,000

6,000

40,067

DoD

177

0

0

0

0

303

108

656

656

1,900

USAID

0

0

0

0

0

1,031

920

1,048

958

3,957

Country Total

9,209

4,500

1,500

2,000

7,095

3,274

3,028

7,704

7,614

45,924

Uruguay DOS NADR – CWD

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

Country Total

200

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

200

Uzbekistan DoD

99

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

99

Country Total

99

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

99

Vietnam DOS NADR – CWD

27,980

3,584

4,032

4,500

10,506

12,548

10,709

12,621

12,500

98,980

CDC

1,848

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,848

DoD

1,038

0

300

471

256

340

722

1,168

115

4,410

USAID

24,899

1,900

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

26,799

Country Total

55,765

5,484

4,332

4,971

10,762

12,888

11,431

13,789

12,615

132,037

Yemen DOS NADR – CWD

12,145

1,075

3,135

2,000

700

2,000

3,500

9,000

2,000

35,555

DoD

4,846

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4,846

Country Total

16,991

1,075

3,135

2,000

700

2,000

3,500

9,000

2,000

40,401

Zambia DOS NADR – CWD

2,050

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,050

DoD

437

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

437

Country Total

2,487

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2,487

Zimbabwe DOS NADR – CWD

3,086

0

250

500

2,750

3,000

1,000

2,000

1,000

13,586

DoD

3,265

0

0

0

0

173

78

153

337

4,006

Country Total

6,351

0

250

500

2,750

3,173

1,078

2,153

1,337

17,592

Global/
Multi-Country
DOS NADR – CWD

132,525

4,460

5,999

16,007

20,662

6,326

8,234

10,037

20,682

224,932

DOS Other

1,450

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1,450

CDC

18,653

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18,653

DoD

200,967

682

1,106

0

0

1,313

861

576

42

205,547

USAID

87,320

7,773

3,300

4,850

7,000

2,841

687

3,502

4,262

121,535

Global Total

440,915

12,915

10,405

20,857

27,662

10,480

9,782

14,115

24,986

572,117

Grand Total

1,814,616

163,917

189,858

165,283

175,708

200,223

203,968

366,434

211,314

3,491,320

*initial planned allocations


U.S. CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION PROGRAM FUNDING HISTORY

(Totals by Source)

Sources

FY93-10

FY11

FY12

FY13

FY14

FY15

FY16

FY17

*FY18

Total

DOS NADR – CWD

998,221

142,405

149,105

142,417

150,688

177,779

180,532

341,500

189,000

2,471,647

DOS Other [5]

47,501

0

17,800

2,035

850

0

0

0

0

68,186

CDC

38,190

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

38,190

DoD [6]

451,720

2,512

15,753

10,331

10,937

10,944

11,939

11,938

10,158

536,232

USAID [7]

278,984

19,000

7,200

10,500

13,233

11,500

11,497

12,996

12,156

377,066

Grand Total

1,814,616

163,917

189,858

165,283

175,708

200,223

203,968

366,434

211,314

3,491,320

*initial planned allocations

Footnotes:

  1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
  2. Funding not from FY2016 appropriation.
  3. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007
  4. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
  5. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
  6. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction fund. All U.S. Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
  7. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.

U.S. Government Interagency Partners

United States Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

Date: 2019 Description: UCP Wheels Active Rehabilitation Camp in Ukraine. © Photo courtesy of USAID

The Leahy War Victims Fund, managed by USAID, is an important source of U.S. assistance to civilian victims of conflict in developing countries. Established in 1989, the Leahy War Victims Fund provides financial and technical support for people with disabilities, particularly those with mobility-related injuries from landmines, UXO, and other injuries resulting from armed conflict and civil strife. To date, the Fund has provided approximately $287 million in assistance to more than 50 countries.

The Leahy War Victims Fund was originally tasked with the delivery of immediate care to civilians impacted by mines and ERW, including the provision of prosthetics, orthotics and rehabilitation services. Its scope has widened to accommodate the changing needs of the populations it serves and promotes sustainable rehabilitation services. The Fund also supports the development of international standards, as well as training on those standards to ensure that rehabilitation practitioners and institutions have sufficient capacity.

A good example of programming supported by the Leahy War Victims Fund in 2018 is the $2.9 million TEAM Ukraine activity implemented by UCP Wheels for Humanity (UCPW). From September 1, 2015 to June 30, 2019, UCPW is partnering with the Ukrainian Association of Physical Therapists, the National Assembly of People with Disabilities, and several local hospitals to promote comprehensive rehabilitation services in Ukraine, increase socioeconomic opportunities for persons with disabilities and their families, and improve access to assistive devices. The activity prioritizes attention to civilians affected by conflict. To date, the activity has helped provide services to some 5,200 individuals, train over 200 professionals, and strengthen the capacity of over 500 local organizations. The activity also works closely with the government of Ukraine to reform the rehabilitation sector, considering issues such as implementation of the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health; implementation of early intervention services; establishment of physical and occupational therapy professions; and improved inter-ministerial cooperation on the subject.

Spending a total of approximately $12 million in 2018, the Leahy War Victims Fund launched two new activities in 2018. In Burma, Development Alternatives International is implementing the Community Strengthening Project to assist people in areas affected by or prone to conflict to access essential services, including rehabilitation services. On a global level, the World Health Organization is implementing the initiative Addressing Unmet Needs for Rehabilitation. It is designed to increase technical capacity in countries to deliver quality rehabilitation services in the context of general health systems. Pilot countries include Burma, Colombia, Georgia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Another global initiative spanning multiple countries includes the International Committee of the Red Cross MoveAbility Foundation with an emphasis on Africa to support the development of international standards and increase workforce capacity related to rehabilitation, prosthetics and orthotics, and increased access to appropriate assistive products. Finally, the Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support additional activities in Colombia, Haiti, and Laos, in addition to those noted above.

http://usaid.gov

U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC)

Date: 2019 Description: USAFRICOM provided training in six African countries in 2018, including train-the-trainer tutelage being conducted by this partner-country military instructor. © Photo courtesy of USAFRICOM

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC), headquartered at Fort Lee, Virginia, is managed and funded by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. HDTC trains and prepares U.S. military forces, U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to build partner-nation capacity in land-based and underwater UXO disposal and PSSM. In addition to HDTC’s training function, the center provides program management support to the U.S. military’s geographic combatant command mine action programs in USAFRICOM, USCENTCOM, USEUCOM, USINDOPACOM, and USSOUTHCOM. HDTC’s responsibilities include validating humanitarian mine action project plans and budgets, and monitoring and evaluating global Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA)- funded humanitarian mine action activities.

HDTC has courses on landmine clearance, battle area clearance, PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions, and underwater UXO disposal. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, and international guidelines governing PSSM and UXO disposal. The center uses a threephase approach to provide program management support to the geographic combatant commands. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, HDTC deploys program analysts to assess the state of a partner nation’s demining program. The assessment, or requirements determination site survey (RDSS), identifies partner nation capability gaps in order to develop humanitarian mine action goals, objectives, and resource requirements to effectively and efficiently support the partner nation in achieving its demining objectives. The RDSS provides a viable plan with established objectives and outcomes and is used to request OHDACA-funded resources. The Director of HDTC, in consultation with the Defense Security Cooperation Agency Office of the General Counsel and humanitarian mine action program managers, the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability and Humanitarian Affairs, and PM/WRA, approve mine action projects.

HDTC also conducts capacity-building training or technical assistance activities in support of combatant command mine action projects. HDTC personnel provide a suite of tools and expertise to perform PSSM, landmine clearance and EOD, and underwater UXO disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The beneficiaries of capacity building are junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, or civil servants who conduct mine action operations as part of their duties. In order to sustain the capabilities of partner nation humanitarian mine action programs, HDTC, in coordination with PM/WRA, executes mine action projects designed to enhance the skills of mine action managers and, to a degree, ministerial or executive level personnel. These projects include seminars and workshops on legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic level. In FY2018, HDTC spent $3.173 million dollars to execute its global mission.

http://www.lee.army.mil/hdtc

U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D)

Date: 2019 Description: Field testing of the Rex, a versatile, lightweight armored excavator, working in Angola. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Initiated in 1994, the Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) program develops the latest technology solutions to the most challenging landmine and UXO detection and clearance efforts. The HD R&D program is overseen by the Department of Defense Deputy Assistant Secretary for Stability and Humanitarian Affairs. The program coordinates with interagency partners including the Humanitarian Mine Action staffs within the U.S. DoD Geographical Combatant Commands, and the U.S. Department of State’s PM/WRA. The HD R&D program provides demining technologies to international demining partners for evaluation during use in live mine and UXO clearance operations. The program’s low-cost and highly effective technologies bolster mine action capacity and reduce the landmine and UXO threat to the local population. Feedback from these deployments in the form of test data and performance analysis is used by the HD R&D program to continuously improve demining technologies.

New technology requirements and areas of emphasis are identified and validated by stakeholders. In 2018 the HD R&D program conducted a UXO Working Group meeting in Thailand to identify technology gaps in detection and clearance technologies. Over 60 participants representing 19 organizations from 10 countries provided the HD R&D program the information it needed to prepare its near term FY19–20 program plan. The program aims to improve existing technologies for mine and UXO detection, hazardous area confirmation, mechanical-mine and UXO clearance, vegetation clearance, mechanical-mine neutralization, and post-clearance quality control.

In 2018, HD R&D performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Iraq, Kosovo, Laos, Lebanon, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, the West Bank and Zimbabwe. Since 1995, HD R&D technologies have cleared 61.5 million square meters and removed or destroyed approximately 201,800 mines and UXO. The program has fielded technologies in support of 223 operational field evaluations in 40 countries.

http://humanitarian-demining.org

Implementation Tools and Fora

Senior Managers' Course in Conventional Weapons Destruction

Date: 2019 Description: SMC participants watch a field demonstration in Tajikistan during the 2018 Regional SMC for South and Central Asia. © Photo courtesy of CISR

The Senior Managers’ Course (SMC), organized by the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) at James Madison University (JMU), brings together senior-level managers from mine action and other CWD programs for training that integrates the latest thinking in the field of business management with the practical experience of ERW and mine action operators. Funded by PM/WRA, the SMC hones the expertise of senior managers of national mine action programs and local implementing partners so that countries can more effectively and efficiently clear landmines and ERW. During three weeks of instruction and field visits participants refine their management and strategic planning skills; share expertise and exchange best practices in CWD; and develop a professional network for collaboration with colleagues, international experts, JMU faculty, CISR staff, and donor representatives.

From the first course in 2004 through 2018, CISR has trained 292 senior managers representing 48 countries. Prior to 2010, the SMC was sponsored by the United Nations Development Programme. Beginning in 2010, PM/WRA has sponsored the SMC, including global courses held at JMU in the United States and a series of regionally focused SMCs hosted with the help of local implementing partners in Tajikistan, Vietnam, and Croatia. In 2019, CISR will host a Global SMC at JMU in Harrisonburg, Virginia to bring together senior managers from across regions and technical backgrounds.

In 2018, CISR, along with the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC), implemented its second Regional SMC for South and Central Asia in Dushanbe, Tajikistan for 25 senior managers representing CWD programs in Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. CISR and TNMAC staff organized English and Russian translation for all instructional sessions and written materials to expand the course’s accessibility in the region. In addition to two weeks of managerial instruction, participants attended technical demonstrations by CWD experts working directly on mine action and SA/LW destruction projects in-country.

http://jmu.edu/cisr

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force: Protecting Global Aviation

Date: 2016 Description: U.S. Navy Lieutenant Commander Dan Bailey, EOD Technical Advisor for PM/WRA and theInter-Agency MANPADS Task Force inspects an SA-7 MANPADS. © Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State

What are MANPADS?

MANPADS (man-portable air defense system) are shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles first developed in the 1960s to help legitimate armed forces defend against air attacks. A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS. Their relative compactness makes them easy to transport and conceal. Some of the most commonly produced MANPADS can fit into an automobile trunk. In the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world.

Most MANPADS consist of three major components: a missile packaged in a tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), and a battery or battery cooling unit. The tube, which protects the missile until it is fired, is disposable. The single-use battery powers the missile for a short period prior to launch. MANPADS are usually 1.2 to 2 meters (4 feet to 6.5 feet) in length, about 76 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter and weigh about 13 to 25 kilograms (28.6 to 55.1 pounds). MANPADS missiles can travel at twice the speed of sound and hit aircraft flying as high as 4.57 kilometers (about 15,000 feet) out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles).

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force

Since 1973, more than 40 civilian airliners have been hit by MANPADS. In 2002, terrorists used two MANPADS to try to shoot down an Israeli civilian airliner in Mombasa, Kenya. In 2006, National Security Presidential Directive 47 (NSPD-47) established a comprehensive strategy for aviation security to guide the U.S. government in dealing with evolving threats to aviation. NSPD-47 includes the International MANPADS Threat Reduction Plan, which established the Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF) to coordinate a comprehensive approach to counter illicit MANPADS proliferation and mitigate the threat of MANPADS held by terrorist groups and other violent non-state actors. The MTF is comprised of representatives from numerous departments and agencies and is chaired by the Department of State.

Response to MANPADS Threat

In recent years, arms traffickers and violent extremists have looted MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons from unsecured state stockpiles in Libya, Syria, and Yemen, making efforts to reduce the threat to aviation even more crucial. PM/WRA’s stockpile security management and CWD programs, which have resulted in the reduction of over 39,000 MANPADS, are critical to preventing further illicit proliferation of these dangerous weapons.

The MTF engages foreign partners to advance cooperation on MANPADS threat mitigation and counter-proliferation initiatives. Foreign partners play a vital role in raising international awareness, curbing illicit proliferation, and mitigating local and regional MANPADS threats.

The MTF also helps countries incorporate MANPADS recognition training in their border and security training programs. This helps prevent the illicit trafficking of MANPADS by teaching essential personnel to recognize and seize them and other advanced conventional weapons when discovered. In 2018, over 400 individuals from 16 countries received the training.

In addition, the U.S. government—through its Transportation Security Administration—has conducted more than 73 MANPADS Assist Visits (MAV) and basic training programs at airports around the world. MAV and related training programs help build the capacity of partners to identify and mitigate potential MANPADS threats at international airports.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

U.S. PM/WRA Quick Reaction Force (QRF) -- Rapidly Responding to Post-Conflict Explosive Threats and Catastrophic Explosions

Date: 2019 Description: Golden West provides PSSM in Cambodia. © Photo courtesy of Golden West

The end of an armed conflict, deterioration of stockpiled munitions, or discovery of abandoned munitions from old wars pose fresh dangers for civilians returning home after a ceasefire, who live near decrepit arms depots, or whose communities are threatened by munitions discovered decades after a conflict. The Quick Reaction Force (QRF), managed by the U.S. Department of State’s PM/WRA, can begin to tackle these threats worldwide in as little as 48 hours.

QRF

Since 2001 the QRF and its precursor the Quick Reaction Demining Force have deployed to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Federated States of Micronesia, Guatemala, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

“Our programs for humanitarian demining, battle area clearance, and destruction of foreign government’s munitions are normally established after months of diplomacy and planning,” explains Stanley Brown, Director of PM/WRA. “But we need to respond within days when explosive threats create dire humanitarian need, pose imminent danger, and threaten the stability of a foreign country. That’s why we have the QRF.”

Paradoxically, war’s aftermath can increase risk in the short term for displaced persons and refugees who return to their communities only to find them contaminated by landmines and other explosive remnants of war. In those situations, the QRF can deploy rapidly to expertly assess the threat and recommend protective measures to the host government and humanitarian organizations. Similarly, the QRF can assess the degree of danger to civilians posed by ammunition “kicked out” for miles around after an unplanned explosion at a military depot and lay out a course of action for thorough clean up. The QRF’s deployment to the Republic of the Congo in 2012 after the horrific Brazzaville munitions depot disaster that killed over 250 and injured more than 2,300 is an example of its rapid response capability that helped prevent further casualties.

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra

Mine Action Support Group

Date: 2019 Description: PM/WRA Director and MASG Chair Stan Brown opens the MASG meeting in February 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. © Photo courtesy of MASG.

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, endeavors to coordinate humanitarian mine action programs funded by the world’s major donor states, harmonize the prioritization of their respective mine action programs, and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The United States is currently serving as the Chair of the MASG for 2018–2019. Chairmanship of the MASG rotates every two years.

The MASG is composed of over 30 donor states and a few observer organizations, which include members of the United Nations Inter-Agency Coordination Group for Mine Action, GICHD, OAS, ITF, and JMU/CISR.

The MASG serves as an independent forum for the exchange of information and coordination of financial support and resources. PM/WRA funds a small Secretariat that collects information, provides reports, organizes meetings, and facilitates visits to certain mine-affected countries as agreed to by the MASG members. The MASG meets twice a year and adheres to the Chatham House Rules.

In this informal setting donor states engage in frank exchanges aimed at effectively and efficiently supporting humanitarian mine action amidst shrinking resources, increased demand generated by recent and on-going conflicts, and varying national priorities. “One of the reasons the United States wanted to chair the MASG is that the global need for humanitarian mine action programs continues to outstrip available resources,” PM/WRA Director and current MASG Chair Stanley L. Brown said. “Therefore, our effort over the past year has been to deepen understanding of each other’s priorities and better identify funding sources in an effort to maximize their impact.” Speaking at the opening of the third meeting under U.S. Chairmanship on February 6, 2019, Ambassador Robert A. Wood, U.S. Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament and U.S. Special Representative for Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention Issues, described the effort as “a model for how different actors, whether governmental or non-governmental, can work together toward a common end.”

The UN Mine Action Gateway website posts MASG notices, minutes, and presentations at https://www.mineaction.org/en/mine-action-support-group-masg.

Date: 2019 Description: The open session of the MASG meeting including donor state representatives and observer organizations. © Photos courtesy of MASG.

Regional Profile: Africa

Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $462 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in Africa By Country: Angola 29.53%; *Benin 0.00%; Burkina Faso 0.35%; Burundi 0.76%; CAR 0.05%; Chad 3.71%; Congo, DR 6.75%; Congo 0.64%; Djibouti 0.69%; Eritrea 4.07%; Ethiopia 3.54%; Eswatini (Swaziland) 0.29%; Guinea 0.25%; Guinea-Bissau 1.97%; Kenya 0.68%; *Lesotho 0.00%; Liberia 1.11%; Mali 0.94%; Mauritania 1.93%; Mozambique 12.68%; Namibia 2.11%; Niger 0.85%; Nigeria 0.48%; Rwanda 2.85%; Sao Tome/Principe 0.01%; Senegal 1.46%; Sierra Leone 0.39%; Somalia 6.49%; South Sudan 3.14%; Sudan 6.87%; Tanzania 0.59%; Togo 0.01%; Uganda 0.28%; Zambia 0.56%; Zimbabwe 3.96%. *Less than .01%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-Country funding line found On Page 71. - State Dept Image

Some countries in Africa continue to suffer extensive ERW contamination. Others face threats from Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, and other violent extremist organizations (VEO) that have declared support to ISIS. Elsewhere, dense minefields and “UXO hotspots” endanger civilians and obstruct economic progress. State-held stockpiles of excess SA/LW and ammunition are poorly-secured in many countries, creating a risk for illicit diversion. Weak security institutions and porous state borders make it easier for violent extremist groups and other non-state actors to obtain SA/LW and launch attacks throughout the Sahel, East and Central Africa, and beyond. Additionally, explosive hazards left over from conflict kill and injure civilians and otherwise prevent them from returning to normal life. Landmines, IEDs, and ERW prevent refugees and internally displaced persons (IDP) from returning home and inhibit economic growth by killing livestock, keeping land uncultivated, and blocking transportation routes.

CWD programs in Africa help create the conditions for lasting security and economic growth by reducing the availability of SA/LW and IED components that fuel the operations of terrorists and other subversive actors. Most of these efforts in Africa follow a similar set of activities to prevent weapons and ammunition from falling into the wrong hands. CWD implementers build or rehabilitate armories and depots to improve the security of sites most vulnerable to attacks. As a concurrent effort, weapons marking and tracing programs, and training in stockpile management enhance accountability in order to prevent munitions from being lost or stolen. These programs have benefitted a wide range of security forces, including the military, police, gendarmerie, customs and border authorities, and even water and forestry services, depending on the needs identified by the partner nations.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD programs have provided more than $462 million of assistance to 35 African countries, with the ultimate goal to help them become more secure and prosperous. CWD efforts by the United States and international partners promote peacebuilding and set the stage for economic growth and opportunity, facilitating greater stability throughout the continent.

Angola

ANGOLA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY95–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,700 4,000 4,000 110,504
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 551 193 179 9,163
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 5,251 4,193 4,179 131,338
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: In Angola, a deminer tests her detector before beginning work. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Angola is still recovering from over 40 years of conflict that ended in 2002. It is one of the world’s most landmine and UXO-affected countries. In 2018, U.S. CWD assistance helped achieve remarkable milestones towards Angola’s humanitarian mine action goals. Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) cleared the last known minefield in Malanje Province. In May 2018, which is the first of Angola’s 18 provinces to be free from all known explosive hazards. Similarly, The HALO Trust (HALO) also finished clearing the second-to-last minefield in Huambo Province during the year. The clearance of the last minefield in Huambo Province will conclude years of efforts by the United States, Switzerland, Japan, and the United Kingdom to help the province achieve mine-impact free status.

Through targeted resurvey of suspected hazardous areas and continued clearance efforts, international operators estimate that they have cleared over 60 percent of all known minefields since the war ended in 2002, with 100 square kilometers (24,710 acres) of contamination remaining.

From 1995 to 2018, the United States invested more than $131 million for CWD in Angola. This assistance has returned over 395 square kilometers (97,606 acres) to productive use and destroyed over 26,000 landmines and 277,400 pieces of UXO and ammunition to the direct benefit of over 1.4 million Angolans. Additionally, 155,000 vulnerable people have received MRE.

In 2018, CWD programs continued to transition away from humanitarian mine action due to the progress made and the threat from at-risk government arms and ammunition stockpiles. Future programs will focus on SA/LW and ammunition destruction and PSSM enhancements.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued humanitarian demining in Huambo, Bie, Benguela, and KuandoKubango Provinces. HALO cleared confirmed hazardous areas through manual and mechanical demining, conducted non-technical survey, carried out “road threat reduction” to ensure 42.6 kilometers (16 miles) of roads were safe, and performed explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) “spot” tasks. HALO also destroyed over 3.2 metric tons of abandoned munitions and UXO at a former military camp. Since 2006, the U.S. has supported HALO in destroying 101,801 excess SA/LW and over 634 tons of munitions held by the military and police.
  • MAG (Mines Advisory Group) conducted humanitarian demining in Moxico Province, including manual and mechanical clearance, technical survey, EOD “spot” tasks, and MRE.
  • NPA continued humanitarian demining in Malanje Province through manual clearance and technical survey, and to conduct EOD “spot” tasks and provide MRE.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D technologies were used to clear 1.7 million square meters (420 acres) of land, and 1,250 mines and pieces of UXO since 2006. HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, evaluated the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS), an aerial survey system, and Rex, a versatile, light-weight armored excavator.

Burkina Faso

BURKINA FASO
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY05–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 600 0 0 1,541
Country Total 600 0 0 1,541
Dollars in thousands

Burkina Faso is a major transit point for illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and ammunition. VEOs continue to pose a threat to its stability and that of its neighbors. In March 2018 coordinated attacks in Ouagadougou killed eight people and left more than 80 injured. In September 2018 an IED exploded and killed two Burkinabe soldiers, injuring six others on their way to defuse mines laid by extremists groups. These high-profile attacks, and others on security force outposts and schools along the border, demonstrate ongoing instability and threats to good governance in Burkina Faso. Remote police, gendarmerie, and army outposts are particularly vulnerable. Since 2016, U.S.-funded CWD programs have improved the physical security of 65 facilities and trained 156 personnel in stockpile management, benefitting the army, police, gendarmerie, penitentiary guard, water and forestry service, and customs and border authority.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY16 funds):

  • MAG upgraded or constructed eight weapons storage facilities in the southwest region. MAG also improved the capacity of Burkinabe security forces to properly manage their stockpiles by providing training in armory storekeeping and management.

Chad

CHAD
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 750 1,000 1,000 11,306
DoD 50 54 86 5,190
Country Total 800 1,054 1,086 16,496
Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

Chad is a transit point for illicit weapons coming from Libya into northern Chad and from Sudan into eastern Chad. With U.S. support, Chad has made substantial efforts to counter the threats from VEOs—Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb in the north and Boko Haram in the southwest. CWD programs help ensure that Chadian conventional weapon stockpiles remain secure and serviceable. To date, U.S. assistance has constructed or rehabilitated 107 sites, provided training to the National and Nomadic Guard (GNNT) gendarmerie, police, and military in PSSM and stockpile destruction.

From 1998 to 2018, the United States invested more than $16.4 million in Chad for the destruction of excess SA/LW and munitions, improved PSSM, and landmine clearance.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG built or refurbished 19 armories for the GNNT, military and gendarmerie, and assessed priority sites for future work. MAG also provided training in storekeeping and stockpile management and destroyed 654 weapons and 5,000 rounds of surplus small arms ammunition.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) conducted two missions in Chad. One mission was dedicated to EOD Level I awareness training, the other focused on developing training lanes to support the cadre at Chad’s National Demining Center.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY02–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,221 3,000 4,000 20,334
DoD 0 0 0 1,083
USAID 1,722 1,275 0 7,597
Country Total 4,943 4,275 4,000 30,014
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Julienne Paypay (right), who lost her leg to a landmine, received a new leg and training to be a prosthetic technician from the Polus Center for Social and Economic Development. © Photo courtesy of Polus

The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) eastern and northern provinces continue to suffer from intense fighting between non-state actors and government forces. The illicit flow of SA/LW and ammunition through porous borders fuels the fighting, resulting in civilian casualties, population displacement, lack of economic development, and even exacerbates health crises when health workers cannot access areas due to violence. The fighting also contaminates land with ERW as well as landmines that further threaten civilians. In 2015, the Congolese Armed Forces conducted a countrywide assessment of its storage facilities and identified 336.7 metric tons of excess and at-risk ammunition that threaten more than 7.5 million people.

From 2002 to 2018, the United States invested more than $30 million in funding for CWD efforts in the DRC, destroying 178,355 SA/LW, 14 MANPADS, and 1,625 metric tons of ammunition; as well as upgrading 71 weapons storage facilities, and training 185 security force personnel in PSSM. CWD support for humanitarian mine action returned 555,037 square meters (137 acres) of land to productive use to benefit 66,230 people and provided MRE to over 117,000 people.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG disposed of 111.2 metric tons of obsolete and surplus ammunition and 5,799 weapons, upgraded the physical security of 28 facilities for the DRC military and police, trained 85 personnel in PSSM best practices, and marked 9,107 government weapons.
  • DanChurchAid (DCA) continued to advance sustainable development in the DRC by clearing mines and UXO in areas of priority humanitarian need in the northeast, returning 182,751 square meters (45 acres) of land to productive use. DCA also responded to 71 EOD call-outs, provided MRE to 12,020 people, and trained 231 people to provide MRE to their communities.
  • The Polus Center for Social & Economic Development (Polus) conducted prosthetic training and wheelchair fitting and seat training for 10 Congolese technicians in Goma, provided prosthetic limbs to mine survivors, supported a survivor assistance association in the Lake Kivu region, and assessed coffee cooperatives on Idjwi Island to determine how ERW victims could find employment within the DRC’s emerging coffee industry. These efforts helped communities affected by conflict, particularly cooperatives and local farmers who benefit from increased economic opportunities.
  • RESCA procured 10 SA/LW marking machines for the National Commission for the Small Arms and Light Weapons Control that will increase the accountability of state-held weapons.

Guinea

GUINEA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY02–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 500 0 1,103
Country Total 500 500 0 1,103
Dollars in thousands

While Guinea is secure and stable compared to its neighbor Mali, the presence of multiple terrorist groups and the widespread proliferation of SA/LW in West Africa and the Sahel render it vulnerable to possible attacks. In 2018, the United States began a pilot CWD program to improve weapons and ammunition management by assessing its government munitions storage facilities, providing EOD training, and destroying excess and at-risk munitions. This effort is preventative in nature, and seeks to improve the security and management of Guinean stockpiles in the event terrorists and criminals decide to launch attacks or loot storage facilities.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with FY16 and FY17 funds):

  • The Danish Demining Group (DDG) assessed SA/LW storage facilities in order to identify priority sites to receive physical security enhancements in coordination with the SA/LW National Commission.
  • MAG provided EOD training to 12 soldiers in the Army Demining Unit.

Guinea-Bissau

GUINEA-BISSAU
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY00–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 800 500 0 7,337
DoD 0 0 0 1,444
Country Total 800 500 0 8,781
Dollars in thousands

CWD assistance to Guinea-Bissau focused on humanitarian mine action, returning over 1.6 million square meters (395 acres) of land to productive use and destroying at least 3,300 landmines and 26,000 items of UXO. This assistance significantly accelerated Guinea-Bissau’s progress towards declaring itself free from all known landmine contamination in 2012.

The government of Guinea-Bissau requested U.S. assistance to assess its conventional weapons stockpiles, provide recommendations, and improve weapons and ammunition management. These assessments, alongside reports of SA/LW proliferation in the region, highlighted the need to improve weapons and ammunition management and destroy excess munitions at risk of accidentally exploding. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union stationed aircraft in Guinea-Bissau, leading to large stockpiles of bombs, rockets, and other munitions that have since deteriorated. In 2018, the United States began a pilot project to reduce the stockpiles of obsolete and at-risk ammunition and improve the military’s stockpile management capacity through HALO. This program supports broader U.S. efforts to improve Guinea-Bissau’s security and increase its ability to counter transnational threats by preventing the illicit diversion of weapons and ammunition. The program also builds off an African Union-sponsored assessment under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY16 and FY17 funds):

  • HALO began the construction of a temporary storage facility to store serviceable ammunition safely and securely. The completion of this facility will enable the military to relocate its serviceable ammunition from inadequate storage facilities.

Mali

MALI
FUNDING* FY16 FY17 FY18 FY15–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 1,000 1,000 3,700
DoD 170 182 110 462
Country Total 670 1,182 1,110 4,162
Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

An armed insurrection in northern Mali and a subsequent coup d’état in 2012 produced an international response. Malian and French forces, together with UN peacekeepers, continue to fight VEOs in central and northern Mali. In 2017, the G5 Sahel (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger) established a Joint Force to address terrorism and banditry in the Sahel. National and international efforts to stabilize Mali are undermined by the widespread availability of illicit SA/LW throughout the Sahel, and within Mali, VEOs target stockpiles of weapons and ammunition to sustain their fight.

The U.S. CWD programs help Malian security forces defend their weapon stockpiles against attacks and strengthen their capacity to manage the stockpiles according to international best practices. Proper stockpile management increases accountability to prevent internal diversions, keeps munitions serviceable, and lessens the risk of accidental explosions.

The objective of CWD efforts is to improve security and stability in Mali and in the Sahel by denying weapons and ammunition to terrorists, and by increasing Mali’s PSSM capacity as a U.S. counter-terrorism partner. From 2015 to 2018, the United States invested more than $4.1 million in Mali. Since MAG began PSSM operations in Mali in 2015 with Department of State funding, it has constructed or refurbished 40 armories and trained 100 security force personnel in storekeeping, management, and PSSM train-the-trainer practices.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG strengthened the capacity of the police, gendarmerie, and water and forestry service to manage state-held weapons and ammunition effectively. MAG built or refurbished four armories, trained 13 personnel in armory storekeeping, trained seven personnel in armory store management, and assisted the national security sector in further prioritizing its PSSM needs.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARAF conducted two missions in Mali focused on teaching basic EOD Level I awareness training.

Mauritania

MAURITANIA
FUNDING* FY16 FY17 FY18 FY99–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 1,000 4,195
DoD 0 0 0 4,410
Country Total 500 0 1,000 8,605
Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.
Date: 2019 Description: PSSM training is conducted in Mauritania. © Photo courtesy of NSPA

Most of Mauritania is located in the Sahara Desert, which offers a safe haven for terrorists and the illicit trafficking of SA/LW within the Sahel. Poorly- secured stockpiles of arms and munitions remain vulnerable to attacks by extremists and diversions to arms traffickers. Aging and improperly-managed munitions also pose the risk of accidental explosions and destruction of Mauritania’s serviceable stockpiles. CWD programs strengthen the ability of Mauritanian security forces to manage weapons and ammunition in proper facilities according to international best practices. These efforts help maintain Mauritania’s stability and prosperity and assist its efforts to spread security in the Sahel.

Stockpile security assistance began in 2010 after the government of Mauritania requested help to counter the illicit proliferation of SA/LW by enhancing the Mauritania National Army’s (MNA) capacity to properly manage and safeguard its weapons and ammunition. Alongside other donors, this initial project supported the first NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund (PfPTF), which built two ammunition storage depots and destroyed excess SA/LW, ammunition, and 141 MANPADS between 2011 and 2014. Following the successful implementation of the PfPTF, the government of Mauritania requested that NATO develop a second PfPTF with three phases. In early 2015, the United States agreed to serve as lead nation for the first phase. Since 2016, the second PfPTF has destroyed 159 MANPADS and 1,322 metric tons of ammunition. Additionally, in late 2017, CWD programs expanded assistance to the police and gendarmerie as a pilot effort through MAG.

From 1999 to 2018, the United States invested more than $8.6 million in Mauritania. These projects supported the destruction of 3,069 metric tons of ammunition, 300 MANPADS, improved the MNA’s PSSM capacity, and assessed sites for follow-on PSSM assistance to the police and gendarmerie.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) constructed another ammunition storage depot, continued construction on a second depot, and planned a training course in ammunition stockpile management.
  • MAG assessed five sites for the police in preparation for follow-on security enhancements, and planned PSSM training courses and train-the-trainer courses that it will provide in 2019.

Niger

NIGER
FUNDING* FY16 FY17 FY18 FY15–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 1,250 1,000 3,443
DOD 0 3 325 328
Country Total 500 1,253 1,325 3,771
Dollars in thousands
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.

Niger is a key partner for regional and international counter-terrorism efforts, including the G5 Sahel, Multi-National Joint Task Force (MNJTF), and UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali. Since 2015, Niger has suffered an increasing frequency of terrorist attacks by Boko Haram in the southeast and by Al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb and Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) affiliated groups in the southwest. Niger’s strategic location in the Sahel region is both as an invaluable ally in the fight against terrorism and as a major transit route for illicit SA/LW. In addition, Niger faces threats from terrorists looting poorly-secured government stockpiles, and an inability to track and trace government-owned as well as confiscated weapons.

From 2015 to 2018, the United States invested more than $3.7 million in CWD funding for the destruction of SA/LW and ammunition, improved PSSM capacity, and surveys and assessments to identify priority sites for future assistance. Since 2015 Humanity and Inclusion (HI) has constructed or rehabilitated 22 armories or ammunition storage areas, trained 122 personnel in PSSM, destroyed 15.25 tons of excess ammunition and over 2,200 SA/LW, and helped build the profile and capacity of Niger’s National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illicit Weapons (CNCCAI), which is responsible for SA/LW issues. These efforts included training in SA/LW destruction, which enabled the Nigerien security forces to destroy a further 3,500 SA/LW from 2015 to 2016.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • HI constructed or rehabilitated five storage facilities for the National Guard and provided PSSM training to the Nigerien Armed Forces and the National Guard. HI also trained a National Guard officer to supervise construction activities, and trained a Nigerien Armed Forces officer to be the national inspector of ammunition and SA/LW stockpiles, so that Niger can monitor PSSM activities independently of international support. HI embedded a technical expert in CNCCAI to improve its management and coordination of PSSM activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USARAF continued to conduct a feasibility study for expanding programs in Niger.

Senegal

SENEGAL
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY02–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 450 0 3,755
DOS Other 0 0 0 260
DoD 100 10 90 1,966
USAID 0 0 0 500
Country Total 500 460 90 6,481
Dollars in thousands

More than 30 years of internal conflict between the government of Senegal and the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance left parts of the country’s Casamance region impacted by landmines and UXO. With the successful clearance of most mines from the rest of Senegal, the United States began assistance for projects in the Casamance region in 2008. Landmine clearance in the region continues to facilitate the Casamance peace process and the return of IDPs.

From 2002 to 2017, the United States invested more than $6.4 million in CWD funding for mine and UXO clearance, MRE, technical and non-technical surveys of suspected hazard areas, and capacity building.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY17 funds):

  • HI worked with the local government to prepare for humanitarian mine action operations in Sédhiou slated to begin in 2019.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USAFRICOM, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa (USMARFORAF), the Vermont Air National Guard, and the Austrian Verification Unit conducted two missions to develop a cadre to teach basic PSSM, while also updating the initial curriculum. The Senegal Humanitarian Mine Action Training Center will continue to use international and intergovernmental partners to provide a holistic approach to building capacity within the Senegalese Armed Forces.

Somalia

SOMALIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 2,740 2,000 28,885
Country Total 2,000 2,740 2,000 28,885
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: HALO secures weapons cache from locals in Guriel, Somalia who had the items for safekeeping so they weren't set off by accident. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Al-Shabaab continues to pose a significant threat to Somalia’s security, stability, and prosperity, and controls territory throughout south and central Somalia. On October 14, 2017, Al-Shabaab killed almost 600 people when it detonated a vehicle-born IED in Mogadishu. The widespread trafficking of SA/LW and ammunition, including from Yemen, enables Al-Shabaab and other non-state actors to carry out attacks and continue destabilizing the Horn of Africa. Additionally, Al-Shabaab can harvest explosives from unsecured and abandoned munitions caches to create IEDs.

CWD efforts focus on capacity building within the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) security forces to properly manage their conventional weapons stockpiles, particularly in south-central Somalia, where the risk of illicit diversion to non-state actors is the highest. Since 2016, the United States has also supported HALO’s mobile weapons and ammunition disposal (WAD) teams that can destroy abandoned munitions. These teams have destroyed 1,622 munitions, the vast majority of which is UXO and includes one SA-07 MANPADS missile.

From 1998 to 2018, the United States invested more than $28.8 million in CWD programs in Somalia for PSSM, munitions destruction, MANPADS stockpile reduction, humanitarian mine action, and other programs to promote stability.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO deployed WAD teams to south-central Somalia that destroyed 663 unsecured munitions, and planned the construction of two armories in Hirshabelle and Galmadug States. HALO continued to implement a final humanitarian mine action project in Somaliland, clearing over 37,000 square meters (over 9 acres) and build capacity by training, equipping, and mentoring two Somaliland regional authority teams. HALO also organized stakeholder meetings in Hargeisa to develop Somaliland ownership and mine action capacity beyond the project’s conclusion.
  • MAG upgraded the physical security of three explosive storehouses in Hargeisa, built an ammunition storage facility in Mogadishu, and planned the construction of a new armory in Mogadishu. MAG also trained 160 security personnel in PSSM.

South Sudan

SOUTH SUDAN
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY11–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 300 2,000 13,153
DoD 0 0 0 826
Country Total 300 300 2,000 13,961
Dollars in thousands

Landmines and ERW contaminate over 5 million square meters (over 1,236 acres) of land in South Sudan, with a majority found in former Central, Eastern, and Western Equatoria States. These three states traditionally produced most of the food in South Sudan and are home to over 350,000 IDPs and another 1.6 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. ERW contamination inhibits the delivery of humanitarian assistance, impedes development, and poses a physical threat to civilians, especially IDPs and refugees traversing through unfamiliar territory. In addition, loose SA/LW, including MANPADS, continue to threaten communities throughout the country and compromise security throughout the region. In 2017, 58 ERW-related casualties occurred, an increase from 45 in 2016.

CWD programs focus on EOD “spot” tasks and MRE in the Central and Eastern Equatoria States in order to meet the pressing needs of IDPs and because insecurity, including renewed fighting since July 2016, has prevented large-scale, systematic clearance projects. While instability continues to limit the movement and access of mine action operators, a peace agreement signed in September 2018 between South Sudan’s President SalvaKiir and opposition leader Riek Machar has sparked hopes for a more sustainable peace and improved operating environment for humanitarian actors.

From 2003 to 2010, the United States provided more than $27.7 million in CWD funding to Sudan prior to southern Sudan’s secession, directing much of it to southern provinces.

From South Sudan’s independence in 2011 to 2018, the United States invested more than $13.9 million directly to South Sudan for mine and UXO removal, survivor assistance programs, and enhanced SA/LW stockpile security.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • DCA deployed an EOD call-out team to survey, clear, and release land in recent conflict areas in former Central and Eastern Equatoria States. DCA also provided MRE and trained leading community members to continue educating vulnerable communities without international support.

Zimbabwe

ZIMBABWE
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 2,000 1,000 13,586
DoD 78 153 337 4,006
Country Total 1,078 2,153 1,337 17,592
Dollars in thousands

Zimbabwe remains dense with anti-personnel minefields along the Mozambican and Zambian borders, originally stretching 850 linear kilometers (527 miles) and covering an area of approximately 310 square kilometers (76,602 acres). These minefields have killed and injured civilians and constrained economic development, particularly by killing livestock and preventing agricultural activities. Currently most of the anti-vehicle mines have been cleared. By late 2017, international mine action operators and the Zimbabwe Defense Force’s National Mine Clearance Unit (NMCU) have reduced contaminated land to 62 square kilometers (15,320 acres), an 80 percent decrease, through survey and clearance efforts.

From 1998 to 2018, the United States invested more than $17.5 million for humanitarian mine action in Zimbabwe. Between 1998 and 2000, U.S. assistance focused on training and equipping Zimbabwean military clearance teams to conduct humanitarian demining, and in 2013, CWD programs began to fund HALO and NPA’s demining operations in the northeast and east. Since 2013, this assistance to HALO and NPA has returned 5.04 square kilometers (1,245 acres) to productive use and destroyed over 28,000 mines for the direct benefit of 48,861 people. Additionally, CWD assistance has provided MRE to vulnerable populations and provided prosthetic limbs to survivors.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to clear highly-impacted communities along the northeastern border with Mozambique and survey suspected hazard areas. HALO manually cleared 158,882 square meters (39 acres) of land, processed 18,074 cubic meters (638,277 cubic feet) with mechanical assets, and conducted 25 EOD call-outs, resulting in the destruction of 4,150 anti-personnel mines. HALO also held MRE sessions for 667 persons and provided 19 survivors with prosthetic limbs.
  • NPA continued to clear highly-impacted communities along the eastern border with Mozambique and survey suspected hazard areas using manual demining teams and a mine detection dog team. NPA cleared 158,270 square meters (39 acres) of land, destroyed 529 anti-personnel mines, and returned 277,113 square meters (68 acres) to productive use through technical survey. NPA also provided MRE for 1,281 people.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated a soil-sifting excavator attachment and the dual-sensor HSTAMIDS. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 3,881 mines from 270,000 square meters (67 acres) of land since 2014.

Great Lakes Region

Africa’s Great Lakes region, consisting of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda, contains vast stretches of porous, unguarded borders in which SA/LW proliferation routes are rampant. Violent non-state actors and illegally-armed groups sustain the demand for illicit SA/LW and undermine regional security. In addition, poorly-secured munitions stockpiles in remote areas, such as near Kenya’s border with Somalia, remain attractive targets for exploitation by non-state actors.

To reduce the illicit proliferation of SA/LW, the governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004 and subsequently created the Regional Centre on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States (RECSA) to implement the protocol. From 2006 through 2018, the United States has provided more than $6.3 million in support of RECSA’s initiatives, including $500,000 in FY17. Initial assistance developed partner nations’ weapons marking and tracing capabilities. Recent efforts have prioritized the destruction of excess munitions and PSSM enhancements and training.

During 2018, CWD funding supported these initiatives in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda to strengthen stockpile security, increase accountability, and reduce the threat of proliferation (with FY16 and FY17 funds):

  • Kenya: RECSA trained 29 police officers in PSSM best practices and provided 300 steel arms boxes to protect police weapons from illicit diversion. RECSA also provided a shears crushing machine to help police destroy excess weapons independently of international support.
  • Rwanda: RECSA trained 22 personnel from the Rwanda Defense Force and Correctional Services in PSSM best practices, and provided 150 steel arms boxes and 48 secure gun racks.
  • Tanzania: RECSA conducted armory assessments, began the construction of four priority armories for the police, and trained 29 police officers in PSSM best practices.
  • Uganda: RECSA supported the Uganda People’s Defense Force and police in the destruction of 100 tons of excess munitions, and trained 56 personnel in PSSM best practices.

Africa--Other U.S. Support

Date: 2019 Description: RESCA helped the Uganda People's Defense Force to destroy 100 tons of excess munitions. © Photo courtesy of RECSA

The United States provided support for CWD in other African countries.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • Namibia: U.S. Naval Forces Europe-Africa (USNAVAF) conducted two EOD Level 1 awareness training missions.
  • Nigeria: USNAVAF and USARAF conducted one EOD Level 1 awareness training mission at the Nigerian EOD training center at the Nigerian Army School of Military Engineers.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the International Committee of Red Cross Move Ability Foundation in sub-Saharan Africa to work on developing low-cost and sustainable prosthetic and orthotic technology and physical rehabilitation centers in developing countries.

Regional Profile: East Asia and Pacific

East Asia and Pacific Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in East Asia and Pacific from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $528 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in East Asia and Pacific by Country: Burma 1.56%; Cambodia 27.32%; Laos 39.08%; Marshall Islands 0.35%; Palau 0.70%; Philippines 0.59%; Solomon Islands 1.17%; Thailand 3.55%; Vietnam 25.69%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 71. - State Dept Image

Landmines and UXO have remained a persistent threat in many countries in the East Asia and Pacific region since World War II. During the Second World War, many islands within the Pacific endured aerial and naval bombardment, and land battles between Japanese forces and the forces of the United States and its allies. During the Vietnam War, southern Vietnam and parts of Cambodia and Laos experienced significant ground combat. In addition, the United States bombed targets in Vietnam, parts of Cambodia, and Laos. The impact of these campaigns did not end with the conclusion of conflict. Southeast Asia has suffered perhaps the most from the lingering dangers of explosive hazards. Furthermore, UXO in the Pacific Islands remains a significant barrier to economic and agricultural development. And now Burma must contend with new contamination as landmines laid as recently as 2018 along the border between northern Rakhine State and Bangladesh are claiming additional lives.

Since 1993, humanitarian mine action has been a vital component to building lasting relationships with countries in the East Asia and Pacific region. In coordination with host governments, the United States and our implementing partners continue to improve local CWD capacity, enabling countries to better manage these challenges themselves over the long term.

Since 1993, the U.S. CWD program has provided more than $528 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for building local capacity, clearing legacy explosive ordnance, providing MRE, survivor assistance, and improving PSSM of at-risk stockpiled weapons and munitions in some countries.

Burma

BURMA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY11–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 2,835
DOS-OTHER 0 0 0 850
USAID 500 500 500 4,350
Country Total 500 500 500 8,035
Dollars in thousands

Burma continues to struggle with both legacy minefields remaining after decades of internal conflict and reports of newly-laid landmine contamination along border areas in Rakhine State that endanger minority ethnic groups. In 2018, dangerous border minefields alongside Bangladesh, China, and Thailand posed a new threat to local populations.

While no comprehensive estimate of the level of contamination exists, the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported at least 202 casualties in 2017, a marked increase from 2016. The Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor identified 4,193 as the number of all known casualties from 1999 through the end of 2017 from mine and UXO incidents in Burma, but the total number of casualties is unknown and expected to be much higher.

From 2011 to 2018, the United States invested more than $8 million for programs that provided survivor assistance and risk education in Burma.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with FY15 funds):

  • DDG conducted risk education and survivor assistance in Kachin and northern Shan States.
  • HI provided risk education, survivor assistance, and livelihoods support in Bago and Kayin States.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Development Alternatives International in assisting communities in areas affected by or prone to conflict to access essential services, including rehabilitation needs.

Cambodia

CAMBODIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY93–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 8,522 6,352 3,100 94,597
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 1,717 1,969 1,601 25,664
USAID 303 0 0 15,084
Country Total 10,542 8,321 4,701 140,388
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Children in Cambodia play a soccer game that also teaches MRE. © Photo courtesy of SoS

Nearly three decades of armed conflict has left Cambodia seriously affected by landmines and UXO, and kept poor communities impoverished by limiting their access to farmland. The Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Force (RCAF), and the Vietnamese and Thai militaries laid extensive minefields during the Indochina wars, Vietnamese occupation, and factional fighting that ended in 1999. Though casualties have decreased post-conflict, for the past five years the Cambodian National Mine Action Strategy has reported approximately 100 casualties from UXO annually.

The 2018 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports that Cambodia’s anti-personnel mine problem is concentrated in, but not limited to, 21 northwestern districts along the border with Thailand that account for the vast majority of mine casualties. Contamination includes the remains of the 1,046 kilometer (650 mile)-long K-5 mine belt installed along the Thai border in the mid-1980s to block insurgent infiltration, which ranks among the densest contamination in the world.

Additionally, U.S. air and artillery strikes during the Vietnam War left behind heavy concentrations of UXO in the eastern and northeastern areas of the country along the border with Vietnam. The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority has worked with international partners to develop the National Mine Action Strategy 2018–2025 with the goal: “Cambodia is mine free and the threat of explosive remnants of war is minimized, and human and socio-economic development takes place safely.” Cambodia now has the right technical tools in place to meet this goal, but declining international contributions could jeopardize it.

From 1993 to 2018, the U.S. government invested more than $140 million for CWD programs in Cambodia that cleared mines and UXO, provided MRE, assisted the RCAF with destruction and PSSM of SA/LW and ammunition.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West), in partnership with RCAF, supported an explosive harvesting system and the development of appropriate PSSM. Golden West also continued a global engineering initiative, developing cutting-edge tools for the global humanitarian mine action sector in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States) and Singapore University.
  • HALO deployed two survey and EOD teams and 15 clearance teams in some of the densest anti-personnel and anti-tank minefields along the K-5 mine belt in northwestern Cambodia.
  • Landmine Relief Fund continued to support two Cambodia Self Help Demining EOD teams conducting clearance of small villages in northwestern Cambodia and one MRE team.
  • MAG continued to provide survey and clearance assets in western Cambodia and cluster munition clearance assets in eastern Cambodia. MAG also continued its partnership with the Department of Defense HD R&D Program to perform technology testing through survey and clearance in Ratanakiri Province.
  • NPA collaborated with the Cambodian Mine Action Centre (CMAC) to conduct cluster munition remnant survey and clearance of U.S.-origin contamination in eastern Cambodia, while introducing explosive detection dogs and building capacity for CMAC operational teams in seven provinces. NPA also provided project management, financial and administrative oversight, reporting, technical assistance, and quality assurance/quality control support to CMAC. Additionally, NPA provided all-female survey and clearance teams in Ratanakiri Province.
  • Spirit of Soccer (SOS) delivered MRE to primary school children through the training of youth soccer coaches, distribution of MRE materials, and soccer tournaments to engage local populations.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies were used to clear 28.3 million square meters (6,993 acres) of land and 41,700 mines and UXO to date. Twelve technologies, including a new Armored Remote-Control Chase Vehicle were evaluated. HALO, MAG, and Golden West continued evaluating: the Badger tracked excavator, Bearcat vegetation clearance system, HSTAMIDS, Mini MineWolf tilling system, Piranha minefield area reduction and technical survey skid steer, Rambo demining team support vehicles, Scorpion UXO detection system, aerial survey system, Traxx remote area preparation platforms, VMX10 UXO detector, and wet soil sifting excavator attachments.
  • U.S. Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM), formerly the U.S. Pacific Command, continued to work with the government of Cambodia to enhance its humanitarian mine action capacity. During FY18, USINDOPACOM training included: Phase I, II, III, and IV Deminer; and Phase I, II, and III EOD/Blast Trauma.
Date: 2019 Description: A HALO deminer investigates a signal in Cambodia. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Laos

LAOS
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY95–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 20,500 30,000 30,000 174,364
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 111 10 0 7,021
USAID 2,166 3,005 1,750 18,721
Country Total 22,777 33,015 31,750 200,856
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A World Education Victim Assistance Support Team meets with a UXO survivor and his family in Xieng Khouang Province, Laos. © Photo courtesy of World Education

Contamination from the Indochina Wars of the 1960s and 1970s left Laos with the world’s highest level of unexploded submunitions, according to the 2018 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. Cluster munitions account for the bulk of UXO contamination in Laos, though landmines were also laid and other ERW generated during the wars. The majority of the country’s 17 provinces are contaminated with UXO, most of which is of U.S. origin. Population growth in rural areas and other socioeconomic factors have increased pressure to put UXO-contaminated land into productive use, which leads to greater risk of death and injury. In September 2016, the United States announced a plan to invest $90 million over a three-year period. As the second tranche of this commitment was delivered in 2018, additional funds continued to support the first-ever comprehensive national UXO contamination survey focused on identifying cluster munition strike footprints, while ongoing clearance, MRE, and survivor assistance efforts continue at sustained historic levels. To help manage this substantial commitment of dedicated CWD funding, the Department of State hired an in-country UXO program advisor to oversee Phase I Survey projects on the ground.

From 1995 to 2018, the United States invested more than $200.8 million in CWD programs in Laos that supported survey and clearance activities, risk education, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support UXO clearance teams tasked with survey and removal of UXO in Savannakhet Province.
  • Health Leadership International provided portable ultrasounds, trauma care, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide prevention training for healthcare providers. This medical education and training has improved diagnostic capabilities and elevated the overall competency of district-level medical personnel in UXO-affected districts.
  • Janus Global Operations (Janus) continued to partner with UXO Laos on UXO survey and clearance efforts, and provided managerial and technical support to the National Regulatory Authority, which oversees all UXO-related activity in Laos.
  • MAG continued to support survey and clearance teams in XiengKhouang Province.
  • NPA continued its evidence-based UXO survey work in the Sekong, Salavan, and Attapeu Provinces and assisted in emergency relief in suspected hazardous areas following a major hydroelectric dam break and subsequent flooding.
  • SOS continued to provide risk education for schoolchildren through soccer activities in the XiengKhouang and Salavan Provinces.
  • World Education, Inc. continued to support UXO survivors and their families through various projects including supporting the War Victim Medical Fund, which provides financial support for UXO survivors and their families. It focuses on emergency medical and funeral expenses, and other critical activities. World Education also continued to support integration of risk education into the primary school curriculum and development of a comprehensive case management system for UXO survivors in XiengKhouang Province. Finally, World Education worked with government of Laos agencies to conduct a needs assessment of services available to UXO survivors.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to provide an aerial survey system to facilitate project planning, supervision, and mapping.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund, in partnership with PM/WRA, continued to support World Education to improve and sustain the ability of people with disabilities to live and function independently. This assistance has prioritized UXO survivors, survivors of war, and people with disabilities who have mobility limitations.

Date: 2019 Description: In Laos a deminer sweeps for signals looking for UXO. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Marshall Islands

MARSHALL ISLANDS
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY13–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 295 460 113 1,781
Country Total 295 460 113 1,781
Dollars in thousands

More than 70 years after World War II’s end, UXO from both U.S. and Japanese forces continues to pose a threat in the Marshall Islands. In spite of massive clearance efforts in the 1950s, UXO contamination still affects some of the Marshall Islands’ atolls.

From 2013 to 2018, the United States invested more than $1.7 million in CWD in the Marshall Islands.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY17 funds):

  • Golden West conducted survey, ERW/UXO recovery, and destruction on Arno and Jaluit Atolls.

Palau

PALAU
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY09–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 505 600 655 3,580
Country Total 505 600 655 3,580
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A World War II-era 100 lb bomb is carried out of the forest in Palau. © Photo courtesy of NPA

Many of Palau’s islands are contaminated with UXO remaining from World War II. The greatest concentration, a result of fighting between U.S. and Japanese forces in 1944, still threatens the civilians living on the island of Peleliu.

From 2009 to 2018, the United States invested more than $3.5 million in CWD in Palau.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • NPA continued to work with the government of Palau to create a sustainable UXO program and respond to current UXO needs. This included creating a national UXO survey plan, conducting UXO surveys, and building the national capacity of the Palau government to manage UXO issues.

Solomon Islands

SOLOMON ISLANDS
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY11–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 350 567 550 3,913
DoD 569 200 234 2,098
Country Total 919 767 784 6,011
Dollars in thousands

The Solomon Islands faces serious impacts from World War II-era UXO. From 2011 to 2018, the United States invested more than $6 million in CWD in the Solomon Islands. Support for the remediation of UXO in the Solomon Islands is a joint capacity building effort funded by the United States and Australia.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Golden West continued training members of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) to EOD Level II and limited EOD Level III activities to support public safety UXO clearance tasks. The RSIPF EOD team also used its x-ray machines, mobile cutting system, and detonation sites to identify and destroy UXO, which continues to contaminate Hell’s Point on Guadalcanal and other sites on neighboring islands.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, through its implementing partner Golden West, continued an evaluation of the Badger armored excavator on the island of Guadalcanal. So far, the Badger has cleared 1.5 million square meters (370 acres) of extremely dense jungle vegetation in difficult terrain and found 6,151 items of UXO and abandoned pieces of ordnance (AXO). The Badger can remove thick, mature, tropical vegetation and process soil, and clears access points for EOD teams to locate and clear additional UXO/AXO at Hell’s Point.
  • USINDOPACOM and the Australian Defense Force continued supporting the RSIPF’s underwater UXO clearance capacity that began in 2014 as a series of train-the-trainer events.

Vietnam

VIETNAM
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY93–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 10,709 12,621 12,500 98,980
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 722 1,168 115 4,410
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 11,431 13,789 12,615 132,037
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: In Vietnam, a survey team prepares to destroy UXO items recovered from the surrounding community. © Photo courtesy of NPA.

Thirty years of conflict from World War II through the Vietnam War left much of Vietnam contaminated with UXO. The majority of this UXO is concentrated along the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Nam Provinces. Parts of southern Vietnam and the country’s northern border with China also remain contaminated with UXO and some landmines.

The 2018 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reported 14 casualties in 2017, up from nine reported in 2016. U.S. support for the Vietnam National Mine Action Center (VNMAC), the host government’s lead for issues related to UXO and landmines, continued in 2018 with the provision of a technical advisor and the establishment of an information management unit within VNMAC headquarters. Supporting VNMAC’s development will ensure Vietnam has the capacity to deal with residual UXO and landmine threats.

From 1993 to 2018, the United States invested more than $132 million for CWD programs in Vietnam that cleared mines and UXO, provided MRE and survivor assistance, and supported national capacity development.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS) continued to provide support to survivors of UXO and mine accidents and/or their families in Quang Tri Province. Support is customized for each beneficiary and includes medical assistance, vocational training, and education. Additionally, CRS continued a 48-month project aimed at helping provincial governments in Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Quang Nam, and the city of Danang to institutionalize risk education materials and training in schools. They also launched a smartphone app in December 2018 to teach MRE for children age 8–12. It is the first such app to be offered in the Vietnamese language and complements classroom lessons being taught in Vietnam.
  • Golden West continued to develop the capacity of the Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Tri provincial demining units so they were certified to International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) and equipped to deal with UXO contamination in their respective provinces. Additionally, Golden West provided IMAS training to PeaceTrees Vietnam
    EOD teams.
  • The International Center-Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation continued to help develop the capacity of VNMAC and the executive office of the National Mine Action Program to plan, coordinate, and manage the program in Vietnam.
  • NPA continued to provide the survey component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards. NPA also supported capacity development of VNMAC through provision of a technical advisor, development of a technical survey standard operating procedure, and establishment of an information management unit.
  • PeaceTrees Vietnam continued to field EOD response teams and fund clearance operations along the heavily contaminated Quang Tri border with Laos.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 5,500 mines and UXO from 780,000 square meters (193 acres) of land to date. HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued an operational field evaluation of soil-processing and vegetation-
    cutting attachments.
  • USINDOPACOM/USARPAC continued to partner with the Vietnam Mine Action Committee and the Vietnam Engineering Command by conducting a Phase III EOD/Blast Trauma train-the-trainer event.
Date: 2019 Description: In Vietnam, a UXO clearance team works to clear a field adjacent to a village. © Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Support

With funding from PM/WRA,

  • The Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) provided long-term risk management capacity building in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
  • With further co-funding from PM/WRA and Japan, MAG continued providing the clearance component for a comprehensive UXO survey and clearance project in Quang Binh Province, Vietnam.

East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided support for CWD in the following country.

  • Thailand: USINDOPACOM and the U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Pacific deepened its partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center and Royal Thai Armed Forces Engineering Command by conducting Program Development Visit Pre-Deployment Site Survey and Phase I, II, and III EOD/Blast Trauma train-the-trainer programs.

Regional Profile: Europe

Europe Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Europe from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $420 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in Europe by Country: Albania 10.53%; Armenia 3.37%; Azerbaijan 7.37%; Bosnia & Herzegovina 27.44%; Bulgaria 2.51%; Croatia 9.41%; Cyprus 0.15%; Czech Republic 0.14%; Estonia 1.18%; Georgia 8.66%; Hungary 0.08%; Kosovo 7.65%; Lithuania 0.12%; Moldova 0.20%; Montenegro 2.64%; North Macedonia 0.48%; Romania 0.60%; Serbia 5.13%; Serbia & Montenegro 1.34%; Slovenia 0.06%; Ukraine 10.94%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 71. - State Dept Image

Our enduring CWD priorities for Europe are to prevent illicit transfers of SA/LW and unplanned ammunition depot explosions through PSSM programs, and to clear landmines and UXO left from the Yugoslav Wars and from ongoing Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine. The United States continues to support regional security and build national capacity through a military stockpile reduction initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, clear cluster munitions from the Kosovo War, reduce stockpiles in Serbia, clear “UXO Hotspots” in Albania, and perform battle area clearance in Ukraine. These programs also help return cleared land back to productive use.

Since 1993, the United States has supported extensive efforts to rid Eastern Europe of the vestiges of past conflicts, providing more than $420 million in CWD support. Funding and clearance efforts by the United States and other donors have already freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and UXO.

Albania

ALBANIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY00–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 1,200 1,000 42,247
DoD 100 33 80 577
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 1,600 1,233 1,080 44,213
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: The United States is working with UNDP/SEESAC to more safely and securely store hand grenades and other munitions held by Albanian authorities. © Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State

After the fall of the communist dictatorship in 1991, Albania was left with immense stockpiles of obsolete, deteriorating, and poorly-maintained weapons and munitions. During civil unrest in the 1990s, many weapons and munitions depots were looted or burned. Significant amounts of ammunition were scattered, leaving large swaths of land that were dangerous, uninhabitable, or unfit for use. Although Albania declared itself “mine free” in 2009, it continues to face UXO contamination from unplanned munitions stockpile explosions. UXO at former military impact ranges and depot explosion sites, known in Albania as “UXO hotspots,” remain a threat.

From 2000 to 2018, the United States provided more than $44.2 million to Albania for CWD efforts that included “hotspot” clearance, PSSM, and SA/LW projects.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF and NPA cleared and released 4,561 square meters (1.1 acres) of land, and found and destroyed 143 UXO and 993 small arms ammunition at Sinanaj-Tepelenë, a former munitions depot site. ITF and NPA also continued technical survey and clearance of contaminated “hotspots” in JubeSukth, returning 198,824 square meters (49 acres) of land to the local community and removing over 14,900 pieces of UXO and five anti-tank mines.
  • UNDP/South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) began plans for security upgrades for the Ministry of Interior at the Mullet facility to allow safer and more secure weapons storage. UNDP/SEESAC also initiated plans for physical security and safety upgrades at the Miraka and Zall-Herr facilities for the Ministry of Defense.
  • ITF and UNDP/SEESAC, with U.S. funding, continued support to the Albanian Mine and Munitions Coordination Office.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States Air Forces in Europe–Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA), and the State Partnership Program observed one Albanian Armed Forces-led EOD train-the-trainer event and conducted an IMAS EOD Level II train-the-trainer event. U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) also funded a training range upgrade to provide a safe, efficient, and practical training area. USEUCOM, the State Partnership Program, HDTC, and Golden West completed an International Ammunition Technical Guidelines Risk Reduction Process Level Assessment of two strategic depots and one unit level depot in order to verify and identify the need for training, as well as subjects and required infrastructure upgrades needed for safety and security.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY96–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,500 2,750 2,000 85,381
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 78 249 126 5,113
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 4,578 2,999 2,126 115,204
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: MDD Yser is one of the MDDs funded by the U.S. State Department with his handler Igor ?umar, in the training field in Konjic, Bosnia. © Photo courtesy of MDDC

Over 20 years after the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts, Bosnia and Herzegovina remains heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO. It also inherited an aging stockpile of conventional arms and unstable ammunition from the former Yugoslav National Army. Most remaining minefields are in the area of separation between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the RepublikaSrpska, and around strategic facilities such as ammunition or weapons depots. As of December 2018, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center (BHMAC) estimated that 2 percent (1,040 square kilometers or 401 square miles) of its territory remained as either suspected or confirmed hazardous areas.

From 1996 to 2018, the United States provided more than $115.2 million in CWD programs in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including landmine clearance, MRE, survivor assistance, and weapons and ammunition stockpile destruction.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Janus, in coordination with the Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Defense and the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo, destroyed 589.84 metric tons (5,361,351 items) of excess, obsolete arms and ammunition.
  • Small Arms Survey published the Life-Cycle Management of Ammunition handbook in April 2018, using Bosnia and Herzegovina as a case study. The handbook informs states how to develop and implement a sustainable approach to ammunition management.
  • ITF returned 1,386,076 square meters (342 acres) of land to productive use through manual demining or technical survey throughout the country by utilizing local, private operators working in close coordination with the U.S. Embassy in Sarajevo and BHMAC.
  • ITF, in partnership with the United States and the government of Japan, enabled the safe return of 591,722 square meters (146 acres) of land to productive use through manual clearance and technical survey.
  • MAG continued land release projects, returning 550,567 square meters (136 acres) to local communities.
  • Mine Detection Dog Center of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MDDC) completed a land release project in Olovo Municipality, returning 2,426,436 square meters (600 acres) of land to the Petrovici community. This project benefitted more than 16,900 local citizens either directly or indirectly.
  • Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) utilized MDDC to clear and release 42,138 square meters (10 acres) of land in the Busova?a Municipality.
  • MLI also continued its Children Against Mines Program (CHAMPS). Through CHAMPS, MLI provided MRE to over 8,850 individuals, provided 13 landmine survivors with prosthetics and rehabilitative care, and connected schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina with schools in the United States.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, evaluated the RAMBO demining team support vehicle, an aerial survey system, and the Target Reacquisition and Positioning System to facilitate project planning, supervision, and mapping.

Croatia

CROATIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY99–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,040 0 0 38,728
DoD 0 28 55 796
Country Total 2,040 28 55 39,524
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: In Croatia, ITF disposes of Soviet 130 mm AP-T projectiles that have been defused and the explosive charge removed. © Photo courtesy of ITF

Croatia was left with extensive landmine and UXO contamination from the Yugoslav Wars, which ended in 1995. Croatia is still affected by these legacy mines and UXO, and maintains a robust commercial demining sector. The Croatian government funds more than 90 percent of the demining projects, in addition to research and development for demining-related technologies. Croatia possesses a sizeable stockpile of conventional arms and munitions inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds its national defense requirements. Much of this materiel is beyond its shelf life and requires destruction or demilitarization.

From 1999 to 2018, the United States provided more than $39.5 million for CWD in Croatia.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY15 and FY16 funds):

  • ITF completed renovations for the Ministry of Interior’s weapons storage facility at Gaj near Dakovo and procured protective and operational equipment for the Ministry of Interior to enable EOD teams to respond to explosive threats in urban environments.
  • ITF initiated safety and security upgrades to three munitions storage facilities for the Ministry of Defense near Doljani, Split, and Plo?e.
  • ITF also worked closely with the Ministry of Defense to demilitarize or destroy 826.68 metric tons of excess or aging munitions (18,322 items).

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM and Naval Forces Europe completed an EOD Level I train-the-trainer event with the Croatian Navy Dive unit.

Georgia

GEORGIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 500 0 29,105
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 20 55 55 1,620
USAID 0 1,998 1,000 2,998
Country Total 20 2,553 1,055 36,367
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A UXO clearance team on the scene of an unplanned explosion at the Primorsky depot in Georgia. © Photo courtesy of HALO

In addition to inheriting large stockpiles of old and deteriorating Soviet munitions, Georgia is also contaminated with landmines and UXO from the conflicts in the South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions of Georgia, and the more recent 2008 conflict with Russia. This contamination is concentrated along the boundary lines between these regions and around former Soviet military bases. In November 2011, all 336 known minefields in the Abkhazia region were declared by HALO to be “mine free.” The government of Georgia’s goal is to clear all residual UXO contamination independently, using national funds and EOD resources.

From 1998 to 2018, the United States provided more than $36.3 million in CWD programs in Georgia aimed at training, clearance, safe disposal of mines and UXO, and destruction of excess and aging conventional military weapons and ammunition.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY17 funds):

  • HALO began battle area clearance in December, clearing 4,764 square meters (1.1 acre) of land and destroying 798 items of UXO.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM continued to collaborate with the Georgian military for the fourth year, providing EOD, battle area clearance, and emergency medical assistance via train-the-trainer engagements.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Emory University to strengthen capacity of physical rehabilitation professionals and expand access to rehabilitation care, including access to appropriate assistive technology.

Kosovo

KOSOVO
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY96–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 475 1,250 0 9,725
DoD 204 71 86 4,946
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 679 1,321 86 32,143
Dollars in thousands

UXO contamination in Kosovo resulted primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later between the FRY and NATO forces in 1999.

From 1996 to 2018, the United States provided more than $32.1 million in CWD efforts in Kosovo to support non-technical survey, technical survey, and battle area clearance programs.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO returned 305,640 square meters (76 acres) of land to local populations in Ponoshec, Komogllavë, and Nerodime, by conducting survey and battle area clearance.
  • NPA returned 747,900 square meters (185 acres) of land to local communities in the areas of Gaziv, Makve, Mokra Gora, Zubin Potok, and OstraStijena, by performing survey and battle area clearance activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, cleared 212,000 square meters (52 acres) of land and removed 26 mines since 2016 using HSTAMIDS dual-head mine detectors loaned by HD R&D.
  • USEUCOM conducted a multi-national EOD Level II event with the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF). The Kosovo Security Force supported their own transportation and billeting was supplied by the AAF.

Montenegro

MONTENEGRO
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY07–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,750 0 0 9,199
DoD 562 30 141 1,888
COUNTRY TOTAL 2,312 30 141 11,087
Dollars in thousands

Montenegro’s UXO contamination stems from the conflicts during the breakup of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. NATO air strikes in Montenegro between March and June 1999 dropped cluster bombs that scattered approximately 4,000 submunitions, some of which failed to explode. Currently 1.7 million square meters (420 acres) of land contains cluster munition remnants in the three municipalities of Ro?aje, Plav, and Golubovic.

From 2007 to 2018, the United States invested more than $11 million in CWD efforts in Montenegro to support SA/LW and PSSM activities in addition to mine and UXO clearance programs.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY16 funds):

  • ITF continued a PSSM project to reduce national stocks of excess and obsolete arms and ammunition and improve munitions storage facilities. A memorandum of understanding was signed between the government of Montenegro and ITF to begin destruction and demilitarization activities in 2019.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM deployed a humanitarian demining training expert to provide mentorship and oversight to the Montenegrin Navy Hydrographic Institute and Montenegrin Navy in the subjects of U.S. Navy SCUBA and Dive Medicine.

Serbia

SERBIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY07–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,100 1,250 1,000 21,230
DoD 200 107 0 310
Country Total 2,300 1,357 1,000 21,540
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Left photo: A deminer at work in Bujonovac-Lucane, Serbia; Right photo: A tripwire-activated fragmentation mine excavated in Serbia. © Photos courtesy of ITF

Serbia’s landmine and UXO contamination is the result of the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s and NATO air strikes targeting military sites during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. In addition to UXO, landmine contamination persists along Serbia’s shared borders with Kosovo. As of April 2018, six villages in the municipality of Bujanovac were still contaminated with landmines. Cluster munition contamination was confirmed or suspected in six municipalities for a total area of 1.8 square kilometers (444.8 acres). Serbia also faces additional risks of illicit proliferation and unplanned detonation of the large stockpiles of aging munitions it inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army.

From 2007 to 2018, the United States invested more than $21.5 million in CWD efforts in Serbia supporting SA/LW and munitions destruction programs and reducing mine and UXO contamination.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • UNDP/SEESAC completed safety and security upgrades at the Ministry of Interior’s SA/LW storage facility near Avala.
  • ITF cleared and released the following former mine-contaminated sites in the Bujanovac municipality, with combined funding from the United States, Republic of Serbia, and Republic of South Korea: 220,000 square meters (54 acres) at Dobrosin, 145,100 square meters (36 acres) at Dordevacki rid, 73,200 square meters (18 acres) at Lucane, and 71,120 square meters (18 acres) at Topolska Mahala.
  • The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) began infrastructure improvements to the Tehnicki Remontni Zavod Kraguevac (TRZK) demilitarization facility to more safely demilitarize and destroy munitions under the PfPTF. U.S. funding also procured melt-out equipment to enhance the capacity and capability of TRZK.

Ukraine

UKRAINE
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY04–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 6,000 6,000 40,067
DoD 108 656 656 1,900
USAID 920 1,048 958 3,957
Country Total 3,028 7,704 7,614 45,924
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Workers at the Hrecheny factory in Ukraine disassembling Soviet era air-to-air missiles. © Photo by NSPA

Ukraine continues to address the legacy of the large quantities of conventional arms and ammunition it inherited after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2005, NSPA estimated Ukraine held as many as seven million SA/LW and stored as much as two million metric tons of ammunition in more than 80 depots. Much of these munitions are excess, aging, potentially unstable, and no longer suitable for use. They represent a significant security and proliferation threat to the country and the region as a whole. In October 2018, major explosions at the Ichnya ammunition depot in Chernihiv Oblast resulted in mass evacuations and power outages.

The now five-year long ongoing conflict with Russia-led forces in eastern Ukraine has resulted in a line of contact between the Ukrainian government and the anti-government forces Russia arms, trains, leads, and fights alongside. The line of contact running through the Donetsk and Luhansk regions suffers from extensive landmine and UXO contamination. These explosive hazards pose a major threat to thousands of Ukrainians living in the conflict area. In 2018, there were 26 civilian and 31 military ERW-related deaths, and 56 civilian and 39 military ERW-related injuries in eastern Ukraine.

From 2004 to 2018, the United States provided more than $45.9 million for SA/LW and ammunition destruction, as well as battle area clearance activities in Ukraine.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO cleared and returned 227,085 square meters (56 acres) of land to local communities, benefitting more than 59,600 Ukrainians. HALO also conducted 53 MRE sessions in eastern Ukrainian communities.
  • DDG began a project to enhance the capacity of State Emergency Services (SES) personnel with IMAS-compliant training which included EOD Level III and IMAS-compliant non-technical survey trainings.
  • The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Project Coordinator Unit (PCU) continued its role advising the government of Ukraine on establishing a national authority in humanitarian mine action. In December, through the OSCE PCU’s work, the Ukrainian Parliament (Rada) adopted national mine action legislation.
  • The United States funded the destruction or demilitarization of 1,746.74 metric tons of munitions via the PfPTF, with NSPA as our implementing partner. The United States is the lead nation for the PfPTF, which demilitarizes and destroys excess munitions to lower the risk of unplanned depot explosions and reduce the security threat they pose.
  • Implemented by NSPA, the United States contributed to the Slovak Republic-led NATO Trust Fund to Counter-IEDs. This contribution funded a two-week training course for 30 SES EOD threat responders.
  • In response to Ukraine’s needs to more safely and securely store their stockpiles, HALO initiated the planning phase to construct six explosive storehouses at Ministry of Defense facilities.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM completed one EOD train-the-trainer event with the Ukrainian SES, Special Transport Service, and Ministry of Defense Forces.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported UCP/Wheels for Humanity to provide training for rehabilitation service personnel and economic empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities.

Date: 2019 Description: Learning to service wheelchairs in Ukraine is part of a USAID effort to assist conflict survivors through the Leahy War Victims Fund. © Photo courtesy of USAID

Europe--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided support for CWD in other European countries.

  • Armenia: U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) and USEUCOM conducted an IMAS EOD Level I train-the-trainer event. This training course is the first EOD course within Armenia and will lay the groundwork for a future indigenous training cadre of forces that will train future EOD technicians and deminers in the country.
  • Azerbaijan: U.S. Army Europe (USAREUR) conducted training on white phosphorus remediation. While Azerbaijan’s National Mine Action has conducted white phosphorus clearance in the past; previous assessments by USAREUR noted that their standard operating procedures required modification in order to increase safety to the deminers and EOD technicians.
  • Cyprus: USEUCOM provided PSSM assistance to the Cyprus National Guard to reduce the likelihood of additional unplanned explosions of its ammunition. USAREUR conducted an EOD Level I train-the-trainer event to increase the capacity of the Cyprus National Guard to conduct basic EOD skills.
  • Estonia: USEUCOM completed a site visit for a future underwater dive train-the-trainer event with the Estonian Rescue Board.
  • Moldova: USEUCOM, HDTC, USAREUR, USAFE-AFAFRICA, and Golden West completed the inaugural PSSM train-the-trainer event with Moldovan forces in the areas of risk management, UN explosive hazard classification system, security, and ammunition accounting. The training was coordinated with facility upgrades to the Floresti Depot. USEUCOM humanitarian mine action also partnered with PM/WRA, OSCE, and the Austrian Verification Unit to provide infrastructure upgrades and coordinate future training. Renovations on the Moldovan Engineer Battalion began in 2017 and will be completed in 2019, significantly increasing the effectiveness of its future humanitarian mine action training.

Regional Profile: Middle East and North Africa

Middle East and North Africa Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Middle East and North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $779 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in the Middle East and North Africa by Country: Bahrain 0.00%*; Egypt 0.09%; Iraq 64.03%; Jordan 3.67%; Lebanon 9.14%; Libya 5.73%; Morocco 0.06%; Oman 0.56%; West Bank .93%; Syria 10.42%; Tunisia 0.18%; Yemen 5.19%. *less than 0.01%. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line on page 71. - State Dept Image

United States CWD programs play a critical role in enhancing stability and improving human security in the Middle East and North Africa. In Iraq, Libya, Lebanon, and Syria, ISIS-emplaced IEDs and landmines continue to terrorize returning communities and impede stabilization. In Libya, illicit trafficking of SA/LW fuels both domestic and regional violence, slowing the return of displaced communities. In Yemen, significant quantities of ERW and the widespread use of landmines continue to kill civilians and hinder the delivery of humanitarian aid.

According to the 2018 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, 2017 was the third year in a row with very high numbers of recorded casualties caused by mines and ERW. This was due in large part to the continuing high total number of casualties related to ongoing conflicts in Libya, Syria, and Yemen. In 2017, significant underreporting of casualties for Iraq continued. This seemed to be exacerbated by a severe deficiency in the recording of casualties from improvised mines. Final casualty figures are not yet available for 2018.

The United States has invested more than $779 million in CWD funding since 1993 to help foster regional stability in the Middle East and North Africa. Survey, marking, and clearance projects enable the safe return of displaced families to their communities, as well as develop strong and capable local humanitarian mine action capacities. MRE projects prevent deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provide rehabilitation and reintegration support. Lastly, U.S. funds support capacity-building programs to further develop partner nations’ expertise and ensure an enduring capability exists to address mines and ERW over the long term. By addressing the dangers posed by these explosive threats, these programs help lay the groundwork for stability and prosperity across the region.

Iraq

IRAQ
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY03–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 30,945 106,350 40,000 391,461
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 58 209 85 105,322
Country Total 31,003 106,559 40,085 498,225
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A Janus EOD tech mentors an Iraqi operator on removing an ISIS IED. © Photo courtesy of Janus

ISIS’s prolonged occupation of extensive territory in Iraq, in some cases lasting more than three years, resulted in an unprecedented level of explosive contamination in the form of IEDs, UXO, and landmines. ISIS used mass-produced, technologically advanced IEDs to defend captured territory and target Iraqi Security Forces, as well as to booby-trap homes, public spaces, farmland, and infrastructure to discourage the return of IDPs and redevelopment of local economies. As IDPs return to their homes, these devices continue to perpetuate ISIS’s reign of terror by indiscriminately killing civilians and impeding stabilization operations. In addition to ISIS-related contamination, other parts of Iraq remain impacted by millions of mines and ERW from conflicts dating back to the 1940s. Numerous large barrier minefields and ERW remain along the Iran/Iraq border as a result of the 1980s conflict between the two nations. In addition, the Gulf War and the conflict that began in 2003 resulted in ERW contamination in southern Iraq.

From 2003 to 2018, the United States invested more than $498 million in Iraq for the clearance and disposal of IEDs, mines, ERW, and excess conventional munitions that were vulnerable to illicit trafficking in addition to providing MRE and capacity building.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG cleared more than 8,200 explosive hazards in southern Iraq, including U.S.-origin ERW. They assisted in developing the program capacity of the Regional Mine Action Center-South (RMAC-S) in coordination with Iraq’s Directorate of Mine Action (DMA) and delivered MRE to more than 14,000 men, women, and children in southern Iraq.
  • Swiss Foundation for Demining (FSD) cleared over 2,900 IEDs and other ERW in towns liberated from ISIS between Mosul and Erbil, including areas historically inhabited by Christian, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka’i, and Turkmen minority communities, thereby increasing civilian security, facilitating the return of IDPs, and enabling the safe resumption of farming and animal husbandry.
  • Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) continued to provide operational information management assistance and strategic planning capacity building support to Iraqi national mine action authorities. They also helped coordinate demining efforts between Iraqi authorities and organizations conducting demining operations in support of broader stabilization efforts and served as third-party monitors for U.S.-funded demining projects.
  • MAG cleared more than 4,500 explosive hazards in Iraqi Kurdistan and areas liberated from ISIS in the Ninewa Plains and Sinjar, increasing human security and allowing IDPs, including those from predominantly Christian, Shabak, and Yazidi villages, to safely return home and begin rebuilding their lives. MAG also provided MRE to increase the safety of civilians living in areas impacted by ISIS and legacy contamination.
  • NPA cleared over 7,900 explosive hazards in southern Iraq and provided technical advisors to strengthen the ability of Iraq’s Regional Mine Action Center-South in its role as the regulatory body for coordinating and monitoring mine action activities in southern Iraq.
  • SoS held soccer workshops across Iraq that provided more than 63,000 children education and outreach about the risks posed by ERW, trauma resilience training for those affected by ISIS-related violence, and a meaningful alternative to joining extremist groups and participating in at-risk behavior.
  • Janus cleared more than 5,300 explosive hazards from critical infrastructure in areas liberated from ISIS associated with the delivery of clean water, power, healthcare, education, and governance, as well as facilities used for manufacturing building materials and supporting agricultural development.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, has cleared over 2,200 mines and UXO from over 274,000 cubic meters (9.6 million cubic feet) of soil to date, through the use of an experimental Rebel rock crusher, which they continue to evaluate. The Rebel is a complete contaminated soil processing plant, with several excavator sifting attachments, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and multiple commercial front-loader attachments.

Date: 2019 Description: MAG's heavy machinery is used to clear IEDs laid by ISIS and rubble in Iraq's Sinjar District. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Jordan

JORDAN
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY96–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 400 400 22,836
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 400 400 400 28,522
Dollars in thousands

Jordan remains a key strategic U.S. partner in the region. While Jordan made significant progress in remediating the threat of landmines and ERW from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war, residual contamination remains along the northern border and in the Jordan River Valley.

From 1996 to 2018, the United States invested more than $28.5 million in CWD programs in Jordan, to include the clearance of mines and ERW, delivery of MRE, rehabilitation and reintegration support for survivors of mine and UXO accidents, and destruction of unserviceable and obsolete weapons and ammunition.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Polus continued to provide rehabilitative care, vocational training, and prosthetics to Jordanian and Syrian survivors of mine and UXO accidents.

Lebanon

LEBANON
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,500 4,000 4,000 49,999
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 39 39 22 9,294
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 4,539 4,039 4,022 71,143
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Deminers in Lebanon prepare to destroy UXO. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Lebanon remains contaminated with mines and ERW from the 1975–1991 civil war, the laying of minefields on the Blue Line between 1984–2000, the Israel-Hizballah conflict of 2006, and the recent activity of ISIS and other extremist groups in northeastern Lebanon. As of late 2018, approximately 46 million square meters (11,366 acres) of contaminated land remained according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center (LMAC). Since 1975, mines and ERW have killed more than 900 people and injured over 2,800. The threat of ERW, especially in southern Lebanon, continues to hamper economic development, as approximately 70 percent of contaminated land is fertile soil well suited for agricultural use. The Syria conflict has also created additional ERW-related risks for Syrian refugees who transit or inhabit areas with known ERW contamination and IEDs left by ISIS and other violent extremist groups in Lebanon’s northeast border regions. The LMAC updated Lebanon’s national mine action standards in 2018 to bring them in line with international best practices. These new standards, along with quarterly technical working group meetings involving the LMAC and NGOs, increased operational efficiency across Lebanon in 2018 and will play an important role as it works to become free of the impact of explosive hazards.

From 1998 to 2018, the United States invested more than $71.1 million in CWD for Lebanon.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA and their Lebanese NGO partner LAMiNDA cleared more than 760 explosive hazards, returned over 141,000 square meters (35 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities, and continued to build the capacity of LAMiNDA.
  • HI cleared more than 39 mines and other explosive hazards and returned over 44,700 square meters (11 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities in North Lebanon.
  • MAG cleared over 2,463 mines and other explosive hazards, returned more than 59,300 square meters (15 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities for economic development, and provided risk education to 1,409 men, women, and children in southern and central Lebanon.
  • NPA cleared over 50 explosive hazards and returned more than 90,520 square meters (22 acres) of previously contaminated land to local communities in South Lebanon.
  • MLI continued to develop the LMAC’s capacity to use mine detection dogs and provided prosthetics and vocational training to civilians injured by mines and ERW.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate several soil-excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments on their own armored excavators. In addition, the Terrapin small excavator is speeding manual clearance by cutting and removing thick vegetation and excavating rocky areas to expose UXO. Since 2011, HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 4,933 mines and UXO from 189,000 square meters (47 acres) of land.

Libya

LIBYA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY11–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 16,000 1,000 25,000
DOS OTHER 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 2,500 16,000 1,000 44,575
Dollars in thousands

Stockpiles of conventional weapons and ammunition proliferated throughout Libya and adjoining regions during the 2011 revolution. Since 2014, fierce fighting among Libyan security forces, rival militias, and VEOs resulted in additional contamination, including IEDs, in areas previously occupied by ISIS and its affiliates. Although the full extent of contamination is unknown, there are at least 166 million square meters (41,019 acres) of confirmed hazardous area. In addition to ERW contamination, illicit SA/LW proliferation fuels conflict in Libya and its neighbors. The U.S. government is working with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to mitigate the threats that conventional weapons pose to civilians and security.

From 2011 to 2018, the United States invested more than $44.5 million working with partners and allies to coordinate a CWD response with a focus on MANPADS destruction and ERW clearance.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA, co-funded by the United Kingdom, conducted battle area clearance, EOD “spot” tasks, and MRE in central Sirte. Since August 2018, DCA has cleared over 300 UXO items weighing a total of more than seven tons.
  • DDG worked to mitigate the threat of mines and ERW through non-technical surveys on the outskirts of Sirte. Following its liberation in December 2016, DDG continued to conduct EOD “spot” tasks in and around Sirte where they removed 168 UXO items. DDG also cleared 1.6 million square meters (395 acres) of suspected hazardous area from the national data base using non-technical surveys.
  • ITF continued to sustain the Libya Mine Action Center (LibMAC), supporting staff and facilities maintenance and the development of standard operating procedures and national standards while building ERW destruction capacity. With ITF support, the LibMAC issued over 30 task orders, conducted over 40 quality assurance visits, and accredited 14 NGO demining teams.
  • Janus trained and mentored a cadre of 52 IED disposal operators from the Libyan Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior. Germany and the United Kingdom contributed to the project.

Syria

SYRIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY13–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 9,510 63,000 0 81,060
Country Total 9,510 63,000 0 81,060
Dollars in thousands

The Syrian civil war (2011–present) and the rise of ISIS have resulted in massive contamination of explosive hazards, from traditional landmines and ERW to highly-complex IEDs. Due to ongoing conflict, it is unclear how much of the country is affected. Clearing explosive hazards contamination is a fundamental first step to enhancing security, facilitating humanitarian access, and ultimately enabling stabilization assistance in areas liberated from ISIS, making the need for humanitarian mine action a top priority. Due to a lack of domestic Syrian humanitarian mine action capacity and a non-permissive operating environment, the United States and other international donors must rely on foreign companies and NGOs to survey, mark, and clear explosive hazards while simultaneously training Syrians to start building national capacity.

From 2013 to 2018, the Department of State contributed over $81 million to humanitarian mine action efforts in northeast Syria, and through experienced mine action implementing partners has cleared more than 25,500 explosive hazards from over 24.5 million square meters (6,054 acres) in Manbij, Tabqa, and Raqqa; and trained over 300 Syria nationals to international standards. To date, the focus has been on critical infrastructure, clearing over 650 sites such as schools, hospitals, electrical grid facilities, and water pumping stations to facilitate restoration of critical services. In addition, communities are participating in MRE across the northeast to teach civilians and returnees how to identify and respond if they encounter explosive hazards.

Yemen

YEMEN
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY97–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,500 9,000 2,000 35,555
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 3,500 9,000 2,000 40,401
Dollars in thousands

The ongoing conflict in Yemen between the Iranian-backed Houthis and the Republic of Yemen Government has resulted in heavy mine and ERW contamination across much of Yemen. This contamination threatens human security, impedes delivery of humanitarian assistance, and blocks access to basic social services. U.S. assistance seeks to reduce the negative impact of these explosive hazards through supporting survey, clearance, risk education, and survivor assistance programs across Yemen.

From 1997 to 2018, the United States invested more than $40.4 million in CWD programs in Yemen.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • UNDP’s engagement with the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) enabled the clearance of over 7.43 million square meters (1,836 acres) of contaminated land and the removal of approximately 115,000 explosive hazards. More than 301,574 Yemenis benefited from UNDP’s ERW risk education efforts.
  • MLI continued to conduct the CHAMPS and Survivor’s Assistance programs in partnership with the Yemeni Association of Landmine Survivors and YEMAC to provide MRE, medical assistance, rehabilitative care, and vocational training to more than 130 mine survivors.
  • HALO worked with YEMAC to strengthen its capacity to address a wide range of explosive hazards across Yemen.

West Bank

WEST BANK
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY98–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 7,088
DoD 0 44 85 149
Country Total 1,000 1,044 1,085 7,237
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A HALO excavator with a HD R&D Program screening bucket sifts for landmines in the West Bank. © Photo courtesy of HD R&D

Landmines and UXO contaminate the West Bank after decades of conflict beginning in 1948. The exact amount of contamination is unknown, but a 2012 survey of the West Bank identified 90 minefields. The Jordanian military laid 13 of these fields from 1948 to 1967, and the Israeli military laid 77 more following the 1967 war. Subsequently, Israel Defense Forces (IDF) conducted training exercises in parts of the West Bank that resulted in additional UXO contamination, which was often encountered by the local population while herding and farming. Following years of negotiations, clearance activities started in April 2014. This milestone marked the beginning of the first humanitarian mine action program to clear mines and UXO in the West Bank in nearly 50 years. These ongoing efforts have been thoroughly coordinated between the operational mine action NGOs, Israeli National Mine Action Authority (INMAA), Palestinian Mine Action Center (PMAC), the United States, and international donors.

From 2011 to 2018, the United States invested more than $7.2 million in CWD funding for survey and clearance operations in the West Bank.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO completed clearance at four mutually agreed upon minefields and worked on three additional sites in 2018 with a combination of demining and mechanical teams. These efforts directly benefitted over 180 Palestinian land owners. HALO continued close cooperation with INMAA, the IDF, and the PMAC to approve additional minefields for clearance.
  • ITF conducted quality assurance and quality control on the minefields being cleared by HALO in the West Bank.

With funding from the U.S. Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated two soil-sifting excavator attachments, a Ferex 4.034 magnetometer system, an aerial survey system, and a Target Reacquisition and Positioning System—a low-cost differential global positioning system—that can map humanitarian demining tasks. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 26,000 square meters (6.4 acres) of land in the West Bank in 2018.

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, USAFRICOM, the Utah National Guard, and the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa in Morocco conducted basic ERW clearance, EOD Level II operations, and a survivor assistance mission to enhance the ability of Moroccan medical personnel.

Regional Profile: South and Central Asia

South and Central Asia Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in South and Central Asia from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $594 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in South and Central Asia by Country: Afghanistan 83.62%; India 0.05%; Kazakhstan 0.05%; Kyrgyz Republic 0.38%; Nepal 0.81%; Pakistan 0.14%; Sri Lanka 10.77%; Tajikistan 4.17%; Uzbekistan 0.02%. Turkmenistan benefited in FY13 from Defense Threat Reduction Agency programs. The funding does not appear on the chart above or the funding charts beginning on page 65 because the Defense Threat Reduction Agency does not assign dollar amounts to countries. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 71. - State Dept Image

U.S. assistance to South and Central Asian countries continues to promote U.S., regional, and global security priorities. This support enables recipient countries to take the lead on CWD projects to secure their own weapons and ammunition, promote peace and stability, and strengthen economic ties.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $594 million in CWD funding to South and Central Asia. Funding for Afghanistan accounts for more than $495.3 million of that amount. Despite continuing security volatility, Afghanistan has one of the most established mine action programs in the world with significant capacity and experience. The Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpiles, which are near populated areas. In Sri Lanka, landmines and UXO threaten regional security and impede the resettlement of communities. Tajikistan continues to be a regional leader for mine action and CWD work.

Afghanistan

AFGHANISTAN
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY93–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 32,066 20,500 20,000 413,285
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 451 134 225 8,851
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 32,517 20,634 20,225 495,383
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Uncovering abandoned munitions caches is all in a day's work for HALO's weapons and ammunition destruction teams in Parwan Province, Afghanistan. © Photo courtesy of ITF

In order to strengthen Afghanistan’s capabilities as a partner and to improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides CWD funding and support to help Afghanistan clear legacy landmine and UXO contamination left by the 1979 Soviet invasion and internal armed conflict from 1992 to 2001. The extensive use of IEDs by VEOs (e.g., Taliban, ISIS-Khorasan) accounted for approximately 60 percent of all casualties recorded by the Directorate for Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) from January 2016 to February 2017.

As of December 2017, DMAC reported 862 square kilometers (333 miles) of contamination (suspected and confirmed minefields, battlefields, and high-explosive training ranges), which directly impacts over six million people—all of those living within 1,000 meters (3,280 feet) of a known hazard area and indirectly affecting the entire population of Afghanistan.

From 1993 to 2018, the United States provided more than $495.3 million for CWD and demining assistance to Afghanistan. As of December 2018, implementing partners have cleared over 261 square kilometers (101 miles) of land and removed or destroyed approximately eight million mines and pieces of UXO, stockpiled munitions, and homemade explosives.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • NPA assisted PM/WRA in the monitoring and evaluation of more than 200 mine clearance projects, five Afghan nongovernmental organizations, and two international nongovernmental organizations.
  • Afghan Technical Consultants continued clearance operations in Parwan, Laghman, and Baghlan Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by the DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • The Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) conducted its fifth year of community-based demining projects in the Zharey District of Kandahar Province. DAFA also began clearance of cluster munition hazard sites and concluded clearance operations in Nimroz Province on high-priority tasks in May.
  • FSD continued clearance operations in northern Badakhshan Province on high-priority tasks selected by the DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • GICHD held its annual Afghanistan Donor and Implementing Partner Workshop to support DMAC. This four-day workshop allowed Afghan nationals and international representatives to discuss program management and donor mobilization.
  • HALO continued weapons and ammunition disposal and assessments throughout central, western, and northern Afghanistan. HALO also deployed eight CWD teams that responded to call-outs to identify, secure, and destroy SA/LW, ammunition, and explosive material. In addition, HALO managed demining projects in Kabul, Nangarhar, Baghlan, Kapisa, and Panjshir Provinces, conducting clearance operations on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • ITF continued its support to DMAC with emphasis on developing host-nation capacity through enhanced Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) training and program management skills development. The ITF also continued to support a medical clinic at the Mine Detection Center (MDC) in Kabul, a collaborative project between the United States and the government of Slovenia.
  • The Mine Clearance Planning Agency continued non-technical surveys in 26 UXO-contaminated districts located within 10 provinces throughout Afghanistan.
  • MDC concluded its fifth year of community-based demining in the Zharey District of Kandahar Province and conducted clearance operations in Nangarhar Province on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) conducted clearance operations in Kabul and Nangarhar Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA. OMAR also provided explosive risk education to school children in Kabul Province.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued evaluations of equipment to clear mines and perform technical surveys in villages and agricultural areas throughout Afghanistan. The equipment included the Storm Steep Slope Excavator; Minehound, a hand-held detector for minimum-metal anti-tank mines; Orbit Screen, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders; and three Raptor, armored tractors with the Rotary Mine Comb anti-tank mine clearance attachment. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 12.8 million square meters (3,163 acres) of land and 22,800 mines and UXO to date.

Kyrgyz Republic

KYRGYZ REPUBLIC
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY09–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 285 750 0 2,235
DoD 0 0 0 7
Country Total 285 750 0 2,242
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: High-explosive ammunition on the disassembly line, part of U.S. efforts to help Kyrgyzstan safely dispose of its aging and unstable munitions. © Photo courtesy of ITF

Like many former Soviet republics, the Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpile storage sites that threaten civilians’ safety due to their proximity to populated areas.

From 2009 to 2018, the United States invested more than $2.2 million to assist the Kyrgyz Republic to rehabilitate existing explosives storage facilities and to segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable conventional munitions. Such activities develop host nation capacity to prevent spontaneous explosions and injuries to civilian populations living near storage depots and reduce the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions from stockpiles.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with FY17 funds):

  • ITF continued national capacity training and development, and deployed a Slovenian Ministry of Defense expert to advise, assist and support the Kyrgyz Ministry of Defense with the securing, demilitarization, and destruction of excess and unserviceable munition stockpiles. This included the demilitarization of more than 40,000 pieces of large-caliber ammunition and the destruction of 376 metric tons of other munitions.

Sri Lanka

SRI LANKA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY95–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 5,000 3,500 51,341
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 601 697 310 4,239
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 3,101 5,697 3,810 63,777
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: A deminer conducts manual clearance in Sri Lanka. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Landmines and UXO still contaminate Sri Lanka a decade after the end of a 26-year armed conflict between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. After the war ended in 2009, demining activities immediately commenced in the north and east. Contamination remains a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and to other development initiatives. This is particularly true as the government returns land previously held by the military. The widespread presence of mines and UXO pose an ongoing threat to the safety of returnees to such areas. According to the National Mine Action Center, approximately 27 square kilometers (6,672 acres) of confirmed hazardous area remain.

From 1995 to 2018, the United States invested more than $63.7 million in CWD funding for mine clearance, survey, risk education, and capacity building.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support the government of Sri Lanka’s efforts to return displaced families to their homes in the Northern Province by conducting survey, clearance, and risk education.
  • MAG continued to clear mines and other explosive hazards, restoring access to land for resettlement and livelihood development in northern and eastern Sri Lanka.
  • Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony continued to remove mines and UXO to help resettle displaced families in northern Sri Lanka, developing national capacity as Sri Lanka’s first demining NGO.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D continued to support existing technology, including evaluations of the Rex light-weight armored excavator; the Improved Backhoe system and rake attachments; the Light Soil Sifter; and HSTAMIDS detectors. The equipment provided area preparation, area reduction, and mine-clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 19,612 mines and UXO from 1.5 million square meters of land (370 acres) to date.
  • USINDOPACOM, U.S. Army Pacific, and the 8th Theater Sustainment Command continued to expand on a five-year effort to build capacity for EOD, medical, and veterinary skillsets within the Sri Lankan Army.

Tajikistan

TAJIKISTAN
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY95–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,975 2,450 1,500 18,983
DoD 147 0 98 2,845
USAID 534 440 406 2,880
Country Total 2,656 2,890 2,004 24,708
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: EOD personnel prepare explosive charges in Tajikistan. © Photo courtesy of NPA

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging conventional ammunition, including large-caliber ordnance and other explosives. Due to its porous borders with Afghanistan, massive quantities of poorly-secured SA/LW and ammunition present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine contamination along its southern, western, and northern borders that stems from both its civil war in the 1990s and older Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During the civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO that continue to impede socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and adversely impact border crossings, farming, wood-gathering, grazing, and other rural activities.

From 2005 to 2018, the United States invested more than $24.7 million in Tajikistan to support mine and UXO clearance operations, destruction of excess and aging munitions, PSSM of SA/LW, survivor assistance, and national capacity building of the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC).

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • FSD continued non-technical survey and clearance of UXO through the deployment of a weapons and ammunition disposal team.
  • NPA continued deployment of two mixed-gender demining teams in Central Asia along the southern Tajik-Afghan border.
  • OSCE supported and contributed additional funds for deployment of two national humanitarian demining units. It also continued Phase II of the Integrated Cooperation on Explosive Hazards program with an emphasis on sharing regional lessons learned, building a regional center of excellence for explosive hazards mitigation training, and establishing a regional response capability to mitigate and counter explosive hazards.
  • TNMAC continued to develop the capacity of its mine action program with emphasis on information analysis, strategic planning, demining training, project development, and program management.
  • UNDP supported national ownership and development of capacity and operational management skills within TNMAC with an emphasis on nationalizing the program.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Army Central Command (USARCENT) continued to partner with the Department of State, OSCE, and the Office of Military Cooperation through FY18 to create a fully functional and self-sustaining humanitarian mine action training center in Tajikistan. In 2018, USARCENT EOD instructors transitioned to a quality assurance/quality control role of partner-nation junior instructors and course-material developers for EOD Levels I and II, while maintaining the lead role for EOD Level III. This project improves U.S. government oversight and complements international donor efforts to aid the government of Tajikistan and regional partners in building a humanitarian demining capability.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support the World Health Organization to improve Tajik access to quality rehabilitation care and assistive devices.

South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

Nepal: USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support efforts to improve the mobility and functional independence of conflict-affected civilians, other persons with disabilities, and persons requiring rehabilitation through the promotion of a sustainable, integrated public-private rehabilitation system.

Regional Profile: Western Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Western Hemisphere from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2018: more than $170 million

Date: 2019 Description: 2019 To Walk the Earth In Safety Report: Percent of U.S. CWD Funding in the Western Hemisphere by Country: Argentina 0.34%; Belize 0.18%; Chile 2.03%; Colombia 65.53%; Dominican Republic 0.29%; Ecuador 5.18%; El Salvador 4.01%; Guatemala 0.53%; Haiti 2.06%; Honduras 0.86%; Mexico 0.16%; Nicaragua 2.52%; Paraguay 0.12%; Peru 15.84%; Suriname 0.23%; Uruguay 0.12%. * Costa Rica received support through a regional multi-country program, no dollar amount specified. Regional funding is not included in this chart. It is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 71. - State Dept Image

Since 1993, U.S. CWD efforts invested more than $170 million in support to Latin American countries. The CWD priorities in the Western Hemisphere include landmine and ERW clearance and curbing the trafficking of illicit SA/LW. Recent efforts have prioritized SA/LW threat reduction and PSSM activities to reduce the harmful effects of at-risk, illicitly-proliferated, and indiscriminately-used conventional weapons. These activities are vital to strengthen U.S. national security and promote stability, security, and prosperity in the Western Hemisphere.

Criminal violence, narcotics, and arms trafficking continue to endanger many communities across Latin America with approximately one-third of all global homicides occurring in the region. U.S. CWD efforts, including increased SA/LW and PSSM assistance, are crucial to helping reduce illegal migration, armed violence, and illicit weapons trafficking. The Northern Triangle’s (Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador) interconnected black markets and porous borders foster the easy transfer of illicit SA/LW, undermining governance and weakening the region’s security.

The historic peace negotiations between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) contributed to a significant expansion in demining operations as previously non-permissive locations became more accessible. The 2016 U.S. and Norwegian co-led Global Demining Initiative for Colombia reinvigorated the international donor community’s support for Colombia’s humanitarian mine action sector. Colombia remains the most heavily contaminated country in the hemisphere but a concerted effort by civilian and Colombian military deminers supported by both the Colombian government and international donor community has freed much of the country from the impact of landmines and UXO.

Colombia

COLOMBIA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY01–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 8,500 21,000 21,000 80,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 742 3,338 3,285 9,044
USAID 3,085 808 2,874 21,367
Country Total 12,327 25,146 27,159 111,460
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: HALO conducted survey, clearance, and MRE in Colombia in 2018. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Widespread mine contamination resulting from more than 50 years of conflict between the government of Colombia and the FARC, Colombia’s largest guerrilla movement, continues to significantly affect Colombia, with almost 11,700 mine casualties since 1990. In 2018, Colombia’s national mine action authority, Descontamina Colombia, received reports of 171 victims of mines, IEDs, and UXO. The most affected departments are Antioquia, Caquetá, Meta, Nariño, and Norte de Santander.

From 2001 to 2018, the United States invested more than $111.4 million to support CWD in Colombia, including the survey and clearance of suspected hazardous areas, MRE, strengthening the capacity of Descontamina Colombia, supporting country-wide quality management programs, and providing survivor assistance.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM), Colombia’s first national demining nongovernmental organization, finished survey and clearance in Vista Hermosa, Meta, and began a new non-technical survey project in Putumayo Department. Additionally, CCCM provided MRE to 500 members of the local communities.
  • DDG began implementation of its first U.S.-funded project in Colombia.
  • FSD continued to strengthen Descontamina Colombia’s capacity and expertise by providing technical advisors.
  • HALO supported the government’s efforts to return land to productive use by conducting survey, clearance, and MRE in Antioquia and Meta. U.S. funding enabled the return of more than 81,000 square meters (20 acres) of land and the provision of MRE to 3,115 Colombians. New operations also started in Cauca and Nariño.
  • HI continued survey and clearance operations in high-priority locations in Antioquia, Cauca, and Meta and returned more than 112,000 square meters (27 acres) of land.
  • NPA returned more than 45,300 square meters (11.2 acres) of contaminated land through survey and clearance in Vista Hermosa, Meta.
  • The Organization of American States (OAS) continued to provide equipment and support to Colombian military humanitarian demining units conducting survey and clearance in Sucre, Colombia. OAS staff provided MRE to complement the clearance operations. Additionally, the OAS continued to manage the country-wide quality assurance and quality control verifications program of civilian and military personnel. Lastly, the OAS provided technical support to Descontamina Colombia.
  • Polus continued its survivor assistance project by providing prostheses and vocational assistance to mine survivors and connecting them with the appropriate Colombian health services through a unique partnership with the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation.
  • SOS organized community sporting events to provide MRE, delivering risk education to more than 5,500 men, women, and children living in or near suspected mine and ERW contamination.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued evaluating HSTAMIDS detectors and testing of the Bearcat vegetation clearance system.
  • USSOUTHCOM invested further in building the Colombian military’s (COLMIL) capacity to conduct humanitarian demining. USSOUTHCOM’s support included supplies and equipment such as handheld and broadband communications gear, tactical medical trauma and first-aid kits, stretchers, laptops with recording devices, excavation and weed-removal toolkits, face visors, demining helmets, fire-resistant garments, hearing protection, tactical radios, GPS compasses, and transport packs. USSOUTHCOM also provided further assistance to the COLMIL’s Joint Strategic Command and Control Center to ensure direct communication with the command posts of its units conducting humanitarian demining missions.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Arcangeles to support increased access to quality rehabilitation services and promotes social inclusion and reconciliation through sporting activities for victims of the armed conflict and other persons with disabilities. They also supported the International Organization for Migration efforts to strengthen physical rehabilitation services and improve provider networks for victims of conflict and other persons with disabilities.

El Salvador

EL SALVADOR
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY94–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 350 300 0 1,688
CDC 0 0 0 2,840
USAID 0 0 0 2,300
Country Total 350 300 0 6,828
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: Small arms ammunition is prepared for incineration in El Salvador. © Photo courtesy of HALO

Criminals in El Salvador continue to commit violent crime with weapons looted from legacy military stockpiles stemming from the 1980–1992 civil war. Firearms were used in approximately 78 percent of the homicides in 2015. As with other Central American countries, the growing amount of confiscated weapons being stored as evidence pending court approval for their destruction remains a significant concern. These stored weapons are highly vulnerable to theft and use by criminals and terrorists groups.

From 1994 to 2018, the United States invested more than $6.8 million to support CWD in El Salvador.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner to assist with PSSM activities (with FY17 funds):

  • HALO destroyed more than 1,800 small arms and 127,000 rounds of ammunition in 2018. HALO also updated depots to ensure their long-term physical safety and security, and provided specialized PSSM training to 23 Army officials.

Guatemala

GUATEMALA
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY10–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 350 300 0 900
Country Total 350 300 0 900
Dollars in thousands

Significant amounts of excess military arms and confiscated weapons from official Guatemalan stockpiles continue to make their way into the illicit SA/LW trade. The National Civil Police of Guatemala regularly confiscate military-grade weapons from local gangs. Those weapons that are evidence are often most at-risk for targeted theft. Improperly-stored items also contributed to a 2005 unplanned ammunition explosion that destroyed a storage depot at Mariscal Zavala.

From 2010 to 2018, the United States provided $900,000 to support CWD in Guatemala, including SA/LW threat reduction, specialized training for military and police personnel, and the installation of U.S.-funded security improvements.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY17 funds):

  • HALO supported the destruction of almost 2,500 confiscated weapons and more than nine tons of obsolete ammunition. HALO also provided PSSM upgrades to 12 facilities at the Mariscal Zavala Military Base, to strengthen the lightning protection systems, electrical power protection, and alarm systems. HALO delivered PSSM training courses to military and national police forces.

Honduras

HONDURAS
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY06–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 348 0 1,464
Country Total 300 348 0 1,464
Dollars in thousands

Trafficking from at-risk government stockpiles of SA/LW constitutes a continued threat to Honduras’ population and regional stability. Improving the security and safety of Honduran military stockpiles and destroying excess SA/LW supports Honduras’ democratic institutions and reduces the security threats and public health hazards posed by such weapons.

From 2006 to 2018, the United States invested more than $1.4 million to support CWD in Honduras, including SA/LW threat reduction and PSSM capacity building.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with FY17 funds):

  • HALO assessed Honduran military and police stockpiles and provided security upgrades to better protect the stored munitions.

Peru

PERU
FUNDING FY16 FY17 FY18 FY99–18 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,600 500 0 14,006
DoD 0 0 0 11,944
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 2,600 500 0 26,950
Dollars in thousands
Date: 2019 Description: MAG conducts munitions destruction in Peru. © Photo courtesy of MAG

Peruvian military stockpiles contain a significant amount of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition stemming from the country’s border dispute with Ecuador during the 1990s. Many of Peru’s stockpiles are located either near major cities or in remote and relatively isolated locations that are near the Ecuadorian border or deep in Peru’s jungle. Ensuring that these aging munitions are properly maintained and appropriately secured reduces the risk of illicit proliferation and unplanned depot explosions.

From 1999 to 2018, the United States contributed more than $26.9 million to support CWD in Peru, including SA/LW threat reduction, EOD training, and humanitarian mine action. Previous assistance with Peru’s mine action sector helped strengthen the national mine action authority, Contraminas, and ensured the country was sufficiently equipped to manage the scope of its landmine contamination.

In 2018, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG supported the army’s destruction of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition at priority depots and facilitated the destruction of over 56 tons of munitions. MAG also provided PSSM training to 60 army personnel.
  • NPA helped the air force dispose of obsolete weapons and ammunition at their major depot in the Pucusana District. NPA also provided PSSM and destruction training to the air force.
  • The OAS, with U.S. sponsorship, facilitated a specialized EOD training course for 10 Peruvian army officials in Spain, via an agreement with the government of Spain.
  • The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean destroyed more than 18,000 excess military weapons, over 19,000 rounds of ammunition, and completed their project with the Peruvian Army to upgrade weapons storage facilities in Lima. They also trained 40 personnel in PSSM.

Western Hemisphere--Other U.S. Support

Chile: With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with the Chilean National Demining Commission and Chilean Army, evaluated a Mine Clearing Loader, a Multi-Tooled Excavator and an aerial survey system. HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 13,950 mines from 527,000 square meters (130 acres) in northern Chile since 2008.

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