A Message From Assistant Secretary of State R. Clarke Cooper

Assistant Secretary R. Clarke Cooper

What does it mean to you “To Walk the Earth in Safety”? As Eagle Scouts, my brother and I explored the great American outdoors without once having to worry about placing a foot on a landmine or disturbing a deadly explosive. All youth should be able to spend their days with this same freedom to roam and play. Yet today many children in post-conflict areas cannot enjoy the open exploring my brother and I did during our years in the Boy Scouts. Instead, they must worry about landmines or improvised explosive devices (IEDs) or other explosive hazards—threats that may be from a recent conflict or one that ended decades ago. This is why the United States is steadfastly committed to conventional weapons destruction (CWD). Our CWD assistance programs provide the United States with a powerful and flexible tool to help partner countries protect their populations through better management of stockpiles of munitions, destruction of excess small arms and light weapons (SA/LW), and clearance of explosive hazards such as landmines, IEDs, and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Our assistance also helps countries reduce threats to civilian aviation and public safety from illicit or poorly-secured man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS).

The United States is at a crossroads for American partnerships, not just on CWD, but across the spectrum of security cooperation. Many nations look at partnering with the United States on matters of defense and security not as an imperative, but as one of several options. Through the essential work carried out by the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs (PM/WRA), the United States proves time and again it can be relied upon to improve the lives and livelihoods of people around the world. Our CWD assistance is an integral part of our friendships, which are an integral part of U.S. security, and helps to make the case the United States is and should remain the global security partner of choice.

My previous security cooperation experiences, be it active duty military or diplomatic service, continuously reinforced the importance of securing weapons so they do not fall into the hands of nefarious actors. Stockpiles of excess, poorly- secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional arms and ammunition remain a serious challenge to peace and prosperity in many countries. Poorly-secured munitions are easily diverted to terrorists and other destabilizing actors. Explosive hazards continue to kill and maim civilians long after conflicts end, preventing the safe return of displaced people and suppressing economic opportunities crucial to prosperity and political stability. While these dangers persist, it is difficult for communities to recover from conflict.

Assistant Secretary R. Clarke Cooper speaks with a MAG (Mines Advisory Group) deminer at a clearance site in Sri Lanka. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.
Assistant Secretary R. Clarke Cooper speaks with a MAG (Mines Advisory Group) deminer at a clearance site in Sri Lanka. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.

U.S. CWD programs help pave the way for post-conflict stabilization assistance and lay a solid foundation for long-term sustainable economic development. In June 2019, on one of my first overseas trips as Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs, I saw firsthand how the government of Sri Lanka successfully manages its post-war remediation efforts as they work towards their goal of becoming landmine free by 2025. Programs like these are helping to improve the livelihoods of local peoples.

The United States is a strong and historic partner for affected states and a leader in donor assistance. Since 1993, the United States has provided more than $3.7 billion in CWD assistance to over 100 countries. These programs are implemented by commercial contractors, nongovernmental organizations (NGO), and international organizations. In 2019, the United States had active CWD programs in 58 countries, spanning Africa, the Middle East, South and Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. This 19th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety catalogs the U.S. government’s achievements in CWD in each country and highlights the important partnerships building the foundation of a more secure world, in which children have the freedom to explore.

The Trump Administration’s CWD programs support key U.S. foreign policy priorities and play a direct role in keeping U.S. citizens and our allies safe, while also clearing the way for a stable, secure, and prosperous future in countries that are central to U.S. security interests. Thanks to the bipartisan support of the U.S. Congress and the generosity of the American people, we continue to work toward a future in which all may walk the earth in safety.

R. Clarke Cooper
Assistant Secretary
Political-Military Affairs


Commonly Used Acronyms

AXO Abandoned Unexploded Ordnance
BAC Battle Area Clearance
CHA Confirmed Hazardous Area
CWD Conventional Weapons Destruction
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
FY Fiscal Year
HDTC Humanitarian Demining Training Center
HD R&D Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program
HMA Humanitarian Mine Action
HSTAMIDS Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IED  Improvised Explosive Device
IMAS  International Mine Action Standards
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
MANPADS Man-portable Air Defense System
MASG Mine Action Support Group
MDD Mine Detection Dog
MOD Ministry of Defense
MRE  Mine Risk Education
NGO Nongovernmental Organization
NTS Non-technical Survey
PM/WRA Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
PSSM Physical Security and Stockpile Management
QRF Quick Reaction Force
SAA Small Arms Ammunition
SA/LW Small Arms and Light Weapons
SHA Suspected Hazardous Area
TS Technical Survey
UEMS Unplanned Explosions at Munitions Sites
UXO Unexploded Ordnance
VEO Violent Extremist Organization
WAD  Weapons and Ammunition Destruction

The United States’ Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

An Iraqi deminer prepares to search for ERW close to critical fuel infrastructure near Mosul, Iraq. Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech.
An Iraqi deminer prepares to search for ERW close to critical fuel infrastructure near Mosul, Iraq. Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech.

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons continue to challenge peace and prosperity worldwide. In the wrong hands, SA/LW fuel political instability and violence, while more advanced conventional weapons, such as MANPADS, threaten international security. Aging ammunition stockpiles may also explode without warning, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, kill and maim people even after conflicts end. Clearing land paves the way for stabilization assistance to move forward, allowing displaced persons to return home, economic revitalization to begin, and political stability to take root.

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $3.7 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. This makes the United States the world’s single largest financial supporter of CWD. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, international organizations, and NGOs to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement best practices for physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out humanitarian mine action (HMA) programs.

In 2019, PM/WRA managed global overseas programs with $198.5 million* in CWD assistance. It also led the U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force, which coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Departments of State, Defense, Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure their MANPADS. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) assists mine and UXO survivors, providing medical and rehabilitative care through its Leahy War Victims Fund.

Department of State Support for CWD

Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed 72 percent (over $2.7 billion) of the United States’ contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  • Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors.
  • Improve stability and prosperity by clearing ERW and returning land to productive use.
  • Build trust and deepen relationships with key partners to accelerate achievement of broader U.S. foreign policy objectives.

PM/WRA partners with NGOs, international organizations, academic institutions, and the private sector to implement its programs. Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to CWD programs strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries.

*Initial planned allocations


1993–2019 Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program

1993-2019 Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: Global Map
Global Map.

Percent of Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding By Region 1993–2019

Percent Of Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding By Region 1993–2019: Africa 12.98%; East Asia And Pacific 15.69%; Europe 11.88%; Middle East And North Africa 22.44%; South And Central Asia 16.67%; Western Hemisphere 5.25%; Global 15.09%

Top 10 Countries Funded 1993–2019 (Aggregate)

Top 10 Countries Funded 1993–2019 (Aggregate): Iraq $550,796; Afghanistan $515,791; Laos $230,880; Cambodia $154,081; Vietnam $148,248; Angola $138,683; Colombia $135,952; Bosnia And Herzegovina $117,657; Syria $81,065; Lebanon $77,173.(Dollars in thousands)


U.S. Government Interagency Partners

United States Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

Nishan, 14, from Nepal, lost his leg at the age of five. Now he can walk again with support from STRIDE. Photo courtesy of HI.
Nishan, 14, from Nepal, lost his leg at the age of five. Now he can walk again with support from STRIDE. Photo courtesy of HI.

The Leahy War Victims Fund, established in 1989 and managed by USAID, is an important source of U.S. assistance to civilian victims of conflict in developing countries. The Leahy War Victims Fund is a dedicated provider of financial and technical support for people with disabilities, particularly those who sustain mobility-related injuries from landmines, UXO, and other maladies resulting from conflict. To date, the Leahy War Victims Fund has provided approximately $389 million in assistance to more than 50 countries, including Burma, Colombia, Georgia, Haiti, Laos, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.

The Leahy War Victims Fund was originally tasked with delivering immediate care to civilians impacted by landmines and UXO, including the provision of prosthetics, orthotics, and rehabilitation services. Its scope has widened to accommodate the changing needs of vulnerable populations and to promote quality sustainable rehabilitation services in conflict-affected countries. The Leahy War Victims Fund also supports the development of international rehabilitation standards, and training on those standards to ensure rehabilitation practitioners and institutions have sufficient capacity to provide high-quality services.

In Nepal, Leahy War Victims Fund supported the five-year, $4.8 million Strengthening the Rehabilitation in District Environs (STRIDE) activity implemented by Humanity and Inclusion (HI). HI partnered with five physical rehabilitation centers, the Ministry of Health (MoH), and local disabled persons organizations to strengthen the sustainability of physical rehabilitation services and foster integration of disabled persons into their communities. Program activities included:

  • Physical rehabilitation services for 48,615 individuals
  • Psychosocial support for 9,449 individuals and the development of livelihood activities for 4,318 individuals
  • 274 mobile assessment camps in 53 remote districts
  • Training over 60 rehabilitation professionals

The STRIDE activity worked with the MoH to strengthen the rehabilitation sector; develop a Nepal-specific Priority Assistive Product List; implement the Rehabilitation Management System to assess the quality of rehabilitation services; and lead research to strengthen evidence-based, best-practice interventions. Spending approximately $12 million in 2019, in addition to ongoing programs in 18 countries, the Leahy War Victims Fund launched two new activities in 2019. As a result of STRIDE’s achievement in Nepal, HI is implementing physical rehabilitation activity to establish a sustainable, integrated, public-private rehabilitation system to improve the mobility and functional independence of victims of conflict and individuals in need of rehabilitation services. Results for Development is implementing the Health System Strengthening Accelerator activity to connect locally-driven health system innovation with global knowledge to improve the institutional architecture for evidence-based and sustainable rehabilitation services in health systems in conflict-affected countries.


U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center

https://home.army.mil/lee/index.php/units-tenants/humanitarian-demining-training-center

HDTC personnel give a demonstration to CISR’s 2019 Senior Managers’ Course at Ft. Lee, VA. Photo courtesy of CISR.
HDTC personnel give a demonstration to CISR’s 2019 Senior Managers’ Course at Ft. Lee, VA. Photo courtesy of CISR.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC), at Fort Lee, Virginia, is a component of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DCSA). HDTC trains and prepares U.S. military forces, other U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to build partner-nation capacity in land-based and underwater UXO disposal and PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions. In addition, the center provides program management support for the mine action programs administered by the U.S. military’s geographic combatant commands: African Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, and Southern Command. HDTC’s responsibilities include validating HMA project plans and budgets, and monitoring and evaluating global Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA)-funded HMA activities.

HDTC curricula include courses on demining and stockpiled conventional munitions assistance (SCMA). Demining subjects cover landmine and battle area clearance (BAC), EOD, and underwater UXO disposal, and SCMA subjects include PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, and international guidelines governing mine action and PSSM and UXO disposal. The center uses a three-phase approach to provide program management support to the geographic combatant commands. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, HDTC deploys program analysts to assess the state of a partner nation’s capability to conduct demining and SCMA. The assessment provides a viable plan with established objectives and outcomes and is a tool used by combatant commands to request OHDACA-funded resources to execute mine action projects. DSCA in consultation with the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability and Humanitarian Affairs, and PM/WRA approve mine action projects.

HDTC also conducts capacity-building training or technical assistance activities in support of combatant command mine action projects. HDTC personnel provide a suite of tools and expertise to perform PSSM, landmine clearance and EOD, and underwater UXO disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The beneficiaries of capacity building are junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, or civil servants tasked with conducting mine action operations. In order to sustain the capabilities of partner nation HMA programs, HDTC, in coordination with PM/WRA, executes mine action projects to enhance the skills of mine action managers and ministerial or executive level personnel. These projects include seminars and workshops on legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic level. In FY19, HDTC spent $3.2 million dollars to execute its global mission.


U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program

Field testing of the Mini MineWolf in Thailand. Photo courtesy of HD R&D.
Field testing of the Mini MineWolf in Thailand. Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

The U.S. Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program was established by the U.S. Department of Defense in 1994. It focuses on the rapid development, testing, demonstration, and validation of technologies that increase the efficiency and enhance the safety of humanitarian demining operations. In this mission, HD R&D may adapt commercial off-the-shelf technologies, use mature technologies, or leverage existing military countermine technologies.

HD R&D partners with humanitarian demining organizations to conduct operational field evaluations in their own demining operations and provide assessment and feedback on new technologies. Field evaluations are one of the most important aspects of the HD R&D Program because the equipment undergoes testing in actual minefields. These evaluations allow the host country to operate the equipment and determine whether it is useful, cost-effective, and cost-efficient.

HD R&D’s current technology development areas include hazardous area confirmation, vegetation/obstacle clearance, mine and UXO detection, mechanical-mine and UXO clearance, mechanical-mine neutralization, post-clearance quality control, and information management. Technology development plans are based on feedback from field evaluations and biennial requirements workshops with implementing partners and country programs.

In 2019, HD R&D performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Palau, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, the West Bank, and Zimbabwe. Since 1995, HD R&D technologies have cleared 68 million square meters (16,803 acres) and removed or destroyed approximately 209,000 mines and UXO. The program has fielded technologies in support of 234 operational field evaluations in 43 countries.

The program receives funding and strategic oversight from the Department of Defense Deputy Assistant Secretary for Stability and Humanitarian Affairs and coordinates with the U.S. DoD Geographical Combatant Commands’ Humanitarian Mine Action officers and the U.S. Department of State’s PM/WRA.


Implementation Tools and Fora

The Mine Action Support Group

The October 2019 MASG meeting was held in New York City. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.
The October 2019 MASG meeting was held in New York City. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, endeavors to coordinate HMA programs funded by the world’s major donor states, harmonize the prioritization of their respective mine action programs, and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. Chairmanship of the MASG rotates biennially; the United States held the position from 2018–2019.

The MASG is composed of over 30 donor states and a few observer organizations, which include members of the United Nations Inter-Agency Coordination Group for Mine Action, GICHD, Organization of American States (OAS), ITF-Enhancing Human Security, and the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery at James Madison University (CISR/JMU).

The MASG serves as an independent forum for the exchange of information and coordination of financial support and resources. PM/WRA funds a small secretariat that collects information, provides reports, organizes meetings, and facilitates visits to certain mine-affected countries as agreed to by the MASG members. The MASG meets twice a year and adheres to Chatham House Rule.

PM/WRA Director and recent MASG Chair, Stanley L. Brown created a living document for MASG members to discuss their current programs aimed at eliminating landmines and ERW. This enabled MASG members to connect with like-minded programmatic members in the hopes of assisting designated states to achieve their mine free status. The MASG also addressed timely topics such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Yemen IED threat mitigation, IED disposal standards, and how to assist targeted states to meet their Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Convention Article 5 obligations.

“One of the reasons the United States wanted to chair the MASG is that the global need for HMA programs continues to outstrip available resources,” Brown said. “Therefore, our effort over the past two years has been to deepen understanding of each other’s priorities and better identify funding sources in an effort to maximize their impact.”

The UN Mine Action Gateway website posts MASG notices, minutes, and presentations at https://www.mineaction.org/en/mine-action-support-group-masg.


Mine Detection Dogs: Humanity’s Best Friend Detects Landmines and Explosive Remnants of War

An MDD and handler work together in Kosovo. Photo courtesy of MDDC.
An MDD and handler work together in Kosovo. Photo courtesy of MDDC.

Service dogs are renowned for excelling at tasks. Some serve as seeing eye dogs. Others sniff for illicit drugs. Some are trained to provide emotional support. But the use of trained mine detecting dogs (MDD) to locate landmines and ERW is less known. Our most faithful companion’s role in sniffing out these threats deserves equal attention.

“Since World War I, trained war dogs have carried messages across battlefields, guided medics to wounded soldiers, and located hidden tunnels,” explains Perry F. Baltimore III, Executive Director of the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI), a U.S. NGO that enlists public support to donate MDDs for use in post-conflict demining and ERW clearance. “In the past two decades or so, methodologies to train dogs to sniff out the explosive odors found in landmines has also led to the use of MDDs—canine heroes who have a critical role in humanitarian demining. Their part in saving lives and helping restore war-torn land to productive use is beyond measure.”

Each MDD is paired with a trained human handler who maintains constant visual contact and leash control as the dog searches for mines or ERW. The MDD’s focus and calm reaction to suspected devices is extremely important, and results from training that begins after it is 12 months old. When the MDD’s sensitive nose detects the scent of explosives or other chemicals leaking from a landmine or ERW, it immediately stops and sits before the suspect object. That signals the deminer, who uses a metal detector or other means to verify if a mine or ERW has been located.

Due to their intelligence, physique, and temperament, Belgian Malinois are the breed used most often as MDDs. Generally, their professional life span averages from six to eight years.

“Belgian Malinois are the service dogs we normally select and train for humanitarian demining and other specialized tasks too,” comments Nermin Hadžimujagić, Director of the Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC), an NGO located in Bosnia and Herzegovina. “There are occasions where extreme climate or harsh terrain rule out the use of any breed of MDDs. But MDDs can operate in most places human deminers work, and help safely speed the rate at which landmines and ERW are found.”

“It can be difficult for handlers to maintain non-stop visual contact with MDDs especially in undergrowth, jungles, and urban environments,” observes Per Håkon Breivik, NPA’s Director of Humanitarian Disarmament. “Such is the case in Iraq, Lebanon, and Cambodia, for instance, where NPA’s landmine and BAC programs are funded by PM/WRA. To overcome those obstacles, NPA is conducting tests with GPS and small video cameras mounted to an MDD so the handler can monitor the dog’s movements and signals even when it’s temporarily out of sight. Our tests are promising and may result in less time expended on clearing access lanes and more effort devoted to actual detection and clearance.”

Retired MDDs are often adopted by their handlers, with whom they have a special bond. If the handler is unable to adopt the MDD, others willing to offer a safe, loving home with proper care can also provide a pleasant retirement.

The next time you observe a seeing eye dog at work or have your luggage sniffed by a customs enforcement dog at an airport, remember that these service animals have counterparts who are seeking landmines on former battlefields. They are the dogs of peace.


Senior Managers’ Course in Conventional Weapons Destruction

Participants in the 2019 Global SMC in Conventional Weapons Destruction engage in a classroom discussion. Photo courtesy of CISR.
Participants in the 2019 Global SMC in Conventional Weapons Destruction engage in a classroom discussion. Photo courtesy of CISR.

The Senior Managers’ Course (SMC), organized by the Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) at James Madison University (JMU) and funded by PM/WRA, brings together senior-level managers from HMA and CWD programs from countries contaminated with explosive hazards for an intensive management training course. The SMC integrates the latest knowledge in the field of business management with the practical experience required of ERW and HMA managers. During three weeks of classroom instruction and field visits, participants refine their management and strategic planning skills; share expertise and best practices in CWD; and develop a professional network for collaboration with colleagues, international experts, JMU faculty, CISR staff, and donor representatives. Experienced faculty partners from JMU’s College of Business, subject-matter experts from the field of CWD, and CISR’s resident experts provide specialized instruction for the course. Graduates of the SMC bring back strategic insight to their organizations, enabling them to lead their programs more effectively and efficiently to clear landmines and ERW contamination in their respective countries.

From the first course held in 2004 through to the 2019 course, CISR has trained 311 senior managers representing 49 countries. Prior to 2010, the SMC was sponsored by the United Nations Development Program. Beginning in 2010, PM/WRA has sponsored the SMC, including global courses held on the JMU campus, and a series of regionally-focused SMCs hosted with the help of local implementing partners in Tajikistan, Vietnam, and Croatia.

In 2019, CISR hosted a Global SMC at JMU in Harrisonburg, Virginia, to bring together 19 senior managers working in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Iraq, Laos, Libya, Solomon Islands, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Vietnam, and one participant representing several Western African countries. In addition to course instruction, participants visited the HDTC at Fort Lee, Virginia. Additional subject-matter expertise was delivered by Fenix-Insight LLC, PM/WRA, the U.S. Department of Defense’s HD R&D Program, and a number of NGOs.


U.S. Department of State Quick Reaction Force: Providing Rapid Response to CWD Emergencies

QRF works with Sierra Leonean armed forces to safely dispose of unstable munitions. Photo courtesy of Golden West.
QRF works with Sierra Leonean armed forces to safely dispose of unstable munitions. Photo courtesy of Golden West.

The Quick Reaction Force (QRF) is a team of civilian EOD technical experts that serve as PM/WRA’s first responders to unexpected CWD-related emergencies across the globe, including munitions depot explosions, ammunition depots at risk of imminent explosion, and ERW that pose significant threats to civilians. These situations require immediate action to secure or dispose of poorly-secured or unstable munitions, prevent loss of life, protect critical infrastructure, and conduct needs assessments for further CWD activities. The QRF can begin to respond to these threats worldwide in as few as 48 hours.

QRF

Since 2001, the QRF and its precursor the Quick Reaction Demining Force have deployed to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Federated States of Micronesia, Guatemala, Iraq, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Liberia, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Palau, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

“Some contents of these foreign depots are akin to time bombs,” observes Stanley L. Brown, Director of PM/WRA. “We can’t ignore the terrible threat posed by decrepit ammunition whose stability is compromised by age, heat, rough handling, and overall poor storage. When we get a call for help after a depot accident or when a foreign government needs an urgent depot assessment, we must respond immediately. In these cases, time is not our friend.”

The Golden West, implementing partner for the QRF, is a U.S. NGO specializing in demining, BAC, and PSSM.

https://www.state.gov/key-topics-office-of-weapons-removal-and-abatement/#qrf


The Interagency MANPADS Task Force: Building Partnerships to Protect Global Aviation

https://www.state.gov/key-topics-office-of-weapons-removal-and-abatement/#mtf

Eighty-eight Strela 2 MANPADS, which are excess to the Kyrgyzstan government’s national security needs, are prepared for destruction. Photo courtesy of ITF.
Eighty-eight Strela 2 MANPADS, which are excess to the Kyrgyzstan government’s national security needs, are prepared for destruction. Photo courtesy of ITF.

THREAT. Since 1970, terrorists and other non-state actors have hit over 60 civilian airliners with Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS), usually referred to as shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles. The illicit diversion of MANPADS to terrorists, criminal organizations, and insurgents, is a global concern. Thirty-one non-state actors currently possess MANPADS and another 26 are suspected to have acquired them.

RESPONSE. In 2006, National Security Presidential Directive 47 (NSPD-47) established a comprehensive strategy for aviation security to guide the U.S. government in dealing with evolving threats to aviation. NSPD-47 includes the International MANPADS Threat Reduction Plan, which established the Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF). The MTF coordinates a comprehensive approach to counter illicit MANPADS proliferation and reduce the threat of those held by terrorist groups and other violent non-state actors. The MTF consists of representatives from several U.S. government agencies and is chaired by the Department of State.

CONTEXT. MANPADS were first developed in the 1960s to help legitimate armed forces defend against air attacks. A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS. Their small size makes them easy to transport and conceal. The most commonly produced types can fit into an automobile trunk. In the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world.

Arms traffickers and violent extremists have looted MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons from unsecured state stockpiles in Libya, Syria, and Yemen, making efforts to reduce the threat to aviation even more crucial. PM/WRA’s stockpile security management and CWD programs have reduced over 41,000 at-risk MANPADS worldwide and remain critical to preventing further illicit proliferation of these dangerous arms.

Most MANPADS consist of a missile enclosed in a tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), and a battery or battery cooling unit. The tube, which protects the missile until it is fired, is disposable. The battery powers the missile’s systems for a short period prior to launch. MANPADS are usually 1.2 to 2 meters (4 feet to 6.5 feet) long, about 76 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter, and weigh about 13 to 25 kilograms (28.6 to 55.1 pounds). They can travel at twice the speed of sound and hit aircraft flying as high as 6 kilometers (about 20,000 feet) out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles).

ENGAGEMENT. The MTF partners with other countries to advance cooperation on MANPADS threat mitigation and counter-proliferation initiatives. These partners have a vital role in raising international awareness, curbing illicit proliferation, and mitigating local and regional MANPADS threats.

The MTF also helps countries incorporate MANPADS recognition training into their border and security training programs. This teaches their essential personnel to recognize and seize MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons if discovered. In 2019, over 630 individuals from 29 countries received the training.

Finally, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Transportation Security Administration has conducted approximately 75 MANPADS Assist Visits (MAV) and basic training programs at airports around the world. MAV and related training programs help build the capacity of foreign countries to identify and mitigate potential MANPADS threats at international airports.

Map of Global MANPADS attacks. Project funded by the U.S. Department of State; Map produced by Small Arms Survey; Data on acquisitions and transfers compiled by Small Arms Survey; Data on attacks compiled by RAND.
Map of Global MANPADS attacks. Project funded by the U.S. Department of State; Map produced by Small Arms Survey; Data on acquisitions and transfers compiled by Small Arms Survey; Data on attacks compiled by RAND.

Improving Lives Through U.S. CWD Programs

Africa: A Woman’s Triumph in the Congo: From Landmine Victim to Landmine Survivor …AND MORE

Dave Evans teaching PayPay and other technicians. Photo courtesy of Polus.
Dave Evans teaching PayPay and other technicians. Photo courtesy of Polus.

Julienne PayPay is a single mother in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) who lost her leg in a landmine accident while working in the coffee fields of DRC’s eastern Lake Kivu region. Besides overcoming the initial pain and trauma, she discovered that in impoverished societies it is often difficult to be seen as having value if one cannot contribute to their family’s income. Disabled by the loss of a leg, Julienne’s limited mobility made finding work difficult and caring for her daughter almost impossible. But thanks to the Massachusetts-based Polus Center for Social & Economic Development (Polus), Julienne received a prosthetic leg that not only helped her regain her mobility but enabled her to learn a new profession as a prosthetic technician. Polus is an NGO that provides custom-fitted prosthetics to mine survivors in DRC and other conflict-impacted countries through grants from PM/WRA.

Julienne’s path back to dignity, mobility, and employment began in October 2017 when she was fitted for a prosthetic leg by the Polus clinic in DRC. Her positive attitude, intimate understanding of the challenges faced by landmine survivors, and keen interest in Polus’s work led to her being trained as a prosthetic technician at the clinic.

“Julienne works hard and is determined to continue her studies as a technician,” reports Dave Evans, a certified prosthetist with the Polus Center. “She sees the impact her work has, not just on her family, but on the patients at the Polus Center’s clinic, and she feels valued as a person.”

Person-centered care is at the core of Polus’s work with disabled persons in the United States and with injured conflict survivors in Colombia, DRC, Jordan, and Tajikistan. Julienne developed empathy and perspective through her own ordeal followed by her training. Julienne’s work in the Polus clinic in DRC has made a huge difference in the quality of treatment for female clients. They feel more at ease with her in the clinic and the treatment areas, and respond well to the confidence and sense of empowerment she brings to their experience. Julienne is no longer a victim: she is a survivor and a valuable asset to her family, fellow disabled persons, and her country.


East Asia and Pacific: MAG Defuses 750 Pound Bomb in Populated Area of Vietnam’s Quang Binh Province

MAG technicians prepare to move the unexploded bomb. Photo courtesy of MAG.
MAG technicians prepare to move the unexploded bomb. Photo courtesy of MAG.

On the morning of March 12, 2019, MAG’s Quang Binh UXO hotline telephone rang. A huge bomb had been uncovered in a busy residential area. MAG rapidly dispatched a community liaison team to the site, where construction for a house foundation was in progress. The nose of a massive bomb stuck out from the foundation trench and work had stopped. A warning sign had been placed nearby that read “Keep away! Danger – Bomb!” It was clear the local residents were fearful.

The deadly item from the Vietnam War was located in Quan Hau Town, Quang Binh Province, just 50 meters (164 feet) from a busy highway. A bank, market, offices, and other community facilities were close by. The unexploded bomb was found during construction of a house for Ms. Vo Thi Mai. “While an excavator dug the foundation for my new house, its bucket hit a hard object. The operator stopped work to check. He was terrified when he saw the nose of a huge bomb. The 10 workers were told to stop work immediately and move away from the bomb site,” said Mai, who informed the local authority, which alerted the U.S.-funded MAG community liaison team in Quang Binh.

A mine action team (MAT) funded by PM/WRA was then deployed to the site. Under the close supervision of MAG’s technical field managers, Guy Lankin and Jack Campbell, the team carefully excavated the entire bomb. Mr. Hoang Minh Duc, a MAT team leader recalled: “The bomb was upright underground. In order to move it to a horizontal position above ground, we dug 1.5 meters (nearly five feet) from the item and down to 1.3 meters (over four feet) below the surface. The soil was so hard we had to pour water to loosen it and use a pickaxe and crowbar. After three hours of hard work, the bomb was unearthed and carefully placed flat above ground.”

The bomb’s fuze was intact. Its potential destruction radius was over 1,500 meters (nearly 5,000 feet). Since the bomb was classified as too dangerous to move intact, the technical field managers decided that it had to be defuzed prior to being hauled away. The MAG team covered the bomb with 150 sandbags to limit its potential blast radius and then cleared rust from it to make it easier to disarm. The MAG team successfully defuzed the bomb, which was then removed to a safe location for destruction. Result: another legacy of war was cleared successfully, and work resumed on Ms. Mai’s new house.


Europe: Reclaiming Ukraine’s Grafske Nature Reserve, Timber Industry, and Forestry Education Resource

Battle area clearance lanes in a nature preserve. Photo courtesy of HALO.
Battle area clearance lanes in a nature preserve. Photo courtesy of HALO.

In November 2018, with funds from PM/WRA, HALO began BAC in a section of pristine forest near Grafske Village in Ukraine’s southern Donetsk region. This area was contaminated with ERW including Russian cluster munitions left from shelling at the height of the conflict in eastern Ukraine. The forest is part of the Greater Anadol Nature Reserve and Wildlife Sanctuary, spanning 25.4 million square meters (over 6,276 acres), home to a wide biodiversity and ecosystem of trees and plants. Grafske Village lies in the middle of the nature reserve, and its inhabitants depend on the forest for their livelihoods. Before the war, the Greater Anadol Forestry College used the woods for educational activities; forestry workers and lumberyards used it for raising and harvesting trees. Villagers gathered mushrooms, nuts, and berries, which are an essential part of the local diet. After the area was contaminated by ERW it was largely avoided by local residents.

In June 2019, HALO cleared ERW from two sections restoring 157,470 square meters (nearly 39 acres) for productive use. Normally, HALO clears former battle areas by having its deminers walk in a marked straight line, checking the surface both visually and with mine detectors, and clearing all trees and vegetation. In Grafske, such an approach would have been both impractical and devastating for the nature reserve. HALO therefore adapted its global standards to minimize the environmental and economic impact by marking clearance lanes with tape between and around the trees. This achieved the same level of surface clearance without damaging the forest.

This work benefits 383 people directly, and most significantly the students and faculty of the Forestry College, one of the oldest forestry institutions in Ukraine. The College has played a major role in advancing research and afforestation in the formerly barren steppes of the Donetsk region. Clearing the ERW means the teachers and students can again use it for educational purposes. Forestry employees can also resume crucial maintenance of the forest. Although the area was released only recently, and other mines and ERW hazards remain in the area, the opening up of this large piece of forest is already contributing to a general feeling of security.

Clearance also frees up the land for sustainable timber production by the local lumberyard. Mykyta Oleksandrovych Ivanchenko, a lumberyard employee, said they would use the site for walnut collection while they grow more saplings. Work in these areas previously posed a mortal danger. “We found a projectile during mowing once. Basically, we hit it with a scythe. It didn’t explode, thankfully,” Mykyta said.

Commenting on the work that has been funded to date by the United States, “There are other areas which require clearance nearby. Projectiles are lying on the ground there …. We will accept any help you can provide. We have a lot more work to do here.”


Middle East and North Africa: Al-Hamdaniya Water Project -- Freedom and Clean Water Restoration Triumph Over Terrorists and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs)

Faisal in front of the repaired water purification plant in Tulaband. Photo courtesy of MAG.
Faisal in front of the repaired water purification plant in Tulaband. Photo courtesy of MAG.

Water is essential to all life and is one of the most basic human needs. The 650 families of Tulaband Village in northern Iraq’s Al-Hamdaniyah District depend on a single water purification plant that provides clean water. ISIS seized control of the village in 2014 and the inhabitants fled for their lives. After ISIS was driven away three years later, they returned to a shattered village whose water plant was in disrepair and seeded with IEDs, forcing them to use unsafe well water.

“I fled to Iraq’s Kurdistan region when ISIS invaded this area. I returned to the village and the first thing I did was check the water purification plant,” says Faisal, a local water plant employee.

“I walked through the broken main gate to see if there were any explosive remnants but didn’t find any at first. Then I went carefully to the river side where the water comes from and checked the pumps. That’s when I saw an explosive device and turned around and left the plant.” Not having the expertise to clear IEDs, he had no choice but to leave without beginning repairs on the plant.

Despite the terrible hardships they endured, Adam and Hamdiya appreciate their good fortune in being able to return to their village. Thanks to U.S. funding and MAG’s clearance, they can both rebuild their house and enjoy clean water again without fear of landmines, ERW, or IEDs. Photos courtesy of MAG.
Despite the terrible hardships they endured, Adam and Hamdiya appreciate their good fortune in being able to return to their village. Thanks to U.S. funding and MAG’s clearance, they can both rebuild their house and enjoy clean water again without fear of landmines, ERW, or IEDs. Photo courtesy of MAG.

In 2016, with funding from PM/WRA, MAG started clearing landmines, ERW, and IEDs in Al-Hamdaniyah District. While U.S.-funded efforts have made significant progress, there is still much work to be done to make it possible for all civilians displaced by ISIS to return safely to their villages and homes in this district.

“When MAG teams came to the village and started their clearance work, they not only demined the roads and homes for people to return, they made it possible for other humanitarian organizations to come and work here, including especially on the water plant,” says Faisal.

One of those families is Adam’s. “I was born and raised in this village and was devastated when I had to flee when ISIS came. I remember it was a chaotic night… We immediately left with only the clothes that we wore.”

Adam and his family returned to Tulaband in December 2017 to find that only 20 other families had returned. They found their house destroyed and the village was without safe water or electricity. But they have managed to rebuild their life again.

Hamdiya, Adam’s wife, explains how it was before and after the water plant started to work again in 2019: “I couldn’t use the well water for cooking before. I used to struggle a lot to filter it and make it somehow useful for cooking. Now I use the water from the plant for cooking and drinking and we have no problem at all.”


South and Central Asia: Confronting Afghanistan’s Landmines -- “We No Longer Live in Fear”

Mr. Gull and members of his family. Photo courtesy of HALO.
Mr. Gull and members of his family. Photo courtesy of HALO.

Sahar Gull lives with his wife and children in a village in Logar Province, Afghanistan, where landmines once posed a terrible threat to their lives and livelihoods. Two of his sons are married and they all live together in the family house. Mr. Gull and his sons support their families by growing crops and raising livestock.

Their village held strategic importance during the war with Soviet forces beginning in 1979. The village (and valley) became a battleground. In 1985, the Mujahideen laid anti-tank mines around the village on all the roads to defend against Soviet forces. The Gull family moved to Pakistan when the war started but returned 11 years later.

After the war, villagers used the mine-contaminated land even after several accidents occurred. “The people in our village had no choice. We had to enter contaminated areas to work near mines where natural resources are extracted, and to collect firewood and material to build our homes. Once in our village, a woman and her two children were riding on a donkey when it stepped on an anti-tank mine. The explosion killed all of them. My own son, Qudratullah, lost three of his fingers when he handled a piece of abandoned ammunition while collecting herbs in the same area. Many other people were killed and injured, especially those who returned to Afghanistan after the war and did not know their village had been mined in their absence. Many nomadic Kuchis also became mine victims as they traveled through this area and grazed their animals. I think around 40 people have been injured or killed here,” Mr. Gull says.

“Since HALO began its State Department funded operations here, we have been very satisfied with their work. They also hired our young people to work as deminers, which is a great support to us in addition to getting rid of the mines. They respect the villager’s requests. Mine clearance was conducted by well-educated people and using modern machinery. We are sure that we will no longer have problems with mines or feel unsafe in our village. We now use the cleared land to collect firewood to keep our homes warm in the winter. We collect stones, which we sell in the market, graze our animals, and hunt birds. We also have access to cleared roads. Clearing landmines improved our living conditions. We no longer live in fear.”

*Editor’s note: The HALO Trust’s work in this village was funded by PM/WRA.


Western Hemisphere: Clearing Landmines Fosters Eco-Tourism in a Colombian Paradise

ASETURIN members stand in the center of Maracaibo on the exact spot where they are building a new tourism office. Photo courtesy of HI.
ASETURIN members stand in the center of Maracaibo on the exact spot where they are building a new tourism office. Photo courtesy of HI.

Living in the village of Maracaibo as a child, Solanyi Guillermo could see cascading waterfalls in the Macarena mountains to the west. But she could never visit them. “We were always afraid to go out,” she recalls. Solanyi and her neighbors survived under a strict code of rules: Never stray off the path to school. Rarely leave the house. Never travel without first getting permission from the local armed group. To deviate risked death. Why? Because of landmines.

This beautiful, bio-diverse region of Vista Hermosa, Meta was the site of fierce fighting during Colombia’s decades-long civil conflict, characterized by wide use of improvised landmines that injured or killed 11,789 people. The fighting resulted in 220,000 deaths overall and displaced millions of Colombians. Solanyi’s family fled to Bogota.

The 2016 peace deal between the Colombian government and the FARC enabled an increase in humanitarian demining. HI deminers, many of whom had experienced the conflict as children in neighboring villages and towns, began demining the area in 2017 thanks to support from the U.S. State Department, and have since released 62,115 square meters (15.3 acres) of land to the Meta community, including Maracaibo village. They came to know one area of Maracaibo by its local nickname, “Puerta Peligro,” or “Danger Door.” Here alone, deminers cleared 4,207 square meters (1 acre) of land, working amid native butterflies, parrots, sloths, snakes, and monkeys.

With each improvised mine cleared—including one made from a shoe polish can, next to the main road—they enabled a dream that Solanyi had long harbored: to transform Maracaibo into a gateway for eco-tourism.

“Thanks to demining, life is returning,” Solanyi says. Together with 48 families, she launched ASETURIN, an association to welcome tourists in a sustainable way to her village. ASETURIN secured development funds from HI and Pastoral Social to add a tourism office, plant trees, improve roads, create two small hotels, and set out clear signs to guide tourists between the town, mountains, and waterfalls.

The townspeople are benefiting as Colombian, German, French, and Japanese tourists begin to visit. One local beneficiary of this U.S.-funded demining, Judith Molano, has a small farm on the banks of the nearby river. “We offer a day in the life of farming—and tourists pay for this,” she notes. “Next, we’ll add an area for camping, with a beautiful view.” Local teens are also enjoying the gains. “On weekends, they work as guides.”

“Demining is beautiful,” adds Yolima Ramirez, chairwoman of Community Action Board Vereda Maracaibo. “Before, you couldn’t put a foot down without fear. We have thermal waters, armadillos, tigrillos, and so many attractive, beautiful things. Thanks to HI, now we can experience all of it safely.”


Regional Profile: Africa

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $488 million

Percent of the $18.2 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Africa in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs: Angola 22.61%; CAR 0.00%; Chad 5.20%; Congo, DR 20.82%; Guinea 0.00%; Guinea-Bissau 0.00%; Malawi 0.00%; Mali 5.20%; Mauritania 5.20%; Namibia 0.59%; Niger 5.20%; Rwanda 7.81%; Senegal 0.06%; Somalia 10.41%; South Sudan 10.41%; Zimbabwe 6.47%.
Percent of the $18.2 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Africa in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.
Map of Africa: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

CWD programs in Africa help create conditions for lasting security and economic growth by reducing the availability of SA/LW and IED components used by terrorists and extremist groups. CWD implementers build or rehabilitate armories and depots to improve the security of sites most vulnerable to attacks. Weapons marking programs and training in stockpile management enhance accountability in order to prevent munitions from being lost or stolen.

Since 1993, U.S. CWD programs have provided more than $488 million of assistance to 36 African countries, to promote peacebuilding and set the stage for economic growth and opportunity.


Angola

Angola
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY95–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,000 7,000 4,100 117,604
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 193 179 245 9,408
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 4,193 7,179 4,345 138,683
Dollars in thousands

Angola is still recovering from over 40 years of conflict that ended in 2002. It is one of the world’s most landmine and UXO-affected countries, with over 92 million square meters (22,734 acres) of contaminated land remaining.

From 1995 to 2019, the United States invested more than $138 million for CWD in Angola. This assistance returned over 395 million square meters (97,607 acres) to productive use and destroyed 26,626 landmines and 47,382 items of UXO directly benefitting more than 1.4 million Angolans. CWD assistance also destroyed 103,710 excess SA/LW and 575.15 tons of ammunition from government stockpiles, reducing the risk of explosions and illicit diversions.

In 2019, CWD programs focused on upgrading police armories and destroying excess weapons and abandoned ammunition left from the civil war.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO built an armory for the police and began constructing another four armories. HALO also destroyed 1,909 excess weapons and three tons of stockpiled ammunition, and cleared 43,484 items of UXO, abandoned unexploded ordnance (AXO), and small arms ammunition (SAA).
  • MAG (Mines Advisory Group) conducted humanitarian demining in Moxico Province, including manual and mechanical clearance, technical survey (TS), explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) spot tasks, and mine risk education (MRE). The Department of State supported MAG’s administrative costs. The Japanese government supported MAG’s operational costs.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D technologies were used to clear 1.7 million square meters (420 acres) of land, and 1,282 mines and pieces of UXO since 2006. HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) and Rex, a versatile, light-weight armored excavator.


Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY15–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 900 0 2,441
Country Total 0 900 0 2,441
Dollars in thousands

Violent extremist organizations (VEO) continued to increase operations in Burkina Faso in 2019 using illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and ammunition. In December 2019, jihadists attacked a town in northern Burkina Faso, killing 35 civilians, most of them women, and sparking clashes with security forces that left 80 jihadists dead. Isolated police, gendarmerie, and army outposts are particularly vulnerable to such attacks.

From 2015 to 2019, the United States invested more than $2.4 million in Burkina Faso to improve PSSM.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • MAG upgraded or constructed 18 weapons storage facilities for the gendarmerie, police, and military, and provided stockpile management training. MAG also provided a train-the-trainer course for six gendarmes and helped the police mark 605 of their weapons.

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY07–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 785 0 1,009
Country Total 0 785 0 1,009
Dollars in thousands

The Central African Republic (CAR) has faced security challenges since its independence from France in 1960. The proliferation of weapons in CAR and throughout the region exacerbates the humanitarian situation and complicates efforts to implement the peace agreement that the government and 14 armed groups signed in February 2019.

From 2007 to 2019, the United States provided more than $1 million for CWD activities in CAR.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) prepared to provide capacity building assistance to the Central African Armed Forces to destroy obsolete weapons and ammunition collected under the national disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration program.

Chad

Chad
Funding* FY17 FY18 FY19 FY98–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,250 1,000 12,556
DoD 54 86 0 5,190
Country Total 1,054 1,336 1,000 17,746
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.
Dollars in thousands
A new munitions storage building is handed over to Chad’s Nomadic Guard. Photo courtesy of MAG.
A new munitions storage building is handed over to Chad’s Nomadic Guard. Photo courtesy of MAG.

Chad is a transit point for illicit weapons flowing to and from Libya, and is a destination for such weapons flowing from Sudan into eastern Chad. CWD programs help ensure Chadian government conventional weapon stockpiles remain secure and serviceable as it continues to make substantial efforts, with U.S. support, to counter the threats from VEOs.

From 1998 to 2019, the United States invested more than $17 million in Chad to destroy excess SA/LW and ammunition, improve PSSM, and clear landmines.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • MAG built 14 storage facilities for the military, gendarmerie, and the National and Nomadic Guard. MAG also provided training in stockpile management and destroyed 8.34 tons of excess ammunition and 688 excess SA/LW.
  • The Chadian military continued to patrol remote border areas to interdict illicitly-trafficked arms and ammunition. The Department of State supplied fuel and food to enable the patrols.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY02–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 4,000 3,000 24,334
DoD 0 0 0 1,083
USAID 1,275 0 0 7,597
Country Total 4,275 4,000 3,000 33,014
Dollars in thousands
A deminer in DRC clears a lane. Photo courtesy of DCA.
A deminer in DRC clears a lane. Photo courtesy of DCA.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) eastern provinces continue to suffer from intense fighting between non-state actors and government forces. Illicit proliferation of SA/LW and ammunition fuels the fighting, resulting in population displacement, ERW contamination, and a lack of economic development. It also exacerbates public health crises when health workers cannot safely access conflict areas.

From 2002 to 2019, the United States invested more than $34 million in funding for CWD efforts in DRC, destroying 178,355 SA/LW and 1,599 metric tons of ammunition; as well as upgrading weapons storage facilities and training security force personnel in PSSM. CWD support for HMA returned 638,638 square meters (157.8 acres) of land to productive use and provided MRE to 129,503 people.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG destroyed 125 metric tons of surplus ammunition in North and South Kivu Provinces.
  • Regional Center on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region, the Horn of Africa and Bordering States (RECSA) trained weapons marking teams and supported their fuel expenses. The teams marked 35,102 government SA/LW in North and South Kivu Provinces.
  • DanChurchAid (DCA) returned 98,309 square meters (24.2 acres) of land to productive use through HMA in Tshopo and Maniema Provinces and conducted explosive ordnance disposal EOD spot tasks. DCA also provided MRE to 12,034 civilians.
  • Polus provided prosthetics to 15 conflict survivors, continued to develop a victim assistance association, and worked with the University of Buffalo to design a coffee tasting lab that will create jobs for survivors. Private sector donors plan to fund its construction in 2020 as part of the Department of State’s Private-Public Partnership initiative.

Guinea

Guinea
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY02–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 0 1,103
Country Total 500 0 0 1,103
Dollars in thousands

The presence of multiple terrorist groups and widespread proliferation of SA/LW in West Africa and the Sahel have left Guinea vulnerable to possible attacks. In 2019, U.S. CWD efforts focused on identifying high-impact opportunities to secure its government’s munitions stockpiles and build PSSM capacity.

From 2002 to 2019, the United States invested more than $1.1 million in CWD efforts in Guinea.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • MAG provided explosive ordnance reconnaissance training to the police and destroyed 35.2 metric tons of surplus ammunition held by the military.
  • The Danish Demining Group (DDG) assessed SA/LW storage facilities and designed an EOD training for the military.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY00–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 700 0 8,037
DoD 0 0 0 1,444
Country Total 500 700 0 9,481
Dollars in thousands

Guinea-Bissau declared itself free from all known landmine contamination in 2012 due to CWD assistance from the United States. However, the condition and security of its government munition stockpiles remain a concern.

In 2019, the United States continued to improve Guinea-Bissau’s security and increase its ability to counter transnational threats by preventing the illicit diversion of its munitions.

From 2000 to 2019, the United States invested more than $9.4 million in CWD and PSSM efforts for Guinea-Bissau.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO finished construction of a central ammunition storage facility for the military and prepared for the destruction of excess ammunition in 2020. This program builds off an African Union-sponsored assessment under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative.

Malawi

Malawi
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY17–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 130 0 130
Country Total 0 130 0 130
Dollars in thousands

The African Union sponsored an assessment of Malawian stockpiles in 2018 under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative, identifying gaps in security measures, and degraded ammunition that pose a high risk of accidental explosion.

Based on that assessment in 2019, the United States destroyed excess ammunition and provided physical infrastructure upgrades to prevent diversions and depot explosions.

From 2018 to 2019, the United States invested $130,000 in CWD and PSSM efforts for Malawi.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO provided EOD training to the military and supported the destruction of 14.3 metric tons of ordnance, including 2,000 white phosphorous rounds. HALO also refurbished eight storage areas in Zomba (completed in January 2020) and provided stockpile management training to 28 military and police personnel.

Mali

Mali
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY15–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,250 1,000 4,950
DoD 182 110 0 462
Country Total 1,182 1,360 1,000 5,412
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.
Dollars in thousands

The U.S. CWD program helps Malian security forces protect their weapons from bad actors while strengthening their capacity to manage the stockpiles effectively. In 2019, VEOs desperate for arms and ammunition launched at least eight attacks that targeted vulnerable Malian stockpiles

From 2015 to 2019, the United States invested more than $5.4 million in Mali to improve PSSM of its munitions.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG constructed five armories and explosive storehouses for the military and one armory for the gendarmerie, provided stockpile management training, convened a PSSM workshop for mid-level officers, and destroyed 129.33 metric tons of ammunition.

Mauritania

Mauritania
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY99–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 1,000 4,195
DoD 0 0 0 4,410
Country Total 0 0 1,000 8,605
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.
Dollars in thousands

Most of Mauritania is located in the Sahara Desert, which offers a safe haven for terrorists and the illicit trafficking of SA/LW. CWD programs strengthen the ability of Mauritanian security forces to properly manage weapons and ammunition in secure facilities to prevent diversions to extremists and arms traffickers. These efforts help maintain Mauritania’s stability and assist its security efforts in the Sahel.

From 1999 to 2019, the United States invested more than $8.6 million in Mauritania. These projects destroyed 3,107 metric tons of ammunition and 300 MANPADS, trained 74 personnel in stockpile management, and built or refurbished 13 storage facilities.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) concluded its ammunition management project by providing PSSM toolkits, including forklifts and pallets, to two military ammunition storage areas.
  • MAG concluded its PSSM project by building or refurbishing 11 storage facilities for the police and gendarmerie, providing PSSM training to the police, gendarmerie, and national guard, and convening workshops to raise awareness regarding PSSM and weapons marking.

Niger

Niger
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY15–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 1,250 1,000 4,693
DoD 3 325 0 328
Country Total 1,253 1,575 1,000 5,021
*Department of State FY13 funding is included in regional funding.
Dollars in thousands
A Nigerien soldier destroys a surplus heavy machine gun. Photo courtesy of the Department of State.
A Nigerien soldier destroys a surplus heavy machine gun. Photo courtesy of the Department of State.

Niger is a key partner in regional and international counter-terrorism efforts, including the G5 Sahel, Multi-National Joint Task Force, and UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in neighboring Mali.

From 2015 to 2019, the United States invested more than $5 million in CWD funding to build PSSM capacity and destroy excess munitions. This support constructed or rehabilitated 30 storage facilities, trained personnel in PSSM, and destroyed 11.9 metric tons of excess ordnance and 4,182 SA/LW. These efforts included training in SA/LW destruction, which enabled Nigerien security forces to destroy a further 3,500 SA/LW from 2015 to 2016.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Humanity and Inclusion (HI) built four storage facilities for the national guard and gendarmerie, trained 21 personnel in PSSM, destroyed 1,900 excess SA/LW, and provided training on SA/LW marking and disposal. HI also worked with Niger’s National Commission for the Collection and Control of Illicit Weapons (CNCCAI) to improve its project development and management capacity and to develop operational procedures for marking and registering SA/LW and destroying excess SA/LW.
  • Small Arms Survey (SAS) worked with the CNCCAI and HI to develop and validate a SA/LW national action plan that will help the government of Niger prioritize its efforts to stem the illicit proliferation of SA/LW.

Senegal

Senegal
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY02–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 450 0 0 3,755
DOS Other 0 0 0 260
DoD 10 90 12 1,978
USAID 0 0 0 500
Country Total 460 90 12 6,493
Dollars in thousands
HI conducts MRE in Senegal. Photo courtesy of HI.
HI conducts MRE in Senegal. Photo courtesy of HI.

More than 30 years of internal conflict between the government of Senegal and the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance left parts of the country’s Casamance region impacted by landmines and UXO. The United States began assistance for projects in the Casamance region in 2008. Landmine clearance continues to facilitate the Casamance peace process and the return of internally displaced persons (IDP).

From 2002 to 2019, the United States invested more than $6.4 million in CWD funding for mine and UXO clearance, MRE, TS, and non-technical surveys (NTS) of suspected hazard areas (SHA), and capacity building.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HI returned 22,138 square meters (5.4 acres) to productive use through TS in Sédhiou region and conducted a reconnaissance mission to six villages in eastern Sédhiou to help plan future clearance activities in early 2020.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Africa Corps (USAFRICA) with U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa, the Vermont Air National Guard, and the Austrian Verification Unit conducted three missions to Senegal. The primary focus of the missions was development of cadres to teach basic PSSM.


Somalia

Somalia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY98–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,740 2,165 2,000 31,050
Country Total 2,740 2,165 2,000 31,050
Dollars in thousands

Al-Shabaab continues to pose a significant threat to Somalia’s security, stability, and prosperity. The group controls territory throughout south and central Somalia. From January 15 to 16, 2019, Al-Shabaab attacked the DusitD2 hotel and business complex in Nairobi, Kenya, killing 21 civilians. The Daily Nation, a Kenyan newspaper, reported that three of the five weapons used in the attack allegedly originated from the Federal Government of Somalia’s stockpiles, underscoring the need for improved security and accountability of government-controlled munitions. The widespread trafficking of SA/LW and ammunition, including from Yemen, enables Al-Shabaab and other non-state actors to carry out attacks and continue destabilizing the Horn of Africa. Additionally, Al-Shabaab harvests explosives from unsecured and abandoned munitions caches to create IEDs.

CWD efforts focus on capacity building within the Federal Government of Somalia security forces to properly manage their conventional weapons stockpiles, particularly in south-central Somalia, where the risk of illicit diversion to non-state actors is highest. Since 2016, the United States has also supported mobile weapons and ammunition disposal (WAD) teams to destroy over 3,100 abandoned munitions.

From 1998 to 2019, the United States has invested more than $31 million in CWD programs in Somalia for PSSM, munitions destruction, MANPADS stockpile reduction, HMA, and other programs to promote stability.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • HALO constructed 15 armories for the military and police, trained 41 personnel in stockpile management, and deployed WAD teams to south-central Somalia that destroyed 1,078 unsecured munitions (4.08 metric tons).

South Sudan

South Sudan
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY11–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 1,000 2,000 14,135
DoD 0 0 0 826
Country Total 300 1,000 2,000 14,961
Dollars in thousands

The majority of landmine and ERW contamination in South Sudan is found in the former Central, Eastern, and Western Equatoria States. ERW contamination inhibits delivery of humanitarian assistance, impedes development, and poses a physical threat to civilians. In addition, loose SA/LW continue to threaten communities throughout the country and compromise security throughout the region.

In late 2019, CWD programs expanded beyond EOD spot tasks and MRE to include full survey and clearance activities by MAG in former Central and Eastern Equatoria States. The restart of systematic clearance reflects a more permissive operating environment in MAG’s specific area of operations, despite continued security and access issues elsewhere in the country.

From 2003 to 2010, the United States provided more than $27.7 million in CWD funding to Sudan prior to southern Sudan’s secession, directing much of it to southern provinces.

Following South Sudan’s independence, from 2011 to 2019 the United States invested more than $14.9 million directly for mine and UXO removal, survivor assistance, and enhanced SA/LW stockpile security.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG prepared to train, accredit, and deploy a team for survey, clearance, and EOD call-outs in former Central and Eastern Equatoria States. MAG also prepared to deliver MRE to host communities, IDPs, and returnees.
  • DCA concluded its HMA project in former Central and Eastern Equatoria States by conducting 87 EOD spot tasks that destroyed 793 items of UXO, AXO, and SAA. DCA also provided MRE to 7,762 people and trained 81 community members to continue providing MRE.

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY98–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 3,598 1,000 17,184
DoD 153 337 243 4,249
Country Total 2,153 3,935 1,243 21,433
Dollars in thousands
Risk education programs in Zimbabwe are provided to these children who pass daily through minefields on their way to and from their school located across the border in Mozambique. Photo courtesy of NPA.
Risk education programs in Zimbabwe are provided to these children who pass daily through minefields on their way to and from their school located across the border in Mozambique. Photo courtesy of NPA.

Zimbabwe has dense anti-personnel minefields along its Mozambican and Zambian borders that kill and injure civilians and constrain economic development, particularly by killing livestock and preventing agricultural activities. In late 2017, the Zimbabwe Mine Action Center (ZIMAC) reported 62 million square meters (15,320 acres) of land were contaminated.

From 1998 to 2019, the United States invested more than $21.4 million for CWD in Zimbabwe. This assistance returned 7.66 million square meters (1,893 acres) of contaminated land to productive use and destroyed 36,125 landmines benefiting 55,426 Zimbabweans.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued demining in Mashonaland Central Province. HALO returned 753,065 square meters (186 acres) to productive use, conducted EOD call-outs, destroyed 3,966 landmines, and provided MRE to 429 people.
  • Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) continued demining operations in Manicaland Province. It returned 1.8 million square meters (445 acres) to productive use, destroyed 4,132 landmines, and provided MRE to 1,575 people.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued to evaluate a soil-sifting excavator attachment and the dual-sensor HSTAMIDS. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 8,459 mines from 603,968 square meters (149acres) of land since 2014.


Africa--Regional Programs

Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda contain vast stretches of porous, unguarded borders in which SA/LW proliferation routes are rampant. In addition, poorly-secured munitions stockpiles in remote areas, such as near Kenya’s border with Somalia, are attractive targets for exploitation by non-state actors.

To reduce illicit SA/LW proliferation, governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004 and subsequently created RECSA to implement the protocol. From 2006 to 2019, the United States provided more than $6.8 million in support of RECSA’s initiatives, including $500,000 in FY18.

In 2019, CWD funding supported these initiatives to strengthen stockpile security, increase accountability, and reduce the threat of proliferation (with prior year funds):

  • Kenya: RECSA trained 27 police officers in PSSM and provided 92 steel lockers to secure police SA/LW.
  • Rwanda: RECSA provided 105 steel lockers and 40 gun racks to secure police SA/LW.
  • Tanzania: RECSA constructed four armories and provided 90 steel lockers and 70 gun racks to secure police SA/LW.
  • Uganda: RECSA helped police destroy 11 tons of expired commercial explosives and provided 80 steel lockers to secure military SA/LW.

Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • Namibia: USAFRICOM with U.S. Naval Forces Africa conducted one EOD Level 1 awareness training mission. Additionally, USAFRICOM staff conducted a feasibility study to expand EOD Level 1 and Level 2 training into the National Police Force.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the International Committee of Red Cross Move Ability Foundation in sub-Saharan Africa to work on developing low-cost and sustainable prosthetic and orthotic technology and physical rehabilitation centers in developing countries. They also supported Transforming Household Reslience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE) in Rwanda to increase sustainable access to quality rehabilitation services.


Regional Profile: East Asia and Pacific

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in East Asia and Pacific from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $590 million

Map of East Asia and Pacific: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.Landmines and UXO have remained a persistent threat in several countries in the East Asia and Pacific region since World War II. During the Second World War, the Pacific Islands endured aerial and naval bombardment, and fierce land battles between Japanese and Allied forces. During the Vietnam War, southern Vietnam and parts of Cambodia and Laos experienced significant ground combat and massive U.S. aerial bombing campaigns. The impact from these wars did not end when the fighting stopped. Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands still suffer from the deadly dangers of explosive hazards today.

HMA has been a lynchpin in building lasting relationships with countries in East Asia and the Pacific, allowing us to move beyond the divisions and legacies of the past to focus on a brighter, shared future. Working closely with regional governments, the United States is not only clearing mines and UXO, but continues to bolster local capacity to manage these challenges, independent of U.S. assistance over the long term.

Since 1993, the U.S. CWD program has provided more than $590 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for local capacity building, explosive ordnance clearance, MRE, survivor assistance, and improving munitions stockpile security.

Percent Of The $58.6 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated To East Asia And Pacific In FY2019 By Country With Active Programs: Burma 0.00%; Cambodia 13.68%; Laos 54.96%; Marshall Islands 0.00%; Palau 0.19%; Solomon Islands 0.17%; Thailand 1.33%; Vietnam 29.67%.
Percent of the $58.6 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to East Asia and Pacific in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.

Cambodia

Cambodia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY93–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,352 9,320 5,000 105,817
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 1,969 1,601 2,473 28,137
USAID 0 0 0 15,084
Country Total 8,321 10,921 7,473 154,081
Dollars in thousands
A mine detection dog and his handler work in Cambodia. Photo courtesy of NPA.
A mine detection dog and his handler work in Cambodia. Photo courtesy of NPA.

Over three decades of armed conflict has left Cambodia seriously affected by landmines and UXO, and kept poor communities impoverished by limiting their access to farmland. The Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), Vietnamese, and Thai militaries laid extensive minefields during the Indochina Wars, Vietnamese occupation, and factional fighting that ended in 1999.

The 2019 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports that clearance of Cambodia’s anti-personnel mines has been challenged by “un-demarcated border areas, inaccessible areas, [and] competing development priorities and demands,” among other factors.

Additionally, U.S. air and artillery strikes during the Vietnam War left behind heavy concentrations of UXO in the eastern and northeastern areas of the country along Cambodia’s border with Vietnam. The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority has worked with international partners to develop the National Mine Action Strategy 2018–2025 with the goal of ensuring that “Cambodia is mine free and the threat of explosive remnants of war is minimized, and human and socioeconomic development takes place safely.” Cambodia continues to have the right technical tools in place to meet this goal, but declining international contributions could jeopardize it. Furthermore, despite assistance from the United States and other donors, Cambodia announced on January 28, 2020 that casualties from landmines and UXO actually increased by 35 percent from 2018 to 2019.

From 1993 to 2019, the U.S. government invested more than $154 million for CWD programs in Cambodia to clear mines and UXO, provide MRE, and assist the RCAF with destruction and PSSM of SA/LW and ammunition.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West), in partnership with the RCAF, supported an explosive harvesting system. Golden West also continued a global engineering initiative to develop cutting-edge demining tools in partnership with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States) and Singapore University.
  • HALO deployed 10 clearance teams in some of the densest anti-personnel and anti-tank minefields in the K-5 mine belt in northwestern Cambodia.
  • Landmine Relief Fund continued to support two Cambodia Self Help Demining EOD teams and one MRE team conducting clearance of small villages in northwestern Cambodia. Funding supported two clearance teams to demine 650,000 square meters (160 acres) and conduct 150 MRE classes.
  • MAG continued to provide survey and clearance assets in western Cambodia and cluster munition clearance assets in eastern Cambodia. Under these projects, MAG deployed 27 teams across the country that released over 4.7 million square meters (1,161 acres) of land. MAG also continued its partnership with the HD R&D to perform technology testing through survey and clearance in Ratanakiri Province.
  • NPA continued its work with the Cambodian Mine Action Center on survey and clearance in eastern Cambodia and in Ratanakiri Province on Cluster Munitions Remnants Survey (CMRS) work. Under these projects, 35 teams cleared over 16.8 million square meters (4,151 acres) of contaminated land.
  • Spirit of Soccer (SOS) delivered MRE to primary school children by training of youth soccer coaches, distributing MRE materials, and holding soccer tournaments to engage local populations. During this project, which will end in March 2020, over 4,800 children will receive MRE, and 80 teachers will graduate from SOS’s MRE/soccer training program.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies were used to clear 33.7 million square meters (8,332 acres) of land and 44,289 mines and UXO to date. Evaluation of 20 technologies continued. HALO, MAG, and Golden West continued evaluating the Armored Remote-Control Chase Vehicle, Badger tracked excavator, Bearcat vegetation clearance system, HSTAMIDS, Mini MineWolf tilling system, Nemesis and Rex tools, Piranha minefield area reduction and TS skid steer, Rambo demining team support vehicles, Scorpion UXO detection systems, Traxx remote area preparation platforms, VMX10 UXO detector, and wet soil sifting excavator attachments.
  • U.S. Marine Corp Forces Pacific (USMARFORPAC) in partnership with the Cambodian Mine Action Center conducted three iterations of EOD train-the-trainer missions. The three iterations consisted of two EOD Level 1 courses and one EOD Level 2 course.

Laos

Laos
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY95–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 30,000 30,000 30,000 204,364
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 10 0 24 7,045
USAID 3,005 1,750 0 18,721
Country Total 33,015 31,750 30,024 230,880
Dollars in thousands
Children in Laos perform a puppet show they learned during an MRE class. Photo courtesy of World Education.
Children in Laos perform a puppet show they learned during an MRE class. Photo courtesy of World Education.

Contamination from the Indochina Wars of the 1960s and 1970s left Laos with the world’s highest level of unexploded submunitions, according to the 2018 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. Cluster munitions account for the bulk of UXO contamination in Laos; however, landmines and other ERW also contributed to contamination during the wars. Most of the country’s 17 provinces are contaminated with UXO, a majority of which is of U.S. origin. Population growth in rural areas and other socioeconomic factors have increased pressure to return UXO-contaminated land to productive use, which leads to greater risk of death and injury. In September 2016, the United States committed to invest $90 million over a three-year period. This commitment was met in 2019 after the third tranche was delivered and will be far surpassed in the coming year. Additional funds will continue to support the first-ever comprehensive national UXO contamination survey focused on identifying cluster munition strike footprints. Ongoing clearance, MRE, and survivor assistance efforts continue at sustained historic levels. From 1995 to 2019, the United States invested more than $230 million in CWD programs in Laos that supported survey and clearance activities, risk education, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support large-scale survey in Savannakhet Province through the deployment of 20 teams throughout the province.
  • Health Leadership International continued to provide portable ultrasounds, trauma care, post-traumatic stress disorder medical training, and suicide-prevention training for healthcare providers. This medical education and training improved diagnostic capabilities and elevated the overall competency of district-level medical personnel in UXO-affected districts.
  • Janus Global Operations and Tetra Tech partnered with UXO Laos on UXO survey and clearance efforts, and provided managerial and technical support to the National Regulatory Authority, which oversees all UXO-related activity in Laos.
  • MAG continued to deploy 20 teams to support survey and clearance teams in Xieng Khouang Province that completed TS of 482 million square meters (119,105 acres) and cleared over 5.6 million square meters (1,384 acres).
  • NPA continued its CMRS work in Champasak, Sekong, Salavan, and Attapeu Provinces through the deployment of 24 teams expected to complete CMRS in 270 villages and clear more than 2.4 million square meters (593 acres) of land.
  • SOS continued to provide risk education for schoolchildren through soccer activities in the Xieng Khouang and Salavan Provinces. During this project, which will end in April 2020, 24,000 at-risk children will receive MRE, and 50 teachers will graduate from SOS’s MRE/coaching workshop.
  • World Education, Inc. continued to support integrating risk education into the primary-school curriculum and development of a comprehensive case management system for UXO survivors in Xieng Khouang Province.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support World Education to improve and sustain the ability of people with disabilities to live and function independently. This assistance has benefitted UXO survivors, survivors of war, and people with disabilities who have mobility limitations.


Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY13–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 460 341 0 2,009
Country Total 460 341 0 2,009
Dollars in thousands

More than 70 years after the end of World War II, UXO from both U.S. and Japanese forces continue to pose a threat in the Marshall Islands. Despite massive clearance efforts in the 1950s, UXO contamination still affects some of the Marshall Islands’ atolls.

From 2013 to 2019, the United States invested more than $2 million in CWD in the Marshall Islands.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • Golden West conducted survey, ERW/UXO recovery, and destruction on Arno and Jaluit Atolls. Golden West conducted a TS of three islands in the Wotje Atoll and recovered, relocated, and destroyed known ERW/UXO munitions on Wotje Island in Wotje Atoll (both land and shallow water items). Finally, Golden West conducted a five-day course on identifying munitions and helped to create a database of known ERW/UXO munition locations.

Palau

Palau
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY09–10 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 600 655 0 3,580
DOD 0 0 106 106
Country Total 600 655 106 3,686
Dollars in thousands
Lift straps are secured around a World War II Japanese torpedo found close to a resort and harbor in Palau. Photo courtesy of Golden West.
Lift straps are secured around a World War II Japanese torpedo found close to a resort and harbor in Palau. Photo courtesy of Golden West.

Many of Palau’s islands are contaminated with UXO remaining from World War II.

From 2009 to 2019, the United States invested more than $3.6 million in CWD in Palau.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • NPA continued to work with the government of Palau to create a sustainable UXO program and respond to current UXO challenges. This included creating a national UXO survey plan, conducting UXO surveys, and building the national capacity of the Palau government to manage UXO issues.
  • U.S. Department of State Quick Reaction Force (QRF), along with NPA and Palauan authorities, cleared two Japanese World War II Type 93 torpedoes located in close proximity to a resort and harbor area.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, through its implementing partner Golden West, continued an evaluation of the Mobile Bomb Cutter. So far it has destroyed 658 items of WWII era UXO.


Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY11–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 567 715 0 4,078
DoD 200 234 92 2,190
Country Total 767 949 92 6,268
Dollars in thousands

The Solomon Islands faces serious impacts from World War II-era UXO. From 2011 to 2019, the United States invested more than $6.2 million in CWD in the Solomon Islands. Support for the remediation of UXO is a joint capacity-building effort funded by the United States and Australia.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • Golden West concluded its training of members of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) to EOD Level 2 and limited EOD Level 3 activities to support public safety UXO clearance tasks. Following the successful execution of this project, the United States transitioned maintenance of this established capacity to the Solomon Islands government and the Australian government.
  • NPA began a project designed to assist the Solomon Islands government in developing a platform to record and understand the extent of contamination from UXO. This project will include activities to establish the national database and train technicians to conclude NTS.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, through its implementing partner Golden West, completed an evaluation of the Badger armored excavator on the island of Guadalcanal. In total, the Badger cleared 1.5 million square meters (370 acres) and found 6,151 items of UXO and AXO.


Vietnam

Vietnam
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY93–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 12,621 12,500 15,000 113,980
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 1,168 115 1,211 5,621
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 13,789 12,615 16,211 148,248
Dollars in thousands
A battle area clearance team in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees Vietnam.
A battle area clearance team in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees Vietnam.

Thirty years of conflict from World War II through the Vietnam War left much of Vietnam contaminated with UXO. The majority of this UXO is concentrated along the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Nam Provinces. Parts of southern Vietnam and the country’s northern border with China also remain contaminated with UXO and some landmines.

U.S. support for the Vietnam National Mine Action Center (VNMAC), the host government’s lead for issues related to UXO and landmines, continued in 2019 with the provision of a technical advisor, support for the information management unit within VNMAC headquarters, and a TS survey pilot project in Hue Province. Supporting VNMAC’s development will ensure Vietnam maintains the capacity to deal with residual UXO and landmine threats independent of U.S. assistance. PM/WRA continued to fund large-scale survey and clearance work in Quang Tri in support of the provincial government’s goal to become UXO-impact free by 2025.

A non-technical survey is conducted in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Photo courtesy of NPA.
A non-technical survey is conducted in Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Photo courtesy of NPA.

From 1993 to 2019, the United States invested more than $148 million for CWD programs in Vietnam that cleared mines and UXO, provided MRE and survivor assistance, and supported national capacity development. While UXO remains a threat, no more landmines have been found in those areas where the United States has supported clearance since at least 2012.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS) continued to focus on MRE in primary and secondary schools, MRE in teacher training colleges, integrating MRE in the official curriculum in four targeted provinces, and scaling education messaging through a play-based educational computer application. In 2019 alone, the project educated 554,693 students in 1,160 primary and secondary schools in four provinces, provided teacher training on MRE to 580 students in three teacher training colleges/universities, and piloted the app in 26 primary schools across three central provinces. The launch of the app is a particularly promising approach with a total of 6,457 downloads and over 40,000 games played, and is an innovative approach to spreading MRE messaging with a wide-reaching impact.
  • Golden West continued expanding the capacity of the Quang Binh and Quang Tri provincial demining units, to ensure that they were certified to International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) and equipped to deal with UXO contamination in their respective provinces. Five training sessions as well as mentorship were provided.
  • The International Center-Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation continued to help develop the capacity of VNMAC and the executive office of the National Mine Action Program to plan, coordinate, and manage the program in Vietnam.
  • NPA continued to provide the survey component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards through the deployment of 39 teams. In 2019, these teams surveyed 78 million square meters (19,274 acres) of land.
  • NPA continued to support capacity development of VNMAC through provision of a technical advisor and establishment of an information management unit. Additionally, NPA supported VNMAC’s development of technical skills through the adoption of evidenced-based survey procedures through a field pilot in Hue Province. Under this support, NPA trained 30 individuals and NTS was completed in six communes.
  • MAG also continued to provide the survey clearance component for the comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards. They did this by deploying 32 teams who released over 19.6 million square meters (4,843 acres) of land. Additionally, funding enabled MAG to deploy 11 teams in Quang Binh Province who surveyed over 8.7 million square meters (2,150 acres) and released over 3 million square meters (741 acres).
  • PeaceTrees Vietnam continued to field EOD response teams and fund clearance operations along the heavily-contaminated Quang Tri provincial border with Laos.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 5,545 mines and UXO from 912,565 square meters (226 acres) of land to date. Five technologies, including a new Scorpion UXO detection system and a new Bearcat vegetation clearance system, were evaluated in partnership with NPA and MAG.
  • U.S. Pacific Command (USPACOM) and the government of Vietnam conducted the 4th phase of an underwater HMA plan in September 2019. U.S. EOD Mobile Unit Five personnel and Golden West trainers conducted IMAS Level 1 certification for 13 participants from the government of Vietnam. USPACOM also conducted one IMAS Level 2 training for 12 VNMAC personnel, one Blast Injury training for 15 Vietnamese military medics, and one Certification Mentorship where 10 students received the IMAS Level I certification.

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Programs

With funding from the Department of State,

  • The Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) provided long-term risk-management capacity building in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. The main objective is to develop the concept of residual contamination globally, incorporating it into national strategic planning processes and supporting the development of related national policies in target countries listed previously.
  • NPA implemented the second CMRS workshop in Vietnam. Following the successful first CMRS workshop hosted in Washington D.C. in 2017, it was agreed that the next workshop would follow up on the 2017 outcomes with a focus on CMRS field implementation. The 2019 workshop, held in Quang Tri Province, was attended by national authorities from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, as well as NGOs, and donor representatives.

East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, Thailand received the following support:

  • HD R&D, in partnership with Thailand Mine Action Center, evaluated the Mini MineWolf and Medium MineWolf, earth tilling systems capable of clearing anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines, as well as an Armored Remote Control Chase Vehicle.
  • In 2019, USMARFORPAC executed three HMA training iterations that consisted of one EOD Level 1, one EOD Level 2, and one Deminer TS/NTS training.

With FY18 funding, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Development Alternatives International in Burma in assisting communities in areas affected by or prone to conflict to access essential services, including rehabilitation assistance.


Regional Profile: Europe

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in Europe from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $447 million

Map of Europe: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.The United States’ enduring CWD priorities for Europe are to prevent illicit transfers of SA/LW and unplanned explosions at munitions sites (UEMS) through PSSM programs, and to clear landmines and UXO left from the Yugoslav Wars and from ongoing Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine. The United States continues to support regional security and build national capacity through a military stockpile reduction initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, clear cluster munitions from the Kosovo War, reduce excess munitions stockpiles in Serbia, clear UXO hotspots in Albania, and perform PSSM and BAC in Ukraine. These programs also help return cleared land to productive use.

Since 1993, the United States has supported extensive efforts to rid Eastern Europe of the vestiges of past conflicts, providing more than $447 million in CWD support. Funding and clearance efforts by the United States and other donors have already freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and UXO.

Percent Of The $20.5 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated To Europe In Fy2019 By Country With Active Programs: Albania 14.89%; Armenia 0.31%; Azerbaijan 0.05%; Bosnia & Herzegovina 9.78%; Croatia 0.39%; Estonia 1.32%; Georgia 10.54%; Kosovo 1.34%; Moldova 9.70%; Montenegro 0.19%; North Macedonia 1.68%; Serbia 4.87%; Ukraine 44.92%
Percent of the $20.5 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Europe in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.

Albania

Albania
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY00–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,200 1,000 1,000 43,247
DoD 33 80 2,059 2,636
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 1,233 1,080 3,059 47,272
Dollars in thousands
Items found by NPA while clearing UXO at Sinanaj, Albania. Photo courtesy of ITF.
Items found by NPA while clearing UXO at Sinanaj, Albania. Photo courtesy of ITF.

Albania declared itself mine free in 2009 but continues to face UXO contamination from UEMS. UXO at former military impact ranges and depot explosion sites, known in Albania as UXO hotspots, remain a threat.

From 2000 to 2019, the United States provided more than $47.2 million to Albania for CWD efforts that included hotspot clearance, PSSM, and SA/LW projects.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) and NPA cleared and released 166,828 square meters (41 acres) of land, and found and destroyed 4,798 UXO and 16,159 SAA at Sinanaj-Tepelenë, a former munitions depot site, completing all existing work at the site. ITF and NPA also continued TS and clearance of contaminated hotspots in Jube Sukth, returning 16,789 square meters (4 acres) of land to the local community and removing over 231 pieces of UXO.
  • United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)/South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) completed security upgrades for the Ministry of Interior facility in Mullet to international standards, allowing safer and more secure weapons storage by the Albanian State Police (ASP). UNDP/SEESAC also conducted capacity building training to 20 ASP participants in stockpile management.
  • UNDP/SEESAC continued physical security and safety upgrades at the Ministry of Defense’s (MOD) Mirake and Zall-Herr facilities.
  • ITF and UNDP/SEESAC, with U.S. funding, continued support to the Albanian Mine and Munitions Coordination Office.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the U.S. European Command (USEUCOM) utilized the New Jersey National Guard through the State Partnership Program (SPP), and U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) to conduct EOD Level 2 train-the-trainer events with the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) and Kosovo Security Forces (KSF). EUCOM funded an EOD training range upgrade. And, USEUCOM, the New Jersey National Guard,  HDTC, Joint Munitions Command, and Golden West completed an International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) Risk Reduction Process (RRPL) Assessment of two strategic depots and one unit level depot.


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY96–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,750 2,445 2,000 87,826
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 249 126 8 5,121
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 2,999 2,571 2,008 117,657
Dollars in thousands
Mine detection dog (MDD) “Bittersweet” with her handler in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Photo courtesy of MLI.
Mine detection dog (MDD) “Bittersweet” with her handler in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Photo courtesy of MLI.

Over 20 years after the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts, Bosnia and Herzegovina remains heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO. Most remaining minefields exist around formerly strategic areas along the separation line between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. As of late 2019, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center (BHMAC) estimated that 992 million square meters (245,129 acres) of its territory remained either SHAs or confirmed hazardous areas (CHA).

From 1996 to 2019, the United States provided more than $117 million in CWD assistance to Bosnia and Herzegovina, including landmine clearance, MRE, survivor assistance, and munitions stockpile destruction.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • In coordination with the Bosnia and Herzegovina MOD and U.S. Embassy Sarajevo, Tetra Tech destroyed 537.82 U.S. tons (613,659 items) of excess, obsolete arms and ammunition, respectively.
  • ITF returned 777,966 square meters (192 acres) of land to productive use through manual demining or TS throughout the country by utilizing local, private operators working in close coordination with U.S. Embassy Sarajevo and BHMAC.
  • ITF, in partnership with the Mine Detection Dog Center of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MDDC) and the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) initiated the Sarajevo Free of Mines project in 2019. This project aims to make Sarajevo and five surrounding municipalities mine-impact free. In 2019, this project enabled the safe return of 1.3 million square meters (321 acres) of land back to the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina utilizing land release methodology.
  • MAG continued land release projects, returning 666,070 square meters (165 acres) to local communities.
  • MLI also continued its Children Against Mines Program (CHAMPS). Through CHAMPS, MLI provided MRE to over 10,662 individuals, provided 14 landmine survivors with prosthetics and rehabilitative care, and connected schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina with schools in the United States to learn about MRE.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate the RAMBO demining team support vehicle and the Target Reacquisition and Positioning System to facilitate project planning, supervision, and mapping.


Croatia

Croatia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY99–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,000 0 39,728
DoD 28 55 80 876
Country Total 28 1,055 80 40,604
Dollars in thousands

Croatia is still affected by extensive legacy landmines and UXO contamination from the Yugoslav Wars and maintains a robust commercial demining sector. The Croatian government funds most demining projects, in addition to research and development for demining-related technologies. Croatia possesses a sizeable stockpile of conventional arms and ammunition inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds its national defense requirements. Much of this materiel is beyond its shelf life and requires destruction or demilitarization.

From 1999 to 2019, the United States provided more than $40.6 million for CWD in Croatia.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF completed safety and security upgrades to two munitions storage facilities for the MOD near Split and Ploče.
  • ITF also worked closely with the MOD to demilitarize or destroy 158.89 U.S. tons (4,705 items) of excess or aging munitions.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM and U.S. Naval Forces Europe completed an EOD Level 1 train-the-trainer event with the Croatian Navy Dive unit.


Georgia

Georgia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY98–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 0 29,105
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 55 55 1,165 2,785
USAID 1,998 1,000 1,000 3,998
Country Total 2,553 1,055 2,165 38,532
Dollars in thousands

In addition to inheriting large stockpiles of old and deteriorating Soviet munitions, Georgia is contaminated with landmines and UXO from the conflicts in the South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions of Georgia, and the 2008 conflict with Russia. This contamination is concentrated along the boundary lines between these regions and around former Soviet military bases. In November 2011, all 336 known minefields in the Abkhazia region were declared by HALO to be mine free.

From 1998 to 2019, the United States provided more than $38.5 million in CWD programs in Georgia aimed at training, clearance, safe disposal of mines and UXO, and destruction of excess and aging conventional military weapons and ammunition.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO completed U.S.-funded operations cleaning up the Primorsky UEMS site, clearing 143,673 square meters (36 acres) of land and destroying 23,407 UXO. HALO’s operations will continue in 2020 with other donor funding.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM and the Georgia National Guard through the SPP continued partnering with the Republic of Georgia to provide EOD and BAC train-the-trainer engagements. USEUCOM completed an initial EOD Level 2 event with the Republic of Georgia MOD. USEUCOM, the Georgia National Guard, and HDTC completed an IATG RRPL Assessment of Virski Munitions depot. USEUCOM and the USEUCOM Joint Munitions Command Liaison conducted a country specific Ammunition Depot/Arsenal Leaders Course. USEUCOM and the Georgia National Guard conducted an Explosive Limit Licensing and Site Planning Course.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support Emory University to strengthen the capacity of Georgian physical rehabilitation professionals and expand access to rehabilitation care, including access to appropriate assistive technology.


Kosovo

Kosovo
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY96–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 5,000 0 14,725
DoD 71 86 276 5,222
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 1,321 5,086 276 37,419
Dollars in thousands
A deminer from Kosovo helps her colleague don his protective gear. Photo courtesy of NPA
A deminer from Kosovo helps her colleague don his protective gear. Photo courtesy of NPA.

UXO contamination in Kosovo resulted primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later between the FRY and NATO forces in 1999.

From 1996 to 2019, the United States provided more than $37.4 million in CWD in Kosovo to support TS, NTS, and BAC.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • HALO returned 617,015 square meters (152 acres) of land to local populations by conducting survey and BAC.
  • NPA returned 1.1 million square meters (272 acres) of land to local communities by performing survey and BAC activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, cleared 398,760 square meters (99 acres) of land and removed 40 mines since 2016 using HSTAMIDS dual-head mine detectors loaned by HD R&D.
  • USEUCOM utilized the Iowa National Guard through the SPP and USAFE to conduct EOD Level 2 train-the-trainer events with the KSF and AAF.

Montenegro

Montenegro
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY07–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 9,199
DoD 30 141 39 1,927
Country Total 30 141 39 11,126
Dollars in thousands

Montenegro’s UXO contamination stems from the conflicts during the breakup of the former FRY in the 1990s, including U.S. and NATO air strikes between March and June 1999.

From 2007 to 2019, the United States invested more than $11.1 million in CWD efforts in Montenegro to support SA/LW and PSSM activities in addition to mine and UXO clearance programs.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF continued a PSSM project to reduce national stocks of excess and obsolete small arms and ammunition and improve munitions storage facilities. In 2019, 43 U.S. tons of munitions were demilitarized.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USEUCOM funded the repair of two boats used for underwater UXO surveying and mapping and UXO disposal.


Serbia

Serbia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY07–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 1,000 1,000 22,230
DoD 107 0 0 310
Country Total 1,357 1,000 1,000 22,540
Dollars in thousands
Landmines are marked on a forest path in Serbia. Photo courtesy of ITF.
Landmines are marked on a forest path in Serbia. Photo courtesy of ITF.

Serbia’s landmine and UXO contamination is the result of the Yugoslav Wars in the 1990s and U.S. and NATO air strikes targeting military sites during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. In addition to UXO, landmine contamination persists along Serbia’s shared borders with Kosovo. As of December 2019, 1.2 million square meters (297 acres) of land remain as CHAs or SHAs with landmines in the municipality of Bujanovac. Cluster munition contamination remains confirmed or suspected in five municipalities for a total area of 2.4 million square meters (593 acres). Serbia also faces additional risks of illicit proliferation and UEMS of the large stockpiles of aging ammunition it inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army.

From 2007 to 2019, the United States invested more than $22.5 million in CWD efforts in Serbia supporting SA/LW and ammunition destruction programs and reducing mine and UXO contamination.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF cleared and released 119,344 square meters (30 acres) of former cluster munitions-contaminated land in NiŠ.
  • ITF, in partnership with the United States and the government of Japan, enabled the safe restoration of 389,200 square meters (96 acres) of land to productive use in Bujanovac Municipality through manual clearance and TS.
  • NSPA completed infrastructure improvements to the Tehnicki Remontni Zavod Kraguevac (TRZK) demilitarization facility to more safely demilitarize and destroy munitions under the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund (PfPTF). U.S. funding also procured melt-out equipment to enhance the capacity and capability of TRZK.
  • UNDP/SEESAC initiated plans to enhance the safety and security of the Ministry of Interior’s Duvanište storage site.

Ukraine

Ukraine
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY07–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,000 6,000 8,500 48,567
DoD 656 656 726 2,626
USAID 1,048 958 0 3,957
Country Total 7,704 7,614 9,226 55,150
Dollars in thousands
Excess Soviet-era heavy artillery shells that Ukraine is demilitarizing with U.S. assistance. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.
Excess Soviet-era heavy artillery shells that Ukraine is demilitarizing with U.S. assistance. Photo courtesy of the U.S. Department of State.

Ukraine continues to address the legacy of the massive quantities of conventional arms and ammunition it inherited after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 2005, NSPA estimated Ukraine held as many as seven million SA/LW and stored as much as two million metric tons of ammunition in more than 80 depots. Much of these munitions are excess, aging, potentially unstable, and no longer suitable for use. They represent a significant security and proliferation threat to the country and the region as a whole. In September 2019, a fire set off six UEMS in the Vinnytsya region southwest of Kyiv. No causalities occurred. In October 2018, major explosions at the Ichnya ammunition depot in Chernihiv Oblast resulted in mass evacuations and power outages.

The now six-year long ongoing conflict with Russia-led forces in eastern Ukraine has resulted in a line of contact between the Ukrainian government and the anti-government forces that Russia arms, trains, leads, and fights alongside. The line of contact running through the Donetsk and Luhansk regions suffers from extensive landmine and UXO contamination. These explosive hazards pose a major threat to thousands of Ukrainians living in the conflict area. In 2019, there were 11 civilian and 15 military ERW-related deaths, and 48 civilian and 13 military ERW-related injuries in eastern Ukraine.

From 2004 to 2019, the United States provided more than $55.1 million for SA/LW and ammunition destruction, as well as BAC in Ukraine.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO cleared and returned 338,775 square meters (84 acres) of land to local communities. HALO also conducted 94 MRE sessions in eastern Ukraine.
  • DDG continued to enhance the capacity of State Emergency Services (SES) personnel with IMAS-compliant standard operating procedures. Using DDG, the United States also provided the following to SES demining units: five vehicles, 60 personal protective equipment (PPE), 10 F3 detectors, four large loop detectors, 4,334 supply items for manual demining toolkits, 12 radios, 18 NTS toolkits, two remote firing device controllers, six remote firing device receivers, and 1,332 medical equipment supplies.
  • The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Project Coordinator Unit continued advising the government of Ukraine on establishing a national authority in HMA and coordinating relevant mine action stakeholders.
  • The United States funded the destruction or demilitarization of 816.9 U.S. tons of munitions via the PfPTF, with NSPA as its implementing partner. Additionally, through the PfPTF with NSPA as the implementer, the United States and Germany funded an e-management system for ammunition and SA/LW, which will enhance and modernize the management of the MOD’s strategic weapons and ammunition stockpiles. The United States also funded the modernization of testing laboratories to enhance the lifecycle maintenance of ammunition, as well as procuring box-making machines for storage facilities to implement NATO-standard hazard classification organization and munitions storage. The United States is the lead nation for the PfPTF, which demilitarizes and destroys excess munitions to lower the risk of UEMS and reduce the security threat they pose.
  • To help Ukraine more safely and securely store their munitions stockpiles to international standards, HALO continued infrastructure upgrades at MOD facilities.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, began an evaluation of the Traxx remote vegetation clearance system. It has cleared 71,363 square meters (17.6 acres) of land to date.
  • USEUCOM completed a standard EOD Level 2 train-the-trainer event with Ukrainian SES, Special Transport Service, and MOD Forces. USEUCOM and the USEUCOM Joint Munitions Command Liaison conducted the first of its kind Ammunition Depot/Arsenal Leaders Course. This event is designed to ensure compliance with international guidelines and best practices. USEUCOM and the USEUCOM Joint Munitions Command Liaison conducted a United Nations Safer Guard (SG3) training event with the Ukrainian MOD Training Academy in Odessa, Ukraine. This event instructs the base level of curriculum needed to become familiar with IATG requirements and structure.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support UCP/Wheels for Humanity to provide training for rehabilitation service personnel and economic empowerment, assistive technology delivery, and medical and physical rehabilitation for people with disabilities.


Europe--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided support for CWD in other European countries.

  • Armenia: USEUCOM and military EOD personnel completed equipment purchasing and site assessments for a possible future train-the-trainer engagement in UXO remediation.
  • Azerbaijan: USEUCOM and military EOD personnel conducted training events with the Azerbaijan National Agency on Mine Action (ANAMA) on UXO technical survey, marking, and mapping.
  • Estonia: A U.S. Navy Experimental Dive Unit and HDTC conducted a scuba diver and equipment maintenance train-the trainer event with the Estonian Rescue Board.
  • Moldova: USEUCOM and the North Carolina National Guard through the SPP executed an EOD Level 1 train-the-trainer even with the Moldovan MOD Engineer Battalion, and completed the first phase of a munitions depot upgrade at Floresti. USEUCOM also partnered closely with PM/WRA, OSCE, the Austrian Verification Unit, International Committee of the Red Cross, and German MOD to provide other supplies, equipment and upgrades required for the site.
  • North Macedonia: USEUCOM and military EOD personnel conducted infrastructure development for North Macedonian mine action agencies and assessed the following capabilities: ERW disposal, survey/marking/mapping of ERW contaminated areas, landmine and unexploded ordnance disposal, quality assurance/control, first responder medical for blast trauma injuries, and program assessment visits to monitor and improve all aspects of the ERW disposal program.

Regional Profile: Middle East and North Africa

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Middle East and North Africa from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $845 million

Map of Middle East and North Africa: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

United States CWD programs are designed to enhance stability and improve human security in the Middle East and North Africa. In Iraq, Libya, Lebanon, and Syria, ISIS-emplaced IEDs and landmines still terrorize returning communities and impede stabilization. In Libya, illicit trafficking of SA/LW fuels both domestic and regional violence, imperiling U.S. national security interests and continuing to fuel displacement. In Yemen, significant quantities of ERW and the widespread use of landmines continue to kill civilians and block the delivery of humanitarian aid.

Of the 10 countries worldwide with the highest number of casualties from landmines and ERW in 2018, three—Syria, Yemen, and Iraq—are in the Middle East, according to the 2019 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. This was due in large part to the recent and ongoing conflicts in these countries.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $845 million in CWD to support regional stability in the Middle East and North Africa. U.S.-funded survey, marking, and clearance operations enable the safe return of displaced families to their communities, economic development, and the restoration of basic services as well as development of strong and capable host country CWD capacities. MRE reduces deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provide rehabilitation and reintegration support. All of these programs help lay the groundwork for stability and prosperity across the region.

Percent Of The $49.1 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated To The Middle East And North Africa In Fy2019 By Country With Active Programs: Iraq 76.43%; Jordan 0.81%; Lebanon 10.23%; Libya 4.07%; Morocco 0.15%; Syria 0.01%; West Bank 0.15%; Yemen 8.14%.
Percent of the $49.1 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Middle East and North Africa in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.

Iraq

Iraq
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY03–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 106,350 55,000 37,500 443,961
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 209 85 71 105,393
Country Total 106,559 55,085 37,571 550,796
Dollars in thousands
Manual clearance in Al Anbar, Iraq. Photo courtesy of NPA
Manual clearance in Al Anbar, Iraq. Photo courtesy of NPA.

ISIS seeded large swaths of Iraq with an unprecedented level of mass-produced, technologically sophisticated IEDs and other explosive hazards with the intent of harming civilians, discouraging the return of IDPs, and hindering stabilization efforts. Significant progress clearing ISIS IEDs has been made since 2015, but much work remains to be done. The United States remains dedicated to supporting the survey and clearance of these explosive hazards from areas that remain heavily impacted as well as delivering risk education to those communities, including the ancestral homelands of Iraq’s minority communities in Ninewa. Clearance of liberated areas remains a U.S. priority, with support for the survey and clearance of legacy contamination in northern and southern Iraq along with assistance to build up the capacity of the Directorate of Mine Action (DMA) and the Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Authority.

From 2003 to 2019, the United States invested more than $550 million to support the operations of more than 100 survey, clearance, and risk education teams across Iraq, as well as weapons munitions destruction, and remains the largest international supporter of HMA activities there.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG cleared more than 10,400 explosive hazards in southern Iraq, including U.S.-origin ERW. They assisted in developing the program capacity of the Regional Mine Action Center-South (RMAC-S) in coordination with DMA and delivered MRE to more than 15,000 men, women, and children in southern Iraq.
  • Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) cleared over 7,200 IEDs and ERW in towns liberated from ISIS between Mosul and Erbil, including areas historically inhabited by Christian, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka’i, and Turkmen minority communities, thereby increasing civilian security, facilitating the return of IDPs, and enabling the safe resumption of farming and animal husbandry.
  • Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) continued to provide operational information management assistance and strategic planning capacity building support to Iraqi national mine action authorities. They also helped coordinate demining efforts between Iraqi authorities and organizations conducting demining operations in support of broader stabilization efforts, and served as third-party monitors for U.S.-funded demining projects.
  • MAG cleared more than 6,000 explosive hazards in Iraqi Kurdistan and areas liberated from ISIS in the Ninewa Plains and Sinjar, increasing human security and allowing IDPs, including those from predominantly Christian, Shabak, and Yezidi villages, to safely return home and begin rebuilding their lives. MAG also provided MRE to increase the safety of civilians living in areas impacted by ISIS and legacy contamination.
  • NPA cleared over 8,600 explosive hazards in southern Iraq and provided technical advisors to strengthen the ability of Iraq’s RMAC-S in its role as the regulatory body for coordinating and monitoring mine action activities in southern Iraq.
  • SoS held soccer workshops across Iraq that provided more than 64,000 children education and outreach about ERW risks, trauma resilience training for those affected by ISIS-related violence, and a meaningful alternative to joining extremist groups and participating in at-risk behavior.
  • In coordination with Iraqi officials at the local, governorate, and national level, UN agencies, and other stakeholders, Tetra Tech surveyed, marked, and cleared over 788 explosive hazards from Ninewa and over 1,401 explosive hazards across Anbar, while delivering a combined total of over 522 MRE sessions reaching over 6.5 million recipients since May 2019.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, has cleared over 2,200 mines and UXO from over 284,000 cubic meters (371,458 cubic yards) of soil to date, using the Rebel contaminated soil processing plant, several excavator sifting attachments, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and multiple commercial front-loader attachments.


Jordan

Jordan
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY96–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 400 400 23,236
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 400 400 400 28,922
Dollars in thousands

Jordan remains a key strategic U.S. partner in the region. Although Jordan has declared itself mine free and made significant progress in reducing the threat of landmines and ERW from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war, residual contamination remains along its northern border and in the Jordan River Valley.

From 1996 to 2019, the United States invested more than $28.9 million in CWD programs in Jordan, to include clearance of mines and ERW, delivery of MRE, rehabilitation and reintegration support for survivors of mine and UXO accidents, and destruction of unserviceable and obsolete munitions.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Polus continued to provide rehabilitative care, vocational training, and prosthetics support to Jordanians and Syrian refugees that are survivors of mine and UXO accidents.

Lebanon

Lebanon
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY98–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,000 5,000 5,000 55,999
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 39 22 30 9,324
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 4,039 5,022 5,030 77,173
Dollars in thousands
In Lebanon a deminer trims low vegetation in the process of clearing a lane. Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech.
In Lebanon a deminer trims low vegetation in the process of clearing a lane. Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech.

Lebanon remains contaminated with mines and ERW from the 1975–1991 civil war, the laying of minefields on the Blue Line between 1984–2000, the Israel-Hizballah conflict of 2006, and recent activity by ISIS and other extremist groups in northeastern Lebanon. As of 2019, approximately 40.8 million square meters (10,082 acres) of contaminated land remained according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center (LMAC). In 2019, mines and ERW killed two people and injured 11.

From 1998 to 2019, the United States invested more than $77.1 million to support landmine and ERW survey and clearance, MDD procurement and training, MRE, capacity building for the LMAC, and medical assistance and vocational training for landmine survivors, making the U.S. the largest international donor there. U.S. assistance has also strengthened the Lebanese Armed Force’s (LAF) PSSM capacity.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HI conducted ERW survey and clearance in northern Lebanon, clearing more than 45 landmines and other explosive hazards from the 1975–1991 civil war in and around Lebanon’s famed Cedar Forests. This life-saving work will allow local communities to use this land as well as enable visitors from Lebanon and beyond to visit surrounding recreational areas safely.
  • MAG and sub-awardee NPA conducted ERW survey and clearance in South Lebanon, Nabatiyah, and Arsal, clearing more than 3,800 landmines, IEDs, and pieces of UXO. Operations in Nabatiyah and South Lebanon facilitated access to fertile land that local communities can now use for raising livestock and agricultural development. In Arsal, where ISIS and other extremist groups seeded fertile land with landmines and IEDs, MAG’s survey and clearance operations allowed local communities to safely plant and harvest cherry trees. MAG also implemented a PSSM capacity building engagement with the LAF.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate several soil excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments on their own armored excavators and to evaluate HD R&D’s Terrapin small remote excavator. Since 2011, HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 7,775 mines and UXO from 323,404 square meters (57 acres) of land.


Libya

Libya
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY11–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 16,000 3,000 2,000 29,000
DOS Other 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 16,000 3,000 2,000 48,575
Dollars in thousands

The full extent of landmine and ERW contamination in Libya is unknown due to the 2011 revolution and new fighting. In addition to ERW contamination, illicit SA/LW proliferation fuels conflict in Libya and its neighbors. The U.S. government is working with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to mitigate the CWD threat that prevents development, prohibits delivery of humanitarian assistance, and threatens the security of returning IDPs. Additionally, renewed fighting in western Libya, which began in April 2019, likely has resulted in significant new contamination in and around Tripoli, although surveys have not been conducted. Libya is also contaminated with IEDs in areas previously occupied by ISIS, particularly Sirte.

From 2011 to 2019, the United States invested more than $48.5 million working with partners and allies to coordinate a CWD response with a focus on MANPADS destruction and ERW clearance.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA conducted BAC, EOD spot tasks, and MRE in Sirte following its liberation from the Islamic State. In 2019, DCA cleared 465 UXO items and 39 anti-tank landmines and responded to 166 EOD spot tasks.
  • ITF continued to sustain the Libya Mine Action Center (LibMAC), supporting staff and facilities maintenance and the development of standard operating procedures and national standards while building ERW destruction capacity. With ITF support, the LibMAC-accredited NGO demining and risk education teams issued 84 task orders and conducted over 52 quality assurance visits.

Syria

Syria
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY13–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 63,000 0 0 81,060
DoD 0 0 5 5
Country Total 63,000 0 0 81,065
Dollars in thousands
A drone is used to survey infrastructure in Raqqa, Syria.
A drone is used to survey infrastructure in Raqqa, Syria.

The Syrian civil war (2011–present) and rise of ISIS led to massive contamination from ERW, IEDs, landmines, and booby-traps across the country. It is unclear how much of the country is affected. Establishing security and humanitarian access in areas liberated from ISIS is critical to enable stabilization assistance, such as the restoration of water, electricity, healthcare, education, and bakeries. Clearing explosive contamination is a fundamental first step to facilitate such access and assistance, making the need for HMA urgent and a top priority for the State Department. With no domestic Syrian HMA capacity, the United States and other donors must rely on foreign companies and NGOs to survey, mark, and clear explosive hazards and train Syrians to start building local capacity.

In addition to United States, Denmark, Germany, Kosovo, Latvia, Norway, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates also contributed generously through the United States’ mechanism in support of CWD.

From 2013 to 2019, the Department of State contributed over $81 million to HMA efforts in northeast Syria, and through a variety of experienced mine action implementing partners cleared over 30,000 explosive hazards across 4.5 million square meters (1,112 acres). In Raqqa City alone, over 350 critical infrastructure sites were cleared or released through survey, enabling over 300,000 residents to return and reducing casualties from over 40 per week to less than four per week from 2016 to 2019.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, began an evaluation of IP (internet protocol) camera systems on their own armored demining platforms.


Yemen

Yemen
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY97–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 9,000 2,000 4,000 39,555
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 9,000 2,000 4,000 44,401
Dollars in thousands

Landmines, UXO, and IEDs stemming from the conflict between the Republic of Yemen government and Iranian-backed Houthis are killing and maiming Yemenis across the country while simultaneously blocking access to critical infrastructure needed to deliver basic services and obstructing the delivery of desperately needed humanitarian assistance. Yemeni officials estimate that Houthi forces have laid over one million landmines, making Yemen one of the most heavily mined countries in the world.

The United States is the largest donor to UNDP ongoing demining engagement with the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) and provided more than $20 million between FY15 and FY19 to support ERW survey and clearance, capacity development engagements with the YEMAC, risk education, and survivor assistance implemented by UNDP and other partners.

From 1997 to 2019, the United States invested more than $44.4 million in CWD programs in Yemen.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • UNDP’s engagement with the YEMAC enabled the clearance of over 2.7 million square meters (667 acres) of contaminated land and the removal of approximately 66,700 explosive hazards. More than 715,000 Yemenis benefited from UNDP’s ERW risk education efforts.
  • MLI continued to conduct its Survivor’s Assistance programs in partnership with the Yemeni Association of Landmine Survivors and YEMAC to provide MRE, medical assistance, rehabilitative care, vocational training, and micro-grants to more than 150 mine survivors.
  • HALO provided capacity building training for the YEMAC in Aden that strengthened the Yemeni government’s capacity to address a wide range of explosive hazards across Yemen.

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

HALO tests HD R&D’s Rotary Sifter in the West Bank. Photo courtesy of HD R&D.
HALO tests HD R&D’s Rotary Sifter in the West Bank. Photo courtesy of HD R&D.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, continued to evaluate two soil-sifting excavator attachments, Ferex 4.034 and Magnex magnetometer systems, and a Target Reacquisition and Positioning System—a low-cost differential global positioning system—that can map humanitarian demining tasks. HD R&D technologies have cleared 182,214 square meters (45 acres) of land in the West Bank since 2018.
  • USAFRICOM and the U.S. Marine Corps Forces Africa (USMARFORAF) with the Utah National Guard conducted one mission in Morocco with primary focus being basic ERW clearance and EOD Level 1 Validation and Basic Instructors course.

Regional Profile: South and Central Asia

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in South and Central Asia from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $627 million

Map of South and Central Asia: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

U.S. assistance to South and Central Asian countries advances U.S. regional and global security priorities. This support enables those countries to assume national ownership of CWD projects and secure their own weapons and ammunition, promote peace and stability, and strengthen economic ties.

Since 1993, the United States invested more than $627 million in CWD funding in South and Central Asia, with Afghanistan receiving the majority. Despite continuing security volatility, Afghanistan has one of the most well-developed mine action programs in the world with significant capacity and experience. Kyrgyzstan faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpiles, which threaten nearby population centers. In Sri Lanka, landmines and UXO threaten civilian security and impede the resettlement of communities, while Tajikistan continues to be a regional leader for mine action and CWD work.

Percent Of The $26.6 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated To South And Central Asia In Fy2019 By Country With Active Programs: Afghanistan 76.49%; Kyrgyzstan 0.00%; Nepal 8.10%; Sri Lanka 9.69%; Tajikistan 5.72%.
Percent of the $26.6 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to South and Central Asia in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY93–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 20,500 20,000 20,000 433,285
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 134 225 408 9,259
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 20,634 20,225 20,408 515,791
Dollars in thousands
A deminer works in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Photo courtesy of DDG.
A deminer works in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Photo courtesy of DDG.

To strengthen Afghanistan’s capabilities as a partner and improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides CWD funding and support to help it clear legacy landmine and UXO contamination left by the 1979 Soviet invasion and internal armed conflict from 1992 to 2001. According to the Mine Action Program of Afghanistan (MAPA), from January to December 2019, 1,519 civilian casualties occurred due to landmines, abandoned improvised mines, and ERW. Children comprised 51 percent of those casualties. ERW and improvised mines/IEDs caused 99 percent of these incidents, while 1 percent of civilian casualties were attributed to legacy mines.

As of December 2019, the Directorate for Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) reported over 1.5 billion square meters (370,657  acres) of contamination (suspected and confirmed minefields, battlefields, and high-explosive training ranges), which directly impact 1,484 communities.

From 1993 to 2019, the United States provided more than $515 million for CWD and demining assistance to Afghanistan. As of December 2019, PM/WRA implementing partners cleared over 27.5 million square meters (6,797 acres) of land and removed or destroyed over 8.3 million mines, UXO, stockpiled munitions, and homemade explosives since 1997.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • NPA assisted PM/WRA in monitoring and evaluating more than 200 mine clearance projects, seven Afghan NGOs, and three international NGOs.
  • Afghan Technical Consultants continued clearance operations in Kandahar, Laghman, and Baghlan Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • The Demining Agency for Afghanistan concluded clearance of cluster munition hazard sites and began clearance operations in Paktia and Kapisa Provinces on high-priority tasks in May 2019.
  • DDG concluded clearance operations in Panjsher and Nangarhar Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • FSD continued clearance operations in northern Badakhshan Province on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • GICHD held its final Afghanistan Donor and Implementing Partner Workshop to support DMAC. This four-day workshop allowed Afghan nationals and international representatives to discuss program management and donor mobilization.
  • HALO continued WAD operations and assessments throughout central, western, and northern Afghanistan. HALO also deployed eight CWD teams that responded to emergency call-outs to identify, secure, and destroy SA/LW, ammunition, and explosives. In addition, HALO managed demining projects in Kabul, Laghman, Baghlan, and Panjsher Provinces, conducting clearance operations on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • ITF continued to support DMAC with an emphasis on developing host-nation capacity through enhanced Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) training and program management skills development. ITF also concluded support of a medical clinic at the Mine Detection Center in Kabul, a collaborative project between the United States and the government of Slovenia.
  • The Mine Clearance Planning Agency continued NTS in 168 impacted communities within 20 UXO-contaminated districts throughout Afghanistan.
  • The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) concluded clearance operations in Kabul and Nangarhar Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA. OMAR also provided explosive risk education to school children in Kabul Province.
  • DMAC increased oversight of its regional offices by recruiting six regional managers. This will improve DMAC’s quality management, coordination, and oversight of the mine action activities at the regional level.
  • Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) provided support to physical rehabilitation centers in Farah and Paktia Provinces in order to offer physiotherapy, orthotics, and prosthetics services in Farah, Nimroz, Ghor, Paktia, Khost, and Ghazni Provinces. AABRAR also referred beneficiaries to other services such as health, social inclusion, and economic reintegration through DMAC and the wider victim assistance network. Additionally, AABRAR provided disability awareness, advocacy, and community mobilization to persons with disabilities and their families.
  • Accessibility Organization for Afghan Disabled provided vocational skills, development training, and implemented physical accessibility measures for landmine survivors and their immediate family members living with disabilities to join the workforce.
  • Development and Ability Organization (DAO) provided physiotherapy, prosthetics, disability awareness, health education, and orthotic services to persons with disabilities in Afghanistan. Additionally, DAO provided rehabilitation services, administered assistive devices, and referred mine/UXO survivors to appropriate medical, vocational, and educational services in both Kunar and Uruzgan Provinces.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated 11 technologies including the new Minehound Lite mine detectors and the new Scorpion UXO detection system along with the Storm Steep Slope Excavator; Minehound, a hand-held detector for minimum-metal anti-tank mines; Orbit Screen, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders; and three Raptor armored tractors with the Rotary Mine Comb anti-tank mine clearance attachment. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 21.6 million square meters (5,333 acres) of land and 22,800 mines and UXO to date.


Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY09–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 750 750 0 2,985
DoD 0 0 0 7
Country Total 750 750 0 2,992
Dollars in thousands

Kyrgyzstan faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating munitions and ammunition storage sites that threaten civilians’ safety due to the sites’ close proximity to populated areas.

From 2009 to 2019, the United States invested more than $2.9 million to help Kyrgyzstan rehabilitate existing explosives storage facilities and segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable conventional munitions. Such activities develop host nation capacity to prevent spontaneous explosions and injuries to civilian populations living near storage depots, and reduce the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions from national stockpiles.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF, in coordination with the Kyrgyz MOD, continued the disposal of expired artillery ammunition, renovated artillery ammunition storehouses, and continued national capacity training and development through deployment of a Slovenian MOD expert. Due to these efforts, the Kyrgyz MOD completed demilitarization of more than 45,000 pieces of large-caliber ammunition and destruction of 508 metric tons of other munitions. These outcomes enhance the CWD program capacity in Kyrgyzstan and reduce the risk of unplanned explosive events at military depots.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY95–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,000 9,500 2,500 59,841
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 697 310 84 4,323
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 5,697 9,810 2,584 72,361
Dollars in thousands

Landmines and UXO still contaminate Sri Lanka over a decade after the end of a 26-year armed conflict between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Contamination remains a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and to other development initiatives. This is particularly true as the government returns land previously controlled by the military. The widespread presence of mines and UXO pose an ongoing threat to returnees in those areas. According to the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, as of July 2018, approximately 25 million square meters (6,375 acres) of CHA remain.

From 1995 to 2019, the United States invested more than $72.3 million in CWD funding for mine clearance, survey, risk education, PSSM, and capacity building.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO deployed 58 mechanical demining teams, 267 manual demining teams, and two survey/EOD teams to aid the government of Sri Lanka’s efforts to return displaced families to their homes in Jaffna, Kilinochchi, and Mullaitivu Districts by conducting survey, clearance, and risk education.
  • MAG continued to conduct surveys of newly accessible areas and clear mines and other explosive hazards, restoring access to land for resettlement and livelihood development in Mannar, Trincomalee, and Vavuniya Districts.
  • Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony, Sri Lanka’s first demining NGO, deployed five manual demining teams to clear mines and UXO to help resettle displaced families in Jaffna, Kilinochchi, and Mullaitivu Districts.
  • MAG began a new project to assist the Sri Lankan Armed Forces Engineer Brigade to better secure and account for their stocks of firearms and conventional ammunition by increasing physical security of SA/LW through the construction and rehabilitation of storage facilities. Additionally, MAG is providing armory storekeeper and armory manager training to increase safe handling, management, and storage of national stockpiles.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D continued to support existing technology, including evaluations of the Rex light-weight armored excavator; the Improved Backhoe system and rake attachments; the Light Soil Sifter; a soil-sifting excavator attachment; and HSTAMIDS detectors. The equipment provided area preparation, area reduction, and mine-clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 20,633 mines and UXO from 2 million square meters of land (494 acres) to date.


Tajikistan

Tajikistan
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY95–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,450 1,500 1,500 20,483
DoD 0 98 25 2,870
USAID 440 406 0 2,880
Country Total 2,890 2,004 1,525 26,233
Dollars in thousands

Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging ammunition, including large-caliber ordnance and other explosives, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Due to Tajikistan’s porous borders with Afghanistan, massive quantities of poorly-secured SA/LW and ammunition present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine contamination along its southern, western, and northern borders that stems from both its civil war in the 1990s and earlier Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During the civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO that continue to impede socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and adversely impact border crossings, farming, wood-gathering, and grazing.

From 2005 to 2019, the United States invested more than $26.2 million in Tajikistan to support mine and UXO clearance operations, destruction of excess and aging munitions, PSSM of SA/LW, survivor assistance, and national capacity building of the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC).

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • FSD continued to facilitate the destruction of SA/LW, large-caliber ammunition, and MANPADS, and conducted NTS and clearance of UXO through the deployment of a WAD team.
  • NPA continued deployment of two mixed-gender clearance teams in Central Asia along the southern Tajik-Afghan border and supported capacity-development activities in coordination with TNMAC.
  • OSCE transitioned operational control of two national humanitarian demining units to TNMAC. It also completed Phase II of the Integrated Cooperation on Explosive Hazards program with an emphasis on sharing regional lessons learned, and inaugurated a center of excellence for explosive hazards mitigation training, establishing a regional response capability to mitigate and counter explosive hazards.
  • TNMAC assumed operational control and management of two multi-task, humanitarian demining teams, and three NTS teams that have deployed throughout the Tajik-Afghan border region. TNMAC continued to develop the capacity and capability of its mine action program with emphasis on information analysis, strategic planning, demining training, project development, and program management.
  • UNDP concluded its support of TNMAC by facilitating national ownership and development of capacity and operational management skills within TNMAC with an emphasis on organizational management.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the U.S. Army Central Command (USCENTCOM) and the U.S. Embassy Dushanbe continue to build humanitarian demining capability by strengthening the Tajik MOD National Mine Action Authority’s Regional Explosive Hazards Training Center, a facility established in earlier HMA projects. USCENTCOM and U.S. Army Central Command (USARCENT) partnered with the OSCE and PM/WRA to establish the Regional Explosive Hazards Training Center. The focus was to establish a trained cadre. USARCENT conducted four train-the-trainer missions, training 60 Tajik personnel to National Mine Action Standards.

USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the World Health Organization to improve Tajiks’ access to quality rehabilitation care and assistive devices; and supported Wheels for Humanity to develop and increase access to rehabilitation services—including assistive technology—for conflict survivors and others requiring such services.


South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

Nepal: USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported HI to improve the quality of and increase access to rehabilitation services while strengthening the sustainability of provincial rehabilitation centers.


Regional Profile: Western Hemisphere

Overview

Total U.S. conventional weapons destruction funding in the Western Hemisphere from all U.S. agencies, 1993–2019: more than $197 million

Map of Western Hemisphere: Red = U.S. supported activity in 2019; Yellow = Received U.S. support in the past; Blue = Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2019; Green = Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.Since 1993, the United States has contributed more than $197 million to support CWD in Latin America. CWD priorities in the Western Hemisphere include landmine and ERW clearance, strengthening munitions depot management and security, and curbing the pilferage and illicit trafficking of SA/LW. Recent efforts have emphasized SA/LW threat reduction and PSSM to strengthen U.S. national security, improve civilian safety, and promote stability and prosperity in the Western Hemisphere.

Criminal gangs and drug traffickers, often armed with illicitly-obtained weapons, are responsible for rampant violence that endangers communities across Latin America and drives migration flows toward the United States’ southern border. CWD programs make it harder for narcotraffickers and gangs to obtain guns and ammunition, a key first step to reducing violence, improving regional stability, and securing the United States. Our PSSM assistance, SA/LW destruction, and related training is prioritized for source countries in South America and Central America with known SA/LW trafficking routes. El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras have interconnected black markets and porous borders which further exacerbate regional proliferation by fostering the illicit transfer of SA/LW.

The 2016 peace accord between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) enabled significant expansions in demining operations as previously non-permissive locations became accessible. Colombia remains the most heavily landmine contaminated country in the hemisphere but a robust mine action sector, support from the United States and other donors, and a significant domestic clearance capacity continue to facilitate progress in returning large swathes of land to safe use.

Percent Of The $25.5 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated To The Western Hemisphere In Fy2019 By Country With Active Programs: Colombia 99.93%; Chile 0.00%; El Salvador 0.00%; Guatemala 0.00%; Honduras 0.00%; Mexico 0.00%; Peru 0.07%
Percent of the $25.5 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Western Hemisphere in FY2019 by Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History chart.

Colombia

Colombia
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY01–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 21,000 21,000 21,000 101,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 3,338 3,285 3,492 12,536
USAID 808 2,874 0 21,367
Country Total 25,146 27,159 24,492 135,952
Dollars in thousands

More than 50 years of conflict between the government of Colombia and leftist guerilla movements resulted in widespread improvised landmine contamination. In 2019, the Colombian government transferred Descontamina Colombia, the national demining authority, to the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (OACP). The OACP reports that Colombia has suffered almost 11,800 mine incidents since 1990, the highest number of recorded casualties in the Western Hemisphere. The most heavily affected Departments are Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Meta, Nariño, and Norte de Santander.

From 2001 to 2019, the United States invested more than $135 million to support CWD in Colombia. CWD enables the survey of priority municipalities and clearance of high-impact minefields, capacity development initiatives for the Colombian national authority, and the quality management program. The United States has prioritized projects that overlap with development and stabilization projects.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM), Colombia’s first national demining NGO, is conducting a survey and clearance project in Putumayo Department. CCCM also provided MRE to local communities, directly benefitting 3,395 people.
  • DDG continued to conduct survey in San Jose del Fragua, a municipality within Caquetá Department, and received additional funding from the State Department to start clearance operations. Additionally, DDG provided risk education to 491 people.
  • FSD continues to strengthen the OACP’s capacity by embedding technical advisors within the institution to support operations, draft national mine action standards, and share knowledge.
  • HALO continued to conduct survey, clearance, and MRE in Antioquia, Cauca, and Meta Departments. HALO cleared over 130,000 square meters (32 acres) and provided risk education to 1,567 people. HALO also began two new U.S.-funded projects: a survey and clearance project in Norte de Santander and a post-clearance impact assessment in Antioquia.
  • HI continued to implement survey and clearance in Caqueta, Cauca, and Meta Departments, and started a new U.S.-funded project in northern Cauca. HI cleared over 51,000 square meters (12 acres) of land and provided risk education to over 1,200 Colombians.
  • The OAS continued to implement the country-wide quality management program, including accreditation and quality assurance/quality control of civilian and military humanitarian demining organizations and personnel. OAS also provided technical expertise and advice to the OACP. Additionally, the OAS provided equipment and support to the Colombian Marines humanitarian demining units conducting survey and clearance in Sucre Department.
  • Polus successfully implemented its survivor assistance project by providing prostheses and vocational assistance to 76 mine survivors and connected those survivors with appropriate Colombian health services.
  • SOS organized community sporting events to provide MRE in locations where security considerations currently preclude humanitarian demining. In 2019, SOS delivered risk education to more than 16,542 men, women, and children living in or near suspected mine and ERW contamination.

With previous year’s funding, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported Arcangeles in increasing access to quality rehabilitation services and promoting social inclusion and reconciliation through sporting activities for victims of the armed conflict and other persons with disabilities. They also supported the International Organization for Migration efforts to strengthen physical rehabilitation services and improve provider networks for victims of conflict and other persons with disabilities.


El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras

The region’s porous borders and illegally armed groups facilitate and sustain SA/LW proliferation that threatens citizen safety and host nation security forces. Additionally, the significant number of confiscated weapons being stored as evidence pending court approval for their destruction remains a significant concern. These stored weapons are highly vulnerable to theft and use by criminals and terrorist groups. Many of the weapons confiscated from criminal organizations are military-grade weapons.

Since 2016, the United States has invested more than $1.9 million to support CWD in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Specifically, the CWD projects aimed to better secure vulnerable depots through PSSM enhancements, and specialized PSSM and EOD training helped to develop national capacity within both the military and national police forces. With host nation approval, confiscated firearms and obsolete ammunition and ordnance were also destroyed.

In 2019, CWD funding supported initiatives in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to strengthen their military and police capacities and reduce the easy accessibility of weapons (with prior year funds).

El Salvador
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY94–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 0 0 1,688
CDC 0 0 0 2,840
USAID 0 0 0 2,300
Country Total 300 0 0 6,828
Dollars in thousands

HALO destroyed almost 2,000 confiscated firearms, 127,000 rounds of SAA, and six tons of explosive hazards in coordination with the Salvadoran Army. Additionally, 23 members of the army benefitted from PSSM training that HALO provided.

Guatemala
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY10–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 300 0 0 900
Country Total 300 0 0 900
Dollars in thousands

HALO supported the destruction of almost 2,500 weapons and 35 tons of ammunition. Additionally, HALO implemented physical security enhancements to priority Guatemalan depots and provided PSSM training to 35 members of the Guatemalan military.

Honduras
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY06–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 348 0 0 1,464
Country Total 348 0 0 1,464
Dollars in thousands

HALO assessed Honduran military and police stockpiles and provided security upgrade recommendations to better protect state-held weapons.


Mexico

Mexico
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY17–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 275 0 0 275
Country Total 275 0 0 275
Dollars in thousands

Violence in Mexico hit an all-time high with 34,583 murders recorded in 2019, according to official figures—a 2.5 percent increase over the previous year. People used firearms in the majority of murders. The U.S. CWD program is designed to assist the Mexican government in more efficiently destroying confiscated weapons—many of which originate outside of Mexico—and better protecting their excess stockpiles.

From 2017 to 2019, the United States contributed $275,000 to support CWD efforts in Mexico to procure and provide specialized weapons destruction equipment to support Mexico’s Secretariat of National Defense (SEDENA). This equipment and training will strengthen SEDENA’s capacity to manage their stockpiles of confiscated weapons. The project’s first iteration prioritized four SEDENA depots along the U.S.–Mexico border. The second phase will expand the project to include other priority facilities.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG provided hydraulic shears and SAA burn tanks to four SEDENA depots located near the U.S.–Mexico border. Additionally, MAG provided training to SEDENA personnel on the equipment’s safe use and destruction best practices.

Peru

Peru
Funding FY17 FY18 FY19 FY99–19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 2,000 0 16,006
DoD 0 0 17 11,961
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 500 2,000 17 28,967
Dollars in thousands
MAG personnel and the Peruvian Army prepare the demo pit before destruction. Photo courtesy of MAG.
MAG personnel and the Peruvian Army prepare the demo pit before destruction. Photo courtesy of MAG.

Peruvian military stockpiles contain a significant amount of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition stemming from the country’s border dispute with Ecuador during the 1990s. Many stockpiles are located either near major cities or in remote and relatively isolated facilities located near the Ecuadorian border or deep in Peru’s jungles. Ensuring that these aging munitions are properly maintained and appropriately secured reduces the risk of illicit proliferation and unplanned depot explosions.

From 1999 to 2019, the United States contributed more than $28.9 million to support SA/LW threat reduction in EOD training, and HMA activities. Previous assistance with Peru’s mine action sector strengthened the national mine action authority and ensured the country was sufficiently equipped to reduce its landmine contamination.

In 2019, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG supported the army’s destruction of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition at priority depots and facilitated the destruction of over 427 tons of obsolete items, including almost 400,000 rounds of ammunition.
  • NPA helped the Peruvian Air Force dispose of obsolete weapons at their major depot in the Pucusana District. In addition, NPA provided specialized PSSM and EOD training to the Peruvian Air Force.

With funding from the Department of Defense, USSOUTHCOM and HDTC, with the assistance of the SCO-Peru/Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) and MAG, conducted a Requirements Determination Site Survey (RDSS) of the Peruvian Army ammunition capability to identify infrastructure upgrades, equipment, and training, to increase the safety and security of the ammunition, personnel, and surrounding community in accordance with IATG and IMAS, and recommend to SCO-Peru and USSOUTHCOM possible HMA and PSSM projects to execute an effective HMA assistance to the Peruvian Army.


Western Hemisphere--Other U.S. Support

With prior year funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with the Chilean National Demining Commission and Chilean Army, continued to evaluate a Mine Clearing Loader and a Multi-Tooled Excavator. HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 16,252 mines from 400,216 square meters (99 acres) in northern Chile since 2008.


Implementing Partners

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury or death from landmines and UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in MRE. http://crs.org

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a California-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to the development of innovative technologies to overcome the operational limitations encountered in HMA efforts. It conducts surveys and assessments, and develops MRE materials, as well as mine and UXO disposal technologies. http://goldenwesthf.org

Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI has provided medical training for the past nine years in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. http://healthleadershipinternational.org

The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its mine and UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese mine action agencies. http://ic-vvaf.org

The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining NGO, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). http://landmine-relief-fund.com

Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 15 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. http://marshall-legacy.org

PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based NGO founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, landmine awareness programs, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. http://peacetreesvietnam.org

The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit NGO. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. http://poluscenter.org

RAND Corporation is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces. It is financed by the U.S. government and private endowment, corporations, universities, and private individuals. https://www.rand.org/

World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support survivor assistance and MRE. http://worlded.org

International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Accessibility Organization for Afghan Disabled (AOAD) is a nongovernmental, nonprofit, and nonpolitical organization working for persons with disabilities along with their immediate family members as a peer-supporter advocate organization founded in 2007 in Kabul, Afghanistan. https://aoad-af.page.tl/Home.htm

Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) is an Afghan NGO that is concerned with the rehabilitation and socioeconomic integration of disabled people and other vulnerable groups into the community. In its inception in 1992, AABRAR began a bicycle-training program for amputees to improve mobility and increase their independence, enabling them to travel to and from work, and save on transportations costs. Since then, AABRAR has expanded its activities.

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining NGO in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and MRE activities. http://atc-wlfhdngo.org.af

Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM) monitors fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention on behalf of the Colombian government, compiles reports each year for the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, and supports survivor assistance and MRE. https://colombiasinminas.org/

DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, that provides humanitarian assistance and mine action programs combining MRE, mine clearance, and community-development activities. http://dca.dk

Danish Refugee Council (DRC) is a nonprofit organization that works worldwide to help and protect refugees and internally displaced and other conflict-affected persons. http://drc.ngo

Danish Demining Group (DDG) is a HMA unit in the Danish Refugee Council, which assists individuals and populations hampered by mines, UXO, and SA/LW. https://danishdemininggroup.dk/

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010. DASH’s goal is to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of households. https://www.slnmac.gov.lk/services/de-mining/current-demining/dash

Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration. sattar_dafa@yahoo.ca or dafafinance@yahoo.com

Development and Ability Organization (DAO) works in Afghanistan for a more inclusive society by raising public and governmental awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities while building capacity of the civil society organizations and disabled persons organizations through physical rehabilitation, civic education, mentoring, community dialogue, vocational training, and income generation programs. http://www.daoafghanistan.org/about.html

Directorate of Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) is a directorate of the Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA). ANDMA is the secretariat and the operational arm of the National Disaster Management Commission. http://dmac.gov.af/

The HALO Trust (HALO) is an American and British nonprofit charity specializing in the removal of mines and UXO from post-conflict zones. Since pioneering the concept of humanitarian landmine clearance in Afghanistan in 1988, HALO has been clearing ERW and helping millions of families return home. http://halotrust.org

Humanity and Inclusion (HI), formerly Handicap International, works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing risk education programs, and rendering assistance to those who have been injured. https://www.hi-us.org/

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit NGO that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. http://immap.org

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) is a coalition of NGOs whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives. http://www.icbl.org/en-gb/home.aspx

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. Since then, ITF has continued to expand its scope of activities and the geographic area of its implementation in order to reduce threats from mines, UXO, and at-risk weapons and ammunition. https://www.itf.si/

MAG (Mines Advisory Group) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide MRE, and offer capacity-building support. http://maginternational.org

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major HMA donor states. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. http://www.mineaction.org/funding/masg

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan NGO founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and MDD clearance, EOD, MRE, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. hajiattqullah@gmail.com

The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan from the impacts of mines and UXO so that individuals and communities can live in a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. http://mdc-afghan.org

The Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC) in Bosnia and Herzegovina trains dogs for landmine, explosives, narcotic detection, and search and rescue. It also trains dog handlers. More than 300 dogs for various purposes were trained at MDDC so far and deployed in dozens of countries. http://www.mddc.ba/

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom, is one of Norway’s primary NGOs. For more than 20 years, NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 states and territories. http://npaid.org

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, BAC, EOD, and working with MDDs. http://www.landmineclearance.org/

Spirit of Soccer (SOS), founded in 1996, is a UK- and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions. SOS has created risk education courses in more than 10 current or post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, and Moldova. http://spiritofsoccer.org

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), established in 1997, is an international NGO based in Geneva that has implemented mine clearance projects in 29 countries. FSD focuses on locating and destroying mines and UXO on the ground and underwater. It also engages in collecting and destroying arms and ammunition and managing stockpiles. http://fsd.ch

Government and International Organizations

The NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund in Ukraine. NSPA has worked on PSSM and CWD programs in several countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Mauritania, and Serbia. http://www.nspa.nato.int

The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. http://oas.org

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states from Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. http://osce.org

Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA) established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 African member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. http://recsasec.org

Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects. muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by developing national and local capacities. http://undp.org

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the General Assembly, is located in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions and is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 11 UN organizations involved in mine action to develop or revise policies and strategies, set priorities among UN players, and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. http://www.mineaction.org/unmas

Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), established in 1996 at James Madison University (JMU), provides programs and information to post-conflict communities and practitioners in the CWD field. CISR works around the world to promote post-conflict recovery, rebuilding, and resilience. It also publishes The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction. http://jmu.edu/cisr

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. http://gichd.org

Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. http://smallarmssurvey.org

Contractors

Janus Global Operations (Janus) is an employee-owned munitions management and demining company supporting government, military, and commercial organizations operating in war-affected countries. Janus provides risk management, logistics, construction, and maintenance services in support of countries emerging from conflict. http://www.janusgo.com

Tetra Tech EC, Inc. (TtEC) is a California-based company providing consulting, engineering, remediation, and construction services worldwide. TtEC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Tetra Tech Inc., a publicly traded company. The company supports government and commercial clients by providing innovative solutions focused on water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, and international development. http://www.tteci.com


U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding 1993–2019

From 1993 through 2019, the United States contributed more than $3.7 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2018 (October 1, 2017–September 30, 2018) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2019 (October 1, 2018–September 30, 2019) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 20th edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2019 that reflect the final allocations.

DOS NADR-CWD Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs
DOS Other Department of State – Other funding
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DoD Department of Defense
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History

(To view full table, use scroll bar at the bottom, or download PDF version.)

Country Sources FY93-11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 *FY19 Grand Total
Afghanistan DOS NADR – CWD           224,234          40,550          30,785          22,450          22,700          32,066          20,500          20,000          20,000           433,285
DOS Other             20,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             20,000
CDC               1,800                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,800
DoD               5,780            1,000               355               162               744               451               134               225               408               9,259
USAID             51,447                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             51,447
Country Total           303,261          41,550          31,140          22,612          23,444          32,517          20,634          20,225          20,408           515,791
Albania DOS NADR – CWD             28,277            4,034            2,324            2,135            1,777            1,500            1,200            1,000            1,000             43,247
DoD                    22                    –                 10               185               147               100                 33                 80            2,059               2,636
USAID               1,389                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,389
Country Total             29,688            4,034            2,334            2,320            1,924            1,600            1,233            1,080            3,059             47,272
Angola DOS NADR – CWD             71,529            8,675            6,000            6,000            5,600            4,700            4,000            7,000            4,100           117,604
DOS Other               3,170                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,170
CDC                  150                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  150
DoD               5,714               850            1,345               179               152               551               193               179               245               9,408
USAID               8,351                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               8,351
Country Total             88,914            9,525            7,345            6,179            5,752            5,251            4,193            7,179            4,345           138,683
Argentina DoD                  579                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  579
Country Total                  579                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  579
Armenia DOS NADR – CWD               2,600               391               700               301               300                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,292
DOS Other               3,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,000
DoD               2,826                   9               169               187                 40                 10               226               237                 64               3,768
USAID               2,148                    –                    –                    –               997                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,145
Country Total             10,574               400               869               488            1,337                 10               226               237                 64             14,205
Azerbaijan DOS NADR – CWD             21,095               365               325               325               532                    –                    –                    –                    –             22,642
DOS Other               1,100                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,100
DoD               6,975                    –                    –                    –                    –               140                 41                 62                 11               7,229
Country Total             29,170               365               325               325               532               140                 41                 62                 11             30,971
Bahrain DoD                    10                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    10
Country Total                    10                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    10
Belize DOS NADR – CWD                       –               300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  300
Country Total                       –               300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  300
Benin DoD                    14                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    14
Country Total                    14                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    14
Bosnia & Herzegovina DOS NADR – CWD             59,012            4,300            4,445            4,400            3,974            4,500            2,750            2,445            2,000             87,826
DOS Other               1,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,000
CDC               3,210                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,210
DoD               4,263                    –               241               156                    –                 78               249               126                   8               5,121
USAID             20,500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             20,500
Country Total             87,985            4,300            4,686            4,556            3,974            4,578            2,999            2,571            2,008           117,657
Bulgaria DOS NADR – CWD               6,644            1,585            2,250                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             10,479
DoD                       –                    –                    –                 31                    –                    –                   8                 12                    –                    51
Country Total               6,644            1,585            2,250                 31                    –                    –                   8                 12                    –             10,530
Burkina Faso DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –                    –                    –               941               600                    –               900                    –               2,441
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –               941               600                    –               900                    –               2,441
Burma (Myanmar) DOS NADR – CWD                      6               829                    –                    –            2,000                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,835
DOS Other                       –                    –                    –               850                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  850
USAID                       –                    –            1,350            1,500                    –               500               500               500                    –               4,350
Country Total                      6               829            1,350            2,350            2,000               500               500               500                    –               8,035
Burundi DOS NADR – CWD               1,935                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,935
DoD                  229               201               322               566               118                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,436
Country Total               2,164               201               322               566               118                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,371
Cambodia DOS NADR – CWD             50,806            5,494            5,800            6,216            8,307            8,522            6,352            9,320            5,000           105,817
DOS Other               4,943                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,943
CDC                  100                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  100
DoD             10,630            4,235            1,411            1,722            2,379            1,717            1,969            1,601            2,473             28,137
USAID             13,048                    –               600               633               500               303                    –                    –                    –             15,084
Country Total             79,527            9,729            7,811            8,571          11,186          10,542            8,321          10,921            7,473           154,081
Central African Republic DOS NADR – CWD                    37                    –                    –               187                    –                    –                    –               785                    –               1,009
Country Total                    37                    –                    –               187                    –                    –                    –               785                    –               1,009
Chad DOS NADR – CWD               6,899                    –                    –                    –            1,657               750            1,000            1,250            1,000             12,556
DoD               3,877               414               384               325                    –                 50                 54                 86                    –               5,190
Country Total             10,776               414               384               325            1,657               800            1,054            1,336            1,000             17,746
Chile DoD               2,612               450                    –               385                   3                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,450
Country Total               2,612               450                    –               385                   3                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,450
Colombia DOS NADR – CWD               8,995            3,500            4,100            6,465            7,039            8,500          21,000          21,000          21,000           101,599
CDC                  450                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  450
DoD               1,525               154                    –                    –                    –               742            3,338            3,285            3,492             12,536
USAID               8,800               600            1,900            1,300            2,000            3,085               808            2,874                    –             21,367
Country Total             19,770            4,254            6,000            7,765            9,039          12,327          25,146          27,159          24,492           135,952
Congo, DRC DOS NADR – CWD               6,098               750            1,265            2,500               500            3,221            3,000            4,000            3,000             24,334
DoD                  370               233                    –               373               107                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,083
USAID               1,300                    –                    –            1,300            2,000            1,722            1,275                    –                    –               7,597
Country Total               7,768               983            1,265            4,173            2,607            4,943            4,275            4,000            3,000             33,014
Congo, Republic of the DOS NADR – CWD               1,320                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,320
DoD                       –               267               371               690               191                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,519
Country Total               1,320               267               371               690               191                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,839
Croatia[1] DOS NADR – CWD             32,839            1,100               999               900               850            2,040                    –            1,000                    –             39,728
DoD                       –                    –               713                    –                    –                    –                 28                 55                 80                  876
Country Total             32,839            1,100            1,712               900               850            2,040                 28            1,055                 80             40,604
Cyprus DOS NADR – CWD                    10                    –                    –                    –               250                    –                    –                    –                    –                  260
DoD                       –                    –                 76                 19                 18                 20               196                 32                    –                  361
Country Total                    10                    –                 76                 19               268                 20               196                 32                    –                  621
Czech Republic DOS NADR – CWD                  600                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  600
Country Total                  600                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  600
Djibouti DOS NADR – CWD               1,900                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,900
DoD               1,172                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,172
Country Total               3,072                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,072
Dominican Republic USAID                  500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  500
Country Total                  500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  500
Ecuador DOS NADR – CWD               4,825                    –               200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               5,025
DoD               3,273               518                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,791
Country Total               8,098               518               200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               8,816
Egypt DoD                  718                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  718
Country Total                  718                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  718
El Salvador DOS NADR – CWD                    50               988                    –                    –                    –               350               300                    –                    –               1,688
CDC               2,840                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,840
USAID               1,500               500               300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,300
Country Total               4,390            1,488               300                    –                    –               350               300                    –                    –               6,828
Eritrea DOS NADR – CWD             11,623                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             11,623
DOS Other               1,560                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,560
CDC                  450                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  450
DoD               4,485                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,485
Country Total             18,118                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             18,118
Estonia DOS NADR – CWD               2,499                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,499
DoD               1,866                    –               195                 87                 54                    –                   7               236               272               2,717
Country Total               4,365                    –               195                 87                 54                    –                   7               236               272               5,216
Ethiopia DOS NADR – CWD               3,545                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,545
DOS Other               1,500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,500
CDC               2,846                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,846
DoD               3,984                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,984
USAID               3,882                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,882
Country Total             15,757                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             15,757
Georgia DOS NADR – CWD             24,873            1,232            1,500               500               500                    –               500                    –                    –             29,105
DOS Other               2,644                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,644
DoD               1,114                    –                    –               167               209                 20                 55                 55            1,165               2,785
USAID                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –            1,998            1,000            1,000               3,998
Country Total             28,631            1,232            1,500               667               709                 20            2,553            1,055            2,165             38,532
Guatemala[2] DOS NADR – CWD                  250                    –                    –                    –                    –               350               300                    –                    –                  900
Country Total                  250                    –                    –                    –                    –               350               300                    –                    –                  900
Guinea DOS NADR – CWD                  103                    –                    –                    –                    –               500               500                    –                    –               1,103
Country Total                  103                    –                    –                    –                    –               500               500                    –                    –               1,103
Guinea-Bissau DOS NADR – CWD               6,037                    –                    –                    –                    –               800               500               700                    –               8,037
DoD               1,444                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,444
Country Total               7,481                    –                    –                    –                    –               800               500               700                    –               9,481
Haiti USAID               2,500                    –                    –            1,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,500
Country Total               2,500                    –                    –            1,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,500
Honduras DOS NADR – CWD                  316                    –               500                    –                    –               300               348                    –                    –               1,464
Country Total                  316                    –               500                    –                    –               300               348                    –                    –               1,464
Hungary DOS NADR – CWD                  350                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  350
Country Total                  350                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  350
India USAID                       –               300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  300
Country Total                       –               300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  300
Iraq DOS NADR – CWD           104,349          25,000          23,805          23,177          37,835          30,945        106,350          55,000          37,500           443,961
DOS Other                  992                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  992
CDC                  450                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  450
DoD           103,937               300               160               573                    –                 58               209                 85                 71           105,393
Country Total           209,728          25,300          23,965          23,750          37,835          31,003        106,559          55,085          37,571           550,796
Jordan DOS NADR – CWD             16,086            3,850            1,200                    –               500               400               400               400               400             23,236
DOS Other                  300                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  300
CDC               2,968                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,968
DoD               2,418                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,418
Country Total             21,772            3,850            1,200                    –               500               400               400               400               400             28,922
Kazakhstan DOS NADR – CWD                  295                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  295
Country Total                  295                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  295
Kenya DOS NADR – CWD               1,482                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,482
DoD                  256               236                 70               162               151               280                    –                    –                    –               1,155
USAID                  400                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  400
Country Total               2,138               236                 70               162               151               280                    –                    –                    –               3,037
Kosovo DOS NADR – CWD               7,090               260               100                    –               550               475            1,250            5,000                    –             14,725
DoD               4,300                    –                    –               165               120               204                 71                 86               276               5,222
USAID             17,472                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             17,472
Country Total             28,862               260               100               165               670               679            1,321            5,086               276             37,419
Kyrgyzstan DOS NADR – CWD                  500                    –               300                    –               400               285               750               750                    –               2,985
DoD                      7                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                      7
Country Total                  507                    –               300                    –               400               285               750               750                    –               2,992
Laos DOS NADR – CWD             35,911            9,233            9,000          12,840          26,880          20,500          30,000          30,000          30,000           204,364
DOS Other                  750                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  750
DoD               6,867                 33                    –                    –                    –               111                 10                    –                 24               7,045
USAID               9,300                    –                    –               500            2,000            2,166            3,005            1,750                    –             18,721
Country Total             52,828            9,266            9,000          13,340          28,880          22,777          33,015          31,750          30,024           230,880
Lebanon DOS NADR – CWD             26,151            2,524            3,000            2,500            3,324            4,500            4,000            5,000            5,000             55,999
DOS Other               2,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,000
DoD               8,430               590                 80                 50                 44                 39                 39                 22                 30               9,324
USAID               9,850                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               9,850
Country Total             46,431            3,114            3,080            2,550            3,368            4,539            4,039            5,022            5,030             77,173
Lesotho DOS NADR – CWD                    15                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    15
Country Total                    15                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    15
Liberia DOS NADR – CWD                  360                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  360
CDC                  150                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  150
USAID               4,429                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,429
Country Total               4,939                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,939
Libya DOS NADR – CWD               3,000                    –                    –            1,000            1,500            2,500          16,000            3,000            2,000             29,000
DOS Other                       –          17,800            1,775                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             19,575
Country Total               3,000          17,800            1,775            1,000            1,500            2,500          16,000            3,000            2,000             48,575
Lithuania DOS NADR – CWD                  500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  500
Country Total                  500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  500
Malawi DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               130                    –                  130
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               130                    –                  130
Mali DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –                    –                    –            1,200               500            1,000            1,250            1,000               4,950
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –               170               182               110                    –                  462
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –            1,200               670            1,182            1,360            1,000               5,412
Marshall Islands DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –               267               361               285               295               460               341                    –               2,009
Country Total                       –                    –               267               361               285               295               460               341                    –               2,009
Mauritania DOS NADR – CWD               2,395                    –                    –                    –               300               500                    –                    –            1,000               4,195
DoD               4,410                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,410
Country Total               6,805                    –                    –                    –               300               500                    –                    –            1,000               8,605
Mexico DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               275                    –                    –                  275
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               275                    –                    –                  275
Moldova DoD                    71                    –               154               282               132                 35                 78                 78            1,993               2,823
Country Total                    71                    –               154               282               132                 35                 78                 78            1,993               2,823
Montenegro[2] DOS NADR – CWD               6,149            1,300                    –                    –                    –            1,750                    –                    –                    –               9,199
DoD                       –                 11               294               422               428               562                 30               141                 39               1,927
Country Total               6,149            1,311               294               422               428            2,312                 30               141                 39             11,126
Morocco DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                 90                    –               368                 73                  531
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                 90                    –               368                 73                  531
Mozambique DOS NADR – CWD             26,922            2,635            3,000            1,525               700                    –                    –                    –                    –             34,782
DOS Other               1,600                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,600
CDC               2,100                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,100
DoD             11,827               639               599               122               189                    –                    –                    –                    –             13,376
USAID               4,533                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,533
Country Total             46,982            3,274            3,599            1,647               889                    –                    –                    –                    –             56,391
Namibia DOS NADR – CWD               3,351                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               3,351
DOS Other                  670                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  670
DoD               4,643               309               151                 45               110                 80                    –                 42               114               5,494
Country Total               8,664               309               151                 45               110                 80                    –                 42               114               9,515
Nepal** DoD                       –                    –                    –               165                 36                 36                    –                    –                    –                  237
USAID               1,000            1,000                    –                    –               131            1,580               420               406            2,162               6,699
Country Total               1,000            1,000                    –               165               167            1,616               420               406            2,162               6,936
Nicaragua DOS NADR – CWD               4,081                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,081
DoD                  200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  200
Country Total               4,281                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,281
Niger DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –                    –                    –               693               500            1,250            1,250            1,000               4,693
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                   3               325                    –                  328
Country Total                       –                    –                    –                    –               693               500            1,253            1,575            1,000               5,021
Nigeria DOS NADR – CWD               1,449                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,449
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –               315               321                 55                    –                  691
Country Total               1,449                    –                    –                    –                    –               315               321                 55                    –               2,140
North Macedonia DOS NADR – CWD               1,998                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,998
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               345                  345
Country Total               1,998                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               345               2,343
Oman DOS NADR – CWD               1,785                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,785
DoD               2,553                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,553
Country Total               4,338                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,338
Pakistan DOS NADR – CWD                  832                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  832
Country Total                  832                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  832
Palau DOS NADR – CWD                    85               150               390               690               505               505               600               655                    –               3,580
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               106                  106
Country Total                    85               150               390               690               505               505               600               655               106               3,686
Palestinian Territories DOS NADR – CWD                  209               782               917            1,180            1,000            1,000            1,000                    –                    –               6,088
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                 20                 44                 85                 76                  225
Country Total                  209               782               917            1,180            1,020            1,000            1,044                 85                 76               6,313
Paraguay DOS NADR – CWD                  200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  200
Country Total                  200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  200
Peru DOS NADR – CWD               9,906            1,000                    –                    –                    –            2,600               500            2,000                    –             16,006
DoD             11,944                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                 17             11,961
USAID                       –                    –            1,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,000
Country Total             21,850            1,000            1,000                    –                    –            2,600               500            2,000                 17             28,967
Philippines DOS NADR – CWD                  920                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  920
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –               173                 45               335                    –                    –                  553
USAID               1,550                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,550
Country Total               2,470                    –                    –                    –               173                 45               335                    –                    –               3,023
Romania DOS NADR – CWD               2,369                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,369
DoD                  150                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  150
Country Total               2,519                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,519
Rwanda** DOS NADR – CWD               4,203                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,203
DOS Other                  700                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  700
DoD               7,790                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               7,790
USAID                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –            1,500               1,500
Country Total             12,693                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –            1,500             14,193
Sao Tome/Principe DOS NADR – CWD                    50                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    50
Country Total                    50                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    50
Senegal DOS NADR – CWD               2,505                    –                    –                    –               400               400               450                    –                    –               3,755
DOS Other                       –                    –               260                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  260
DoD                  252                    –                    –               367            1,147               100                 10                 90                 12               1,978
USAID                  500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  500
Country Total               3,257                    –               260               367            1,547               500               460                 90                 12               6,493
Serbia[2] DOS NADR – CWD             12,785            1,000            2,000               900               195            2,100            1,250            1,000            1,000             22,230
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                   3               200               107                    –                    –                  310
Country Total             12,785            1,000            2,000               900               198            2,300            1,357            1,000            1,000             22,540
Serbia & Montenegro[2] DOS NADR – CWD               5,646                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               5,646
Country Total               5,646                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               5,646
Sierra Leone DOS NADR – CWD                  147                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  147
USAID               1,593                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,593
Country Total               1,740                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,740
Slovenia DoD                       –                    –               270                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  270
Country Total                       –                    –               270                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  270
Solomon Islands DOS NADR – CWD                  400               567               560               473               446               350               567               715                    –               4,078
DoD                       –               325                 35               429               306               569               200               234                 92               2,190
Country Total                  400               892               595               902               752               919               767               949                 92               6,268
Somalia DOS NADR – CWD             12,545            2,500            3,300            2,000            1,800            2,000            2,740            2,165            2,000             31,050
Country Total             12,545            2,500            3,300            2,000            1,800            2,000            2,740            2,165            2,000             31,050
South Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD               1,100            2,800            2,500            2,135            2,000               300               300            1,000            2,000             14,135
DoD                       –               367               459                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  826
Country Total               1,100            3,167            2,959            2,135            2,000               300               300            1,000            2,000             14,961
Sri Lanka DOS NADR – CWD             23,362            4,804            3,300            4,625            4,250            2,500            5,000            9,500            2,500             59,841
DOS Other                  122                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  122
CDC                  175                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  175
DoD                  625               262               522               715               507               601               697               310                 84               4,323
USAID               7,400                    –               500                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               7,900
Country Total             31,684            5,066            4,322            5,340            4,757            3,101            5,697            9,810            2,584             72,361
Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD               2,800                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,800
Country Total               2,800                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,800
Sudan and South Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD             24,427                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             24,427
Country Total             24,427                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             24,427
Suriname DOS NADR – CWD                  390                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  390
Country Total                  390                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  390
Swaziland DOS NADR – CWD                  439                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  439
DoD                  836                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  836
Country Total               1,275                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,275
Syria DOS NADR – CWD                       –                    –               550                    –            8,000            9,510          63,000                    –                    –             81,060
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                   5                      5
Country Total                       –                    –               550                    –            8,000            9,510          63,000                    –                   5             81,065
Tajikistan DOS NADR – CWD               3,874            1,691            2,028            3,190            2,275            1,975            2,450            1,500            1,500             20,483
DoD               1,232            1,200                    –               101                 67               147                    –                 98                 25               2,870
USAID                       –            1,500                    –                    –                    –               534               440               406                    –               2,880
Country Total               5,106            4,391            2,028            3,291            2,342            2,656            2,890            2,004            1,525             26,233
Tanzania DOS NADR – CWD                    16                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    16
DoD                  185               244               274                 44               123                 50                    –                    –                    –                  920
USAID               1,700                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,700
Country Total               1,901               244               274                 44               123                 50                    –                    –                    –               2,636
Thailand DOS NADR – CWD               4,190                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,190
DoD               6,089            1,500            1,200            1,805               561            1,762               518               608               724             14,767
Country Total             10,279            1,500            1,200            1,805               561            1,762               518               608               724             18,957
Togo DOS NADR – CWD                    32                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    32
Country Total                    32                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    32
Tunisia DoD                  217                    –                    –                    –               536               630                    –                    –                    –               1,383
Country Total                  217                    –                    –                    –               536               630                    –                    –                    –               1,383
Uganda** DOS NADR – CWD                    56                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    56
DoD                       –                    –                    –                    –                    –               207                    –                    –                    –                  207
USAID               1,000                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,000
Country Total               1,056                    –                    –                    –                    –               207                    –                    –                    –               1,263
Ukraine DOS NADR – CWD             13,532            1,500            2,000            7,095            1,940            2,000            6,000            6,000            8,500             48,567
DoD                  177                    –                    –                    –               303               108               656               656               726               2,626
USAID                       –                    –                    –                    –            1,031               920            1,048               958                    –               3,957
Country Total             13,709            1,500            2,000            7,095            3,274            3,028            7,704            7,614            9,226             55,150
Uruguay DOS NADR – CWD                  200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  200
Country Total                  200                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  200
Uzbekistan DoD                    99                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    99
Country Total                    99                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    99
Vietnam DOS NADR – CWD             31,564            4,032            4,500          10,506          12,548          10,709          12,621          12,500          15,000           113,980
CDC               1,848                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,848
DoD               1,038               300               471               256               340               722            1,168               115            1,211               5,621
USAID             26,799                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             26,799
Country Total             61,249            4,332            4,971          10,762          12,888          11,431          13,789          12,615          16,211           148,248
Yemen DOS NADR – CWD             13,220            3,135            2,000               700            2,000            3,500            9,000            2,000            4,000             39,555
DoD               4,846                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               4,846
Country Total             18,066            3,135            2,000               700            2,000            3,500            9,000            2,000            4,000             44,401
Zambia DOS NADR – CWD               2,050                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,050
DoD                  437                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                  437
Country Total               2,487                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               2,487
Zimbabwe DOS NADR – CWD               3,086               250               500            2,750            3,000            1,000            2,000            3,598            1,000             17,184
DoD               3,265                    –                    –                    –               173                 78               153               337               243               4,249
Country Total               6,351               250               500            2,750            3,173            1,078            2,153            3,935            1,243             21,433
*Global Multi-Country DOS NADR – CWD           136,985            5,999          16,007          20,662            6,326            8,234          10,037          18,560          26,000           248,810
DOS Other               1,450                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –               1,450
CDC             18,653                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –                    –             18,653
DoD           201,649            1,106                    –                    –            1,313               861               576                 42            3,043           208,590
USAID             95,093            3,300            4,850            7,000            2,841               687            3,502            4,262            7,757           129,292
Global Total           453,830          10,405          20,857          27,662          10,480            9,782          14,115          22,864          36,800           606,795
Grand Total        1,978,533        189,858        165,283        175,708        200,223        203,968        366,434        255,028        230,525        3,765,559

*Initial planned allocations
**Activity funded via FY19 Global/Multi-Country funding


U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History by Source

(To view full table, use scroll bar at the bottom, or download PDF version.)

SOURCES FY93-11 FY12 FY13 FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 *FY19 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,140,626 149,105 142,417 150,688 177,779 180,532 341,500 232,714 198,500 2,713,861
DOS OTHER[4] 47,501 17,800 2,035 850 0 0 0 0 0 68,186
CDC 38,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38,190
DoD[5] 454,232 15,753 10,331 10,937 10,944 11,939 11,938 10,158 19,606 555,838
USAID[6] 279,984 7,200 10,500 13,233 11,500 11,497 12,996 12,156 12,419 389,485
GRAND TOTAL 1,978,533 189,858 165,283 175,708 200,223 203,968 366,434 255,028 230,525 3,765,559

(Dollars in thousands)
*Initial planned allocations


U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History Total by Year

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History Total By Year: *2019 $230,525; 2018 $255,028; 2017 $366,434; 2016 $203,968; 2015 $200,223; 2014 $175,708; 2013 $165,283; 2012 $189,858; 2011 $163,917; 2010 $201,132; 2009 $160,840; 2008 $147,588; 2007 $106,799; 2006 $115,620; 2005 $122,340; 2004 $196,466; 2003 $127,730; 2002 $110,429; 2001 $93,616; 2000 $111,248; 1999 $82,722; 1998 $74,992; 1997 $55,301; 1996 $36,129; 1995 $41,589; 1994 $19,932; 1993 $10,143.*Initial planned allocations

Footnotes for charts

1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
2. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007.
3. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
4. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
5. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction
fund. All U.S. Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
6. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future