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General Information

Report cover: To Walk the Earth in Safety

A Message From Acting Assistant Secretary Timothy Alan Betts

Timothy Alan Betts, Acting Assistant Secretary of State for Political Military Affairs My diplomatic service around the world has taught me how crucial the Department’s conventional weapons destruction (CWD) programs are to security and stability overseas. 2020 was a year of exceptional challenges for the Department due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, the United States remains the world’s largest international donor to CWD, providing more than $4 billion to support humanitarian mine action (HMA), physical security and stockpile management (PSSM), and associated activities in over 100 countries since 1993.

Despite the pandemic, the United States was able to provide significant cooperation on a range of programs around the world. Here are a few highlights from 2020:

  • The Department provided PSSM assessments in Lebanon following the Port of Beirut explosion on August 4. This led to U.S.-funded upgrades to the Lebanese Armed Forces’ First Artillery Regiment ammunition depot to reduce the risk of a catastrophic explosion there.
  • In Colombia, the U.S. Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF) supported the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Arcangeles to increase access to quality rehabilitation services and promote social inclusion and reconciliation through sporting activities for survivors of the armed conflict and others with disabilities. The Fund also supported International Organization for Migration efforts to strengthen physical rehabilitation services and improve provider networks for these survivors.
  • In Cambodia, U.S. Marine Corp Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC) in partnership with the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces conducted two HMA train-the-trainer (TTT) engagements for national capacity building.
  • The Interagency Man-Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) Task Force supported MANPADS Recognition Training seminars, using virtual training to assist foreign security officials in their advanced weapons systems counterproliferation efforts. Adapting the course curriculum to this new medium enabled the training of 51 officials from three countries in the Middle East and North Africa region, including security professionals at airports, border crossings, seaports, national police, and customs.
Between July and September 2020, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) visited 30 vulnerable households, distributing materials with EORE and COVID-19 pandemic messages, benefiting 171 people in Zimbabwe. Photo courtesy of NPA.
Between July and September 2020, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) visited 30 vulnerable households, distributing materials with EORE and COVID-19 pandemic messages, benefiting 171 people in Zimbabwe. [Photo courtesy of NPA]

In many places, our implementers have unmatched logistics capabilities that can enhance life-saving efforts. In 2020, several partner states and implementing partners requested use of these U.S.-funded CWD assets to assist with their COVID-19 response. While U.S. laws and regulations require that CWD activities remain the priority for our assets, we permitted their use for certain health and safety-related activities. For example, in Zimbabwe we authorized explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) and community liaison teams to simultaneously deliver COVID-19 pandemic related messaging while they conducted their normal work, and we permitted the temporary use of U.S.-funded CWD drivers and vehicles to help deliver medical supplies, such as the use of an ambulance in Guinea Bissau.

The U.S. taxpayers can be proud of the progress we have made globally during this challenging time. We remain committed to CWD and look forward to reinvigorating our efforts in 2021 so that all may “walk the earth in safety.”

Timothy Alan Betts
Acting Assistant Secretary
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs


Commonly Used Acronyms

AXO Abandoned Unexploded Ordnance
BAC Battle Area Clearance
CHA Confirmed Hazardous Area
CWD Conventional Weapons Destruction
EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal
EORE Explosive Ordnance Risk Education
ERW Explosive Remnants of War
FY Fiscal Year
HDTC Humanitarian Demining Training Center
HD R&D Humanitarian Demining Research & Development Program
HMA Humanitarian Mine Action
HSTAMIDS Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System
IDP Internally Displaced Person
IED Improvised Explosive Device
IMAS International Mine Action Standards
ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
LWVF Leahy War Victims Fund
MANPADS Man-Portable Air Defense System
NGO Nongovernmental Organization
NTS Non-Technical Survey
PM/WRA Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement in the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
PSSM Physical Security and Stockpile Management
QRF Quick Reaction Force
SAA Small Arms Ammunition
SA/LW Small Arms and Light Weapons
SHA Suspected Hazardous Area
TS Technical Survey
TTT Train-the-Trainer
UEMS Unplanned Explosions at Munitions Sites
UXO Unexploded Ordnance
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development
VEO Violent Extremist Organization
WAD Weapons and Ammunition Destruction
Children in Vietnam look at their new explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) material. Photo courtesy of Golden West Humanitarian Foundation.
Children in Vietnam look at their new explosive ordnance risk education (EORE) material. [Photo courtesy of Golden West Humanitarian Foundation]

The United States’ Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons continue to challenge peace and prosperity worldwide. In the wrong hands, small arms and light weapons (SA/LW) and more advanced conventional weapons such as MANPADS fuel political instability and violence, and threaten international security. Aging ammunition stockpiles may also explode without warning, devastating nearby population centers. Meanwhile, landmines, improvised explosive devices (IED), and explosive remnants of war (ERW), including cluster munition remnants, artillery shells, and mortars, kill and maim people even after conflicts end. Clearing land paves the way for stabilization assistance to move forward, allowing displaced persons to return home, economic revitalization to begin, and political stability to take root.

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of CWD, providing more than $4 billion in assistance to more than 100 countries since 1993. This makes the United States the world’s single largest financial supporter of CWD. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and USAID work together with foreign governments, private companies, international organizations, and NGOs to reduce excess SA/LW and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement best practices for PSSM at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out HMA programs.

In 2020, PM/WRA managed $227.55 million* in CWD assistance programs globally. It also led the U.S. Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF), which coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Departments of State, Defense, Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure their MANPADS. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC) trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program (HD R&D) improves CWD technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining operations around the world. USAID assists mine and UXO survivors, providing medical and rehabilitative care through the LWVF.

A deminer conducts manual clearance in Afghanistan. Photo courtesy of Directorate of Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) and The HALO Trust.
A deminer conducts manual clearance in Afghanistan. [Photo courtesy of Directorate of Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) and The HALO Trust]

Department of State Support for CWD

Through PM/WRA, the Department of State has managed 73 percent (almost $2.93 billion) of the United States’ contribution to CWD since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  • Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing SA/LW, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors.
  • Improve stability and prosperity by clearing ERW and returning land to productive use.
  • Build trust and deepen relationships with key partners to accelerate achievement of broader U.S. foreign policy objectives.

Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide PM/WRA’s decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. government’s commitment to CWD programs strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries.

*Initial planned allocations


1993–2020 Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program

Global Map; Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding By Region 1993–2020
Percent of Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding By Region 1993–2020: Africa: 12.68%, East Asia And Pacific: 16.54%, Europe: 12.06%, Middle East And North Africa: 22.49%, South And Central Asia: 16.39%, Western Hemisphere: 5.61%, Global: 14.24%

 

Top 10 Countries Funded 1993–2020 (Aggregate)
Top 10 Countries Funded 1993–2020 (Aggregate) (dollars in thousands): Iraq: $594,295, Afghanistan: $537,489, Laos: $270,388, Cambodia: $167,618, Vietnam: $166,332, Colombia: $159,975, Angola: $145,731, Bosnia And Herzegovina: $124,308, Syria: $86,070, Lebanon $82,217 (Dollars in thousands)


U.S. Government Interagency Partners

United States Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

Helping Individuals Optimize Their Level of Functioning

Established in 1989, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF) is an important source of U.S. assistance to civilian survivors of conflict in developing countries. The LWVF is a dedicated provider of financial and technical support for people with disabilities, particularly those who sustain mobility-related injuries from landmines, UXO, and other maladies resulting from conflict.

Mr. Thongin is fitted for his prosthetic leg. [Photo courtesy of World Education/OKARD]
Mr. Thongin is fitted for his prosthetic leg. [Photo courtesy of World Education/OKARD]

In 2020, the LWVF, in partnership with USAID’s Victims of Torture Program, and PM/WRA, supported a program called Okard (meaning “Opportunity”) in Laos. Implemented by World Education Inc., Okard provides financial and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health to operationalize its rehabilitation strategy and increase access to and availability of physical rehabilitation, including assistive technology services at the primary health care level. Okard also supports the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare to implement the country’s disability inclusion law and policy. The project supports government and non-government partners’ efforts to remove barriers to inclusion.

Two beneficiaries of the program were Mrs. Soum, who is hard of hearing, and her husband Mr. Thongin, who lost his leg in a landmine accident. Neither were able to work due to their disabilities. With help from the Okard project, a disability inclusion awareness campaign was held in their village in Xieng Khouang Province. During the campaign, Community Based Inclusive Development (CBID) facilitators identified them as high priority for assistance based on their socioeconomic status and difficulties in functioning. The facilitator referred Mrs. Soum to an audiology clinic, and contacted the provincial rehabilitation center for Mr. Thongin to receive an appropriate prosthetic device. Mrs. Soum said, “We are very happy that the project supported us to be able to go to hospital, which is something that we couldn’t do by ourselves before.”

As of December 2020, CBID facilitators reached more than 3,800 people through community awareness raising events on disability inclusion; conducted initial screenings for more than 1,200 people who would benefit from rehabilitation services; and enrolled 244 people in a case management program to facilitate access to services based on their level of functioning and socioeconomic status.

In 2020, the LWVF provided more than $13 million to support the rehabilitation of survivors of conflict in 19 countries. To date, the LWVF has provided approximately $312 million in assistance to more than 50 countries, including Burma, Colombia, Georgia, Laos, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.

Website: https://laos.worlded.org/projects/usaid-okard/ | Factsheet: https://www.usaid.gov/laos/fact-sheets/usaid-okard | Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0WfOKGyAvGk&feature=youtu.be


U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center (HDTC), at Fort Lee, Virginia, is a component of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA). HDTC trains and prepares U.S. military forces, other U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to build partner-nation capacity in land-based and underwater UXO disposal and PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions. HDTC’s responsibilities include validating HMA project plans and budgets, and monitoring and evaluating global Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA)-funded HMA activities.

HDTC curricula include courses on demining and stockpiled conventional munitions assistance (SCMA). Demining subjects cover demining and BAC, EOD, and underwater UXO disposal. SCMA subjects include PSSM of conventional stockpiled munitions. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, and international guidelines governing mine action, UXO disposal, and PSSM. The center uses a three-phase approach to provide program management support to the U.S.’s geographic combatant commands. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, HDTC deploys program analysts to assess the state of a partner nation’s capability to conduct demining and PSSM. The assessment provides a viable plan with established objectives and outcomes and is a tool used by combatant commands to request OHDACA-funded resources to execute mine action and PSSM projects. DSCA, in consultation with the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Stability, and Humanitarian Affairs, and PM/WRA approves mine action projects.

In addition, the center provides program management support, capacity-building training, or technical assistance, for the mine action programs and PSSM administered by the U.S. military’s geographic combatant commands: African Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, and Southern Command. HDTC personnel provide a suite of tools and expertise to perform PSSM, landmine clearance, EOD, and underwater UXO disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The beneficiaries of capacity building are junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, and civil servants tasked with conducting mine action operations. In order to sustain the capabilities of partner nation HMA programs, HDTC, in coordination with PM/WRA, executes mine action projects to enhance the skills of mine action managers and ministerial or executive level personnel. These projects include seminars and workshops on legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic level.

In FY2020, HDTC spent $15.5 million dollars to execute its global mission.

At the request of the Kingdom of Morocco, U.S. Marine Corps Africa Command facilitated EOD Level 1 training for the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces. HDTC oversees mine action programs administered by the U.S. military’s combatant commands. Photo courtesy of USAFRICOM.
At the request of the Kingdom of Morocco, U.S. Marine Corps Africa Command facilitated EOD Level 1 training for the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces. HDTC oversees mine action programs administered by the U.S. military’s combatant commands. Photo courtesy of USAFRICOM.

https://home.army.mil/lee/index.php/units-tenants/humanitarian-demining-training-center


U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program

The U.S. Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) program, based at Ft. Belvoir, Virginia develops, demonstrates, and validates new landmine and UXO detection and clearance technologies. The program uses a rapid development process that focuses on transforming commercial off the-shelf-equipment into demining technologies that are improving the safety and efficiency of mine clearance worldwide. The HD R&D program also uses mature technologies or leverages existing military countermine technologies for the humanitarian demining role.

The wet soil bucket is tested in Zimbabwe. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]
The wet soil bucket is tested in Zimbabwe. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]

HD R&D partners with humanitarian demining organizations to conduct operational field evaluations in their own demining sites and provide assessment and feedback on new technologies. Field evaluations are one of the most important aspects of the HD R&D program because the equipment undergoes testing in actual minefields. These evaluations allow HD R&D and its implementing partner in a given country to determine whether the equipment is useful, cost-effective and efficient, and is key to HD R&D’s success in research and development.

HD R&D’s current technology development areas include hazardous area confirmation, vegetation/obstacle clearance, mine and UXO detection, mechanical-mine and UXO clearance, mechanical-mine neutralization, post-clearance quality control, and information management. Technology development plans are based on feedback from field evaluations and biannual requirements workshops with implementing partners and country programs.

In 2020 HD R&D performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Colombia, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Palau, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, the West Bank and Zimbabwe. Since 1995 HD R&D technologies have cleared over 80 million square meters (19,768 acres) and removed or destroyed approximately 227,600 mines and UXO. The program has fielded technologies in support of 239 operational field evaluations in 43 countries.

The program receives funding and strategic oversight from the Department of Defense Deputy Assistant Secretary for Stability and Humanitarian Affairs and coordinates with the U.S. DoD Geographical Combatant Commands’ HMA officers and the U.S. Department of State’s PM/WRA.

The Bearcat vegetation clearance tool is tested in Cambodia. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]
The Bearcat vegetation clearance tool is tested in Cambodia. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]

http://humanitarian-demining.org 


Implementation Tools and Fora

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force: Building Partnerships to Protect Global Aviation

WHAT ARE MANPADS? Since 1970, terrorists and other non-state actors have struck dozens of civilian aircraft with man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), often referred to as shoulder-fired missiles. The illicit diversion of MANPADS to terrorists, criminal organizations, and insurgents is a global concern. Non-state actors in more than forty countries have acquired MANPADS of varying capabilities.

Illustration of a MANPADS. Note: Not all MANPADS follow this design. MANPADS such as the Swedish RBS 70 and the French Mistral are mounted on pedestal launchers. [Illustration courtesy of Small Arms Survey]
Illustration of a MANPADS. Note: Not all MANPADS follow this design. MANPADS such as the Swedish RBS 70 and the French Mistral are mounted on pedestal launchers. [Illustration courtesy of Small Arms Survey]

The U.S. Department of State chairs the Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF), which focuses on protecting civil and military aviation. The MTF was formed in 2006 in response to National Security Presidential Directive 47 (NSPD-47), which directed the establishment of a comprehensive strategy for aviation security to guide the U.S. government in dealing with evolving threats to aviation. The MTF coordinates a comprehensive approach to counter illicit MANPADS proliferation and reduce the threat of those held by terrorist groups and other violent non-state actors. A range of U.S. government elements participate in the MTF, including the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Homeland Security, and the Intelligence Community.

MANPADS typically consist of a guided missile enclosed in a launch tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), and a single-use battery or battery cooling unit. The tube, which protects the missile until it is fired, is disposable. The battery powers the missile’s infrared seeker and other systems for a short period prior to launch. Most MANPADS are 1.4 to 1.6 meters (4.5 feet to 5.5 feet) long, about 72 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter, and weigh between 15 and 18 kilograms (33 to 39 pounds). They can travel at twice the speed of sound and hit aircraft flying as high as 6 kilometers (about 20,000 feet) out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS. Their small size makes them easy to transport and conceal. The most common types can fit into an automobile trunk.

MANPADS were first developed in the 1960s to help legitimate armed forces defend against air attacks. However, in the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to commercial and military aircraft around the world. Non-state actors obtain MANPADS from a number of sources, including regional black markets and state sponsors. Since 2011, violent extremists have looted thousands of MANPADS and other advanced conventional weapons from unsecured state stockpiles in Libya, Syria, and Yemen, making efforts to reduce the threat to aviation even more crucial.

WHAT IS BEING DONE ABOUT MANPADS? The MTF offers several tools to curb the illicit proliferation and use of MANPADS, including multilateral and international partnerships, aviation security training opportunities, and CWD.

To prevent future illicit proliferation of MANPADS, the MTF, in collaboration with PM/WRA’s Program Management Division, operates a CWD program. MTF provides CWD assistance to countries to secure existing stockpiles and destroy excess, unserviceable, or obsolete ammunition and MANPADS. To date, MTF CWD programs have eliminated more than 41,000 MANPADS and Anti-Tank Guided Missiles (ATGM) which pose a similar threat around the world.

The MTF continues to lead international and multilateral coordination efforts related to MANPADS destruction and PSSM in Europe, Africa, South America, and the Middle East. Under the Wassenaar Arrangement, over 40 countries have agreed to export control measures to curb the illicit transfer of MANPADS. The MTF is expanding work with the Organization of American States (OAS), International Civil Aviation Organization, NATO, and other international organizations to curb illicit transfers and strengthen compliance with international regimes on MANPADS proliferation.

MTF provides MANPADS Recognition Training to global border security, aviation security, and defense personnel working on the front lines to fight illicit weapons proliferation. In 2020, the MTF provided virtual and in-person training to more than 550 individuals from 22 countries. Additionally, the Transportation Security Administration, in coordination with the MTF, has conducted 75 MANPADS Assist Visits (MAV) and basic aviation security training programs globally. MAVs were not feasible in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and will resume when conditions permit.

U.S.-Egypt Partnership: The MTF assisted the government of Egypt’s efforts to proactively mitigate the potential for aviation security threats, with a focus on MANPADS. The Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation’s Export Control and Border Security program, in collaboration with the MTF, sponsored a facilitated dialogue in Washington, D.C., for Egyptian officials to assist in creating a National Action Plan to address regional threats. The event assembled an interagency combination of U.S. and Egyptian experts working together for the first time on the issue of MANPADS and ATGM proliferation. In partnership with U.S. counterparts, Egyptian participants established a strategic framework designed to activate the many complementary pieces of security response should a potential threat be identified.
Map of Global MANPADS attacks. Project funded by the U.S. Department of State. Map produced by Small Arms Survey. Data on acquisitions and transfers compiled by Small Arms Survey. Data on attacks compiled by RAND.
Project funded by the U.S. Department of State. Map produced by Small Arms Survey. Data on acquisitions and transfers compiled by Small Arms Survey. Data on attacks compiled by RAND.

https://www.state.gov/about-us-office-of-weapons-removal-and-abatement


U.S. Department of State Quick Reaction Force: Providing Rapid Response to CWD Emergencies Globally

The Quick Reaction Force (QRF) is a team of civilian EOD technical experts that serve as PM/WRA’s first responders to CWD-related emergencies around the world, including munitions depot explosions, ammunition depots at risk of imminent explosion, and ERW that pose significant threats to civilians. These situations require immediate action to secure or dispose of poorly-secured or unstable munitions, prevent loss of life, protect critical infrastructure, and conduct needs assessments for further CWD activities. The QRF can begin to respond to these threats worldwide in as few as 48 hours.

QRF Responses to Date: Since 2001, the QRF and its precursor the Quick Reaction Demining Force have deployed to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Federated States of Micronesia, Guatemala, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Liberia, Malawi, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Palau, Philippines, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Tuvalu, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

“Too many foreign military depots, even if originally situated in uninhabited locations, have become surrounded by urban growth over the decades,” notes Stanley L. Brown, Deputy Assistant Secretary in the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs. “In other cases, depots were deliberately built in populated areas. Either way, the aging ammunition in these “dangerous depots” poses an imminent threat to nearby civilians. Furthermore, catastrophic depot explosions can result in political unrest, which can destabilize the country where the depot blew up. Ultimately, it is smarter and also more cost-effective to safely remove and demilitarize aging ammunition beforehand than it is to let that ammunition fester, blow up, and result in the loss of life, damage to infrastructure, economic loss, and pollution of surrounding neighborhoods with unstable ammunition spread by the explosions. But when that happens, the QRF serves as the United States’ first responders.”

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation, implementing partner for the QRF, is a U.S. NGO specializing in humanitarian demining, BAC, and PSSM.

The explosion at an army depot in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, in 2012 is one of the emergencies to which the QRF has responded. [Photo courtesy of Golden West]
The explosion at an army depot in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, in 2012 is one of the emergencies to which the QRF has responded. [Photo courtesy of Golden West]

http://www.state.gov/t/pm/wra


PSSM 101: A Primer on Physical Security and Stockpile Management of Munitions and Related United States’ Assistance

Since the end of the Cold War, vast quantities of arms and ammunition stockpiled in many countries around the world have become a threat to the people in those countries, to their neighbors, and to much of the world at large, including the United States and its allies and trading partners. This includes weapons from the former Soviet Union, or of countries that acquired or inherited munitions during their wars for independence such as Angola or Bosnia and Herzegovina, or were involved repeatedly in regional conflicts such as Libya.

THE PROBLEM. These conventional munitions, often excess to countries’ current national security needs, are prone to being illicitly trafficked to criminals and terrorists, and fuel armed conflict such as in the Middle East and the Sahel. Even relatively prosperous democracies such as Colombia, Mexico, and the Philippines, suffer from the depredations of heavily-armed guerilla groups and large criminal gangs that possess military-grade weapons. On top of that, the aging ammunition in many foreign governments’ depots is deteriorating to the point where it is prone to catastrophic UEMS that can kill civilians living nearby, damage critical infrastructure, degrade military readiness, and, in some cases, impact political stability. Even newer, more stable ammunition is stored in too many poorly-secured depots worldwide, making it prone to theft and enabling further conflict and criminality. That is why the U.S. CWD program, which originally focused on humanitarian mine action alone, developed a holistic approach to strengthening our partners’ ability to manage their arms and ammunition stockpiles, including MANPADS, which pose a threat to global aviation.

THE SOLUTION. To help prevent illicit proliferation and UEMS, governments must maintain high physical security and stockpile management (PSSM) standards for their arms and ammunition. This ongoing effort requires frequent monitoring of stockpiles, regular training of qualified experts, facility upgrades and maintenance, and long-term planning for infrastructure, resources, and procurement associated with arms and ammunition. Activities associated with PSSM include:

  • Conducting risk assessment of arms and ammunition storage sites;
  • Repairing, upgrading, and maintaining physical infrastructure at arms and ammunition storage sites;
  • Developing effective accountability and inventory systems to make it more difficult for corrupt individuals to illicitly transfer weapons to terrorists, drug traffickers, criminal gangs, and other destabilizing actors;
  • Training security services on best practices and international standards related to arms and ammunition management;
  • Modernizing arms and ammunition management processes and platforms;
  • Conducting ammunition surveillance; and
  • Destroying surplus and/or obsolete stockpiles

The U.S. Department of State supports a wide range of activities that bolster our international partners’ PSSM capacity. This helps our partners develop and implement comprehensive plans for building safer storage facilities, improving accountability, strengthening transportation procedures, training staff on best practices for storage techniques, and destroying unstable and surplus ammunition. From Africa to South America and from the Middle East to the Pacific Islands, these engagements keep civilians and infrastructure safe while denying nefarious actors access to arms and ammunition, and strengthen the capacity of our allies to safeguard and manage their munitions. This broad-spectrum CWD approach—ranging from humanitarian demining to small arms/light weapons destruction and PSSM—is among the U.S. foreign assistance efforts that are helping people worldwide “to walk the earth in safety.”

SA/LW in El Salvador stored in a facility in need of refurbishment. [Photo courtesy of the Department of State]
SA/LW in El Salvador stored in a facility in need of refurbishment. [Photo courtesy of the Department of State]

Improving Lives Through U.S. CWD Programs

Africa: Justine Nabuko - Vice President of Victims des Mines en Action Association (VMA) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)

On May 5, 2016, a friend and I were walking to a farm when we stepped on a landmine. We were taken to the hospital, but my friend did not survive. The hospital was unsuccessful in their attempts to save my leg. In the end, an amputation was necessary. I survived the blast, but the landmine took my leg and my profession. I was a teacher but because of the stigma and discrimination against people with disabilities, teaching was no longer a possibility for me. This troubled me deeply. I started wondering if anyone would accept me like this, and if I would ever marry or have a meaningful life.

Justine Nabuko. [Photo courtesy of Polus]
Justine Nabuko. [Story and photo courtesy of Polus]

Now I am the Vice President of VMA, a landmine survivors association that supports and advocates for people with disabilities in the DRC’s Lake Kivu region. In the DRC, many people with disabilities face persistent discrimination. That is why this association is so important to me. VMA enables every person with a disability to feel valued for who they are. People with disabilities can live full and meaningful lives, and be valued, if only given the opportunity. We do not need to become a burden on other people or become destitute, and yet sadly these are often the roles we are pushed into for lack of opportunity and support.

Justine Nabuko at a VMA meeting. [Photo courtesy of Polus]
Justine at a VMA meeting. [Story and photo courtesy of Polus]

Currently we are working on a project with a master boat builder who is training six carpentry apprentices in the craft of boat building. The apprentices are all landmine survivors and will graduate with a marketable skill and a set of carpentry tools. Once the boat is complete, six additional landmine survivors will train in small business skills tailored for a lakeside boat business. In time, we plan to use the revenue from this boat business to fund the association’s future projects. Lastly, in the future we also plan to open a restaurant and a training center for culinary and service industry workers.

Justine Nabuko shows her prosthetic leg. [Photo courtesy of Polus]
Justine shows her prosthetic leg. [Story and photo courtesy of Polus]

The U.S.-funded Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus) and its partners have helped facilitate the formation of VMA, providing prosthetic rehabilitation and offering training opportunities. I have been a part of the association for two years and it has changed my life. I understand that I’m just like anybody else. Now I can hold my head high because I am contributing to my family and my community.


East Asia and Pacific: The Women Clearing Bombs in Laos

During the Vietnam War, two million tons of explosives were dropped on Laos. Nearly five decades later, the remnants of this conflict are still claiming lives, with an estimated 20,000 people killed or injured since the war ended. However, thanks to the support of the U.S. Department of State, a new generation of young women in Laos have joined male deminers to make their country safe. Since 2012, the program has destroyed over 62,000 explosives—making land safe across Savannaket Province, where 70 percent of the population lives in poverty.

Malaythong Khodsisa was only 19 years old when she began working for HALO in 2017. After beginning her HALO career as a technician, Malaythong quickly rose to Team Leader before being promoted to Training Officer. Earlier this year, she ran the very first female-only training course for 60 women.

Malaythong Khodsisa is a training officer with HALO Laos. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
Malaythong Khodsisa is a training officer with HALO Laos. [Photo and story courtesy of HALO]

What was the hardest part of your job when you first started working for HALO as a technician?

“We learned very well and precisely in the classroom and training, but it feels very different when you have to do it in practice. Suddenly you are responsible for the piece of land you are working on. It is a big jump from the classroom to the real world.”

Do you think it is important that women are doing this work and taking on leadership roles?

“It is very important, because it shows people that women are capable, and we can [do work] usually done by men. I feel so happy and proud of HALO Laos. It is very important to give women a chance to have jobs, especially in the countryside because it is always the men who work and earn money for the family. This way women can earn an income too; they can have more input into family decisions and more ability to support their own family. My job makes a big difference to my family. I can pay for their food and their medical care. I can help them to buy things that they need. I am also supporting my sister’s education in school.”

What is the most important thing your job has taught you?

“I have learned how to be brave and how to speak with confidence. I have learned how to manage people, which I worried about at first because I thought it would be very difficult. I am learning how to teach in the best way possible to help the trainees learn.”

How do you feel when you have managed to safely clear explosives from people’s land?

“I am glad to help make people’s land safe so they can use it for farming and for their animals without having to worry about hurting themselves or their family getting hurt.”

Malayathong Khodsisa (in light-colored shirt) and a HALO training team in Laos comprised of women. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
Malayathong Khodsisa (in light-colored shirt) and a HALO training team in Laos comprised of women. [Photo and story courtesy of HALO]

Europe: Busovača – Enabling Residents to Cultivate the Land in Safety

Busovača, a small municipality in Bosnia and Herzegovina, faced a major ERW problem. More than 30 square kilometers of its land were suspected of containing landmines and ERW from a war that ended more than 25 years ago. Even though peace was achieved, for many security was not. Mines, ERW, and persistent fear of these items, prevented residents from moving freely, cultivating land, gathering wood, or breeding animals. These activities are vital to the support of citizens’ livelihoods in this rural part of the country.

Nevenka Gavranović is the Assistant to the Mayor responsible for Civil Protection Services in Busovača. Nevenka started working as the chief public servant in charge of civil protection in Busovača in 2007 and was tasked with tackling the municipality’s ERW issues. For the past 13 years, she has coordinated demining activities and worked to clear and release SHAs. Her hard work and dedication, the generous support of the United States through the non-profit organization ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF), and the assistance of local authorities and organizations led to numerous successful land release projects.

Nevenka Gavranović.. [Photo courtesy of ITF]
Nevenka Gavranović. [Story and photo courtesy of ITF]

Thanks to these efforts, the situation for residents of Busovača is much different today than it was only a few years ago. The SHAs in the municipality are down to only a fifth of their former size, measuring around six square kilometers (just over 1,482 acres). Most recently, a project supported by the United States through ITF released more than 45,000 square meters (over 11 acres) of SHAs that were in close vicinity of civilian homes and land accessed daily.

Although there is still much to be done, tangible change has already occurred. “Residents are now able to safely walk the orchards and cultivate them without risking their lives,” said Kruno Marković, a local who used to live near the hazardous areas. “Some people had to enter minefields in the past, they didn’t have a choice. It was where woods, fields, and other fertile land was located. We are very glad that this changed.”

Many of Mr. Markovic’s neighbors share his sentiment. They can now safely access their land, whose crops will enable their families to survive the winter. Additionally, the goals achieved by Nevenka, the United States, ITF, and others will enable Busovača to continue its economic development. The construction of basic infrastructure like roads and water distribution systems will finally be able to commence. Industries such as tourism, sports, and leisure will be able to grow and develop.

Nevenka understands that the work is not yet finished. She will continue to persist until Busovača is free from the impact of ERW and mines, and her compatriots are able to live their lives and take care of their families in safety.

An SHA on the outskirts of Busovača. [Photo courtesy of ITF]
An SHA on the outskirts of Busovača. [Story and photo courtesy of ITF]

Middle East and North Africa: Asma, Latefa, and the Yemen Association for Landmine Survivors (YALS)

Asma is a 50-year-old woman who lives with her family of nine in Taiz, Yemen. When she was 30 years old Asma was injured by a landmine explosion and lost her leg. She feared her dreams of helping her sons and daughters complete their education and achieving things in life had been denied.

Asma is fitted for a prosthetic leg. [Photo and story courtesy of YALS, supported by the Marshall Legacy Institute.]
Asma is fitted for a prosthetic leg. [Photo and story courtesy of YALS, supported by the Marshall Legacy Institute.]

“While my friends and I were working to bring firewood from the mountain, the mine exploded and my leg was injured. One of my friends told my family. They came and took me to the village hospital. Then, I was transferred to Al-Thawrah hospital and there my leg was amputated. When I woke up after the operation, and learned that I lost my leg, I felt sad for my injury, because I would not be able to work at home as I had before.

“When I learned that YALS would give me help learning tailoring, I was relieved that I would be able to provide an income to my family and help my sons and daughters to complete their education without interruption.”

Latefa lives with her family of seven in Al Qaherah, Yemen. She lived a difficult life working as a teacher to help provide for her family despite the low, and sometimes non-existent salary.

Latefa is fitted with a prosthetic leg. [Photos and story courtesy of YALS, supported by the Marshall Legacy Institute]
Latefa is fitted with a prosthetic leg. [Photo and story courtesy of YALS, supported by the Marshall Legacy Institute]

“One day, I went to school as usual to teach the kids, and because I left late in the day to go home, I decided to walk in another way that was faster. I did not know that it was dangerous. The mine exploded and the passersby told my husband that I was injured. When the mine exploded and I saw myself bleeding badly I knew that I would not be able to teach the children again. When I got out of the surgery and saw that I had lost my leg, my dreams were lost and life became dark for me. I was thinking of a future that awaited my family and children with a disabled mother. I thought about our difficult living conditions that required me to work for my family and I thought of the children who waited daily for me to teach them and who tomorrow would not see me.”

“I was so happy to learn that the YALS would give me training in tailoring so that I could help my family and my children complete their education and have a better life than I did.”


South and Central Asia: Female Deminers in Tajikistan

In Central Asia, it is uncommon to find many women working on peace and security issues. However, since 2014 the U.S. government has championed a group of female deminers employed by NPA in Tajikistan who are undertaking CWD activities, including humanitarian demining. These women have worked diligently to reduce the risks that local communities endure due to landmines and other UXO contamination. Each of these women has a unique story about how they became involved in working with NPA, such as Alamvi Valieva and Gulruhsor Zainalova.

Alamvi Valieva

Alamvi has been a deminer with NPA since April 2017. She is 28 years old, divorced with a 7-year-old son and comes from Jayhun district. Alamvi worked as a cleaning lady in her village and endured a life of hardship. Since joining NPA, she has become more financially independent and can afford to rent a place to live with her mother and son. When Alamvi is working, her mother looks after her son. Alamvi, her mother, and her son are supported by Alamvi’s salary and her mother’s meager pension.

“When you are poor, people don’t respect you. Now I have more respect from my community. In the next five years I want to improve my knowledge and skills and have a better life than the one I have now. I want to construct my own home.”

Alamvi conducting demining activities. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]
Alamvi conducting demining activities. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]
Alamvi and her family. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]
Alamvi and her family. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]

Gulruhsor Zainalova

Gulruhsor has been a deminer with NPA since May 2017. She is a 39 year old widower from Vakhsh district with two children under 18 years of age.

“Working as a deminer with NPA changed my life. I can now financially support my children and be more independent. I gained confidence, I am stronger, and I’m more hopeful. Even if bad things happen in my life, I know that I can overcome them. I am sure that women can do men’s work! I don’t know how my life will be in five years, but I know that I will be OK because I am stronger.

I am very grateful to be working with NPA. Even without a husband I can now live my life. I can provide for my children and look forward for their future while at the same time contribute by clearing mines for the safety and future of my community and country.”

Gulruhsor participates in a BAC course in Tajikistan. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]
Gulruhsor participates in a BAC course in Tajikistan. [Story and photo courtesy of NPA]

Western Hemisphere: Women Working Together in Colombia

Andrea Garcia and her family were forced to flee to Bogotá as violence between guerrilla groups and paramilitaries surged in her hometown of San Juan de Arama. After living in Bogotá for many years attending high school and college, Andrea returned to San Juan de Arama to restore their home destroyed by conflict. Once settled, Andrea applied to HALO after a family member told her about a recruitment drive. Having first-hand experience of the destruction caused by the conflict, Andrea knew that she would be passionate about working in HMA.

Today, Andrea is one of the NTS assistants financed by the U.S. State Department in the Department of Meta. Support from the United States government allows her to do a job that she loves, while improving her quality of life and that of her community, “Without this support, the community would not have the knowledge to remove the mines, or to know what to do if there is an accident, or even know how to avoid mines. So, I think that’s the most satisfactory thing for us as an organization. With our work we help return land to the people, allowing them to build, harvest, cultivate, raise livestock, and make a life for themselves. For me, that’s spectacular.”

Andrea Garcia (right) talks with a local resident while conducting an NTS in San Juan de Arama, Colombia. [Story and photo courtesy of HALO]
Andrea Garcia (right) talks with a local resident while conducting an NTS in San Juan de Arama, Colombia. [Story and photo courtesy of HALO]

With support from the U.S. Department of State, HALO had previously cleared 5,600 square meters of contaminated land that surrounded the road leading to an elementary school in Lejanías, including ten IEDs from the banks of the road. This allowed schoolteacher Dory Valazquez and her students to walk to class without the fear of an ERW accident. “Before the land beside the road leading to our school was cleared, the parents and I always feared a child would leave the safe path that we showed them. Every day I was afraid we would have an accident with one of the children and the mines. Now the children can come and learn in a safe environment.”

Dory Valazquez stands next to the temporary school. [Story and photo courtesy of HALO]
Dory Valazquez stands next to the temporary school. [Story and photo courtesy of HALO]

Andrea, Dory, and the ten students ages 5-11, are thankful for all that the U.S. government and HALO have done for them and their region.


Regional Profile: Africa

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in Africa From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020: More Than $509 Million

CWD programs in Africa help create conditions for lasting security and economic growth by reducing the availability of SA/LW and IED components used by terrorists and extremist groups. The U.S.’s CWD implementing partners build or refurbish foreign government armories and depots to improve the security of sites most vulnerable to attacks. Our CWD implementers also mark foreign government weapons for tracing purposes and provide training in stockpile management to enhance accountability and prevent their munitions from being lost or stolen. Meanwhile, landmine contamination in many African countries hinders the safety, security, and socioeconomic growth of local civilian populations. Travel to and from school, water sources, and agriculture is often limited by suspected or confirmed hazardous areas (SHA/CHA).

Since 1993, U.S. CWD programs have provided more than $509 million of assistance to 37 African countries, to promote peacebuilding and facilitate economic growth and opportunity.

Map of Africa, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of the $21.2 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Africa in FY2020 By Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $21.2 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Africa In Fy2020 By Country With Active Programs: This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include Global/Multi-country funding. Angola: 33.14%, Burkina Faso: 2.35%, CAR: 0.00%, Chad: 4.70%, Congo, DR: 14.11%, Guinea-Bissau: 0.00%, Malawi: 0.00%, Mali: 4.70%, Niger: 4.70%, Senegal: 0.61%, Somalia: 9.41%, South Sudan: 9.41%, Zimbabwe: 12.17%
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include Global/Multi-country funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70. *Countries with activities in 2020 that were solely held as part of Global/Multi-country funding.

Angola

Angola
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY95–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 7,000 4,100 7,000 124,604
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 179 245 48 9,456
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 7,179 4,345 7,048 145,731
Dollars in thousands

Angola is still recovering from over 40 years of conflict that ended in 2002. It continues to be one of the world’s most landmine and UXO-affected countries, with over 88 million square meters (21,755 acres) of contaminated land remaining as of late 2019 according to the Mine Action Review’s Clearing the Mines 2020 report.

From 1995 to 2020, the United States invested more than $145 million for CWD in Angola. This assistance released over 464 million square meters (114,657 acres) to productive use and destroyed 98,078 landmines, items of UXO and abandoned unexploded ordnance (AXO). CWD assistance also destroyed 108,701 excess SA/LW and 600 metric tons of ammunition from government stockpiles, reducing the risk of explosions and illicit diversions.

In 2020, CWD programs expanded HMA operations in Bié, Cuando Cubango, and Moxico Provinces while continuing to support PSSM programs that primarily strengthened the police’s control over its weapons.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • The HALO Trust (HALO) finished constructing four armories for the national police, trained 14 storekeepers, destroyed 800 excess SA/LW, and destroyed 13.78 metric tons of stockpiled and abandoned ammunition. HALO released 372,757 square meters (92 acres) in Bié, southern Moxico, and Cuando Cubango Provinces through survey and clearance operations, destroying 7,751 landmines and other explosive hazards. HALO’s demining operations in southern Moxico and Cuando Cubango directly support the government of Angola’s goals for environmental conservation and development of an eco-tourism industry in the Okavango river basin.
  • MAG (Mines Advisory Group) continued to clear high-priority minefields in Moxico Province through manual and mechanical demining. The minefields are considered high priority due to their proximity to populated areas, many of which are experiencing high population growth and require more land for housing, agriculture, grazing, and other activities. MAG released 434,490 square meters (107 acres), destroying 1,876 landmines and other explosive hazards. MAG also began a pilot PSSM project in Moxico, Lunda Sul, and Lunda Norte Provinces.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D technologies were used to clear 1.8 million square meters (445 acres) of land and 1,285 mines and pieces of UXO since 2006. HD R&D, in partnership with MAG, continued to evaluate the Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS), and Rex, a versatile, lightweight armored excavator.

A demining team in Angola traverses a small river with their equipment. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
A demining team in Angola traverses a small river with their equipment. [Photo courtesy of HALO]

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY15–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 900 1,000 500 3,941
Country Total 900 1,000 500 3,941
Dollars in thousands

Violent extremist organizations (VEO) continued to operate in Burkina Faso in 2020 using illicitly-trafficked SA/LW and ammunition. In October 2020, jihadists attacked a town market in northern Burkina Faso, killing 24 civilians, most of them women. Isolated police, gendarmerie, and army outposts are particularly vulnerable to such attacks.

From 2015 to 2020, the United States invested more than $3.9 million in Burkina Faso to improve PSSM.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG refurbished eight weapons storage facilities for the gendarmerie, police, and military, and provided stockpile management training. MAG also provided a PSSM TTT course for 20 gendarmes.

Central African Republic

Central African Republic
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY07–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 785 0 0 1,009
Country Total 785 0 0 1,009
Dollars in thousands

The Central African Republic (CAR) has faced persistent security challenges since its independence in 1960. The proliferation of weapons in CAR and throughout the region complicates efforts to implement the peace agreement that the government and 14 armed groups signed in February 2019.

From 2007 to 2020, the United States has provided more than $1 million for CWD activities in CAR.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) prepared to provide capacity building assistance to the Central African Armed Forces to destroy obsolete weapons and ammunition collected under the national disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration program. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the program will resume in 2021.

Chad

Chad
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY98–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 1,000 1,000 13,556
DoD 86 0 0 5,190
Country Total 1,336 1,000 1,000 18,746
Dollars in thousands

Chad is a key transit point for illicit weapons flowing to and from Libya, and a destination for weapons trafficked illicitly from Sudan into eastern Chad. CWD programs help ensure Chadian government arms and ammunition stockpiles remain secure and serviceable as the Chadian military continues to make substantial efforts, with U.S. support, to counter the threats from extremists.

From 1998 to 2020, the United States invested more than $18 million in Chad to destroy excess SA/LW and ammunition, improve PSSM, and clear landmines.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG built three storage facilities for the military, gendarmerie, and the National and Nomadic Guard. MAG also provided training in stockpile management and destroyed five metric tons of excess ammunition and 1,107 excess SA/LW.
A team in Chad prepares to destroy excess ammunition. [Photo courtesy of MAG]
A team in Chad prepares to destroy excess ammunition. [Photo courtesy of MAG]

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY02–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,000 3,000 3,000 27,334
DoD 0 0 0 1,083
USAID 0 0 0 7,597
Country Total 4,000 3,000 3,000 36,014
Dollars in thousands

The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s (DRC) eastern provinces continue to suffer from intense fighting between non-state actors and government forces. Illicit proliferation of SA/LW and ammunition fuels the fighting, resulting in population displacement, ERW contamination, and a lack of economic development. The conflict also exacerbates public health crises when health workers and humanitarian assistance cannot regularly safely access conflict areas.

From 2002 to 2020, the United States invested more than $36 million in funding for CWD in the DRC, destroying 180,739 SA/LW and 1,807 metric tons of ammunition, as well as upgrading weapons storage facilities and training security force personnel in PSSM. Support for HMA released 564,134 square meters (139 acres) of land to productive use and provided EORE to 105,778 people.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG destroyed 61 metric tons of surplus ammunition in North and South Kivu Provinces and refurbished 16 storage facilities.
  • DanChurchAid (DCA) released 116,837 square meters (28.8 acres) of land to productive use through HMA in Maniema Province and conducted EOD spot tasks in Maniema and North Kivu Provinces. DCA also provided EORE to 15,398 civilians and trained 282 teachers and Ministry of Education officials to provide EORE in local schools.
  • Polus provided prosthetics to 22 conflict survivors, continued to develop a survivors’ assistance association, and provided vocational training to conflict survivors, including coffee processing and agricultural practices, boatbuilding, and woodworking. Polus’ partners Feed the Future, U.S. African Development Foundation, and Dean’s Beans Organic Coffee Company continued to support the construction of the coffee tasting lab on Idjwi Island using architectural plans designed by Polus and the University of Buffalo to be accessible to people with disabilities, particularly conflict survivors.

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY00–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 700 0 0 8,037
DoD 0 0 0 1,444
Country Total 700 0 0 9,481
Dollars in thousands

Guinea-Bissau declared itself free from all known landmine contamination in 2012 with CWD assistance from the United States. However, the condition and security of its government munitions stockpiles remain a concern.

In 2020, the United States continued to improve Guinea-Bissau’s security and increase its ability to counter transnational threats by preventing the illicit diversion of its munitions.

From 2000 to 2020, the United States invested more than $9.4 million in CWD efforts in Guinea-Bissau.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO destroyed 4,180 items of SAA and 395 excess SA/LW and provided a PSSM course to train 20 security force personnel in armory storekeeping, of which 10 individuals received stockpile management training. This program builds off an African Union-sponsored assessment under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative.
Excess ammunition is destroyed in Guinea-Bissau. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
Excess ammunition is destroyed in Guinea-Bissau. [Photo courtesy of HALO]

Malawi

Malawi
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY18–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 130 0 0 130
Country Total 130 0 0 130
Dollars in thousands

The African Union sponsored an assessment of Malawian stockpiles in 2018 under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative, identifying gaps in security measures and degraded ammunition that poses a high risk of accidental explosion. Based on that assessment, in 2019 and 2020, the United States destroyed excess ammunition and upgraded physical infrastructure to prevent diversions and depot explosions.

From 2018 to 2020, the United States invested $130,000 in CWD efforts in Malawi.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO completed the refurbishment of eight munition storage areas in Zomba. The Malawi Defense Force provided carpenters, electricians, painters, and metalworkers to assist with the upgrades at no cost. These cost savings allowed HALO to refurbish eight areas instead of two as originally planned.

Mali

Mali
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY15–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 1,000 1,000 5,950
DoD 110 0 0 462
Country Total 1,360 1,000 1,000 6,412
Dollars in thousands

The U.S. CWD program helps Malian security forces protect their weapons from criminals and terrorists while strengthening their capacity to manage the stockpiles effectively. VEO violence increased sharply in 2020 including attacks on Malian munition depots, underscoring the importance for CWD assistance to secure arms and ammunition.

From 2015 to 2020, the United States invested more than $6.4 million in Mali to improve PSSM of its munitions.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG continued to provide stockpile management training and destroy excess ammunition.

Niger

Niger
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY15–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,250 1,000 1,000 5,693
DoD 325 0 0 328
Country Total 1,575 1,000 1,000 6,021
Dollars in thousands

Niger is a key partner in regional and international counterterrorism efforts, including the G5 Sahel, Multi-National Joint Task Force-Niger, and UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in neighboring Mali.

From 2015 to 2020, the United States invested more than $6 million in CWD funding to build its PSSM capacity and destroy excess munitions. This support constructed or rehabilitated 30 storage facilities, trained personnel in PSSM, destroyed 15 metric tons of excess ordnance, and marked 6,000 SA/LW belonging to the Nigerien security forces.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and security issues, Humanity and Inclusion (HI) carried out limited projects to build storage facilities for security forces, destroy excess SA/LW, and provide training in 2020.

Somalia

Somalia
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY98–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,165 2,000 2,000 33,050
Country Total 2,165 2,000 2,000 33,050
Dollars in thousands

Al-Shabaab remains a significant threat to Somalia’s security, stability, and prosperity. The group controls territory throughout south and central Somalia. Many weapons in al-Shabaab’s arsenal have been taken from government stockpiles, underscoring the need for improved security and accountability of government-controlled weapons and munitions. The widespread trafficking of SA/LW and ammunition, including from Yemen, enables al-Shabaab and other non-state actors to carry out attacks and continue destabilizing the Horn of Africa. Additionally, al-Shabaab harvests explosives from unsecured and abandoned munitions storage facilities to create IEDs.

CWD efforts focus on capacity building within the Federal Government of Somalia security forces to properly manage their conventional weapons stockpiles, particularly in south-central Somalia, where the risk of illicit diversion to non-state actors is highest. Since 2016, the United States has also supported mobile weapons and ammunition disposal (WAD) teams to destroy over 7,100 unsecured munitions.

From 1998 to 2020, the United States invested more than $33 million in CWD programs in Somalia for PSSM, MANPADS stockpile reduction, HMA, and other programs to promote stability.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • HALO trained 20 personnel in stockpile management and deployed WAD teams to south-central Somalia that destroyed over 4,000 unsecured munitions. Activities delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as constructing or refurbishing armories for the military and national police, will resume in 2021.

South Sudan

South Sudan
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY11–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 2,000 2,000 16,135
DoD 0 0 0 826
Country Total 1,000 2,000 2,000 16,961
Dollars in thousands

The majority of landmine and ERW contamination in South Sudan is found in Central, Eastern, and Western Equatoria, Jonglei, Unity, Upper Nile, and Western Bahr El Ghazal States. ERW contamination inhibits delivery of humanitarian assistance, impedes development, and poses a physical threat to civilians. In addition, loose SA/LW continue to threaten communities throughout the country and compromise security throughout the region.

In late 2019, CWD programs expanded beyond explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) spot tasks and EORE to include full survey and clearance activities by MAG in Central and Eastern Equatoria States. The restart of systematic clearance efforts reflects a more permissive operating environment in MAG’s specific area of work, despite continued security and access issues elsewhere in the country.

From 2003 to 2010, the United States provided more than $27.7 million in CWD funding to Sudan prior to the creation of South Sudan, directing much of it to what is now South Sudan.

Following South Sudan’s independence, from 2011 to 2020, the United States invested more than $16 million directly for mine and UXO removal, survivor assistance, and enhanced SA/LW stockpile security.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • MAG deployed two teams for survey, clearance, and EOD call-outs in Central and Eastern Equatoria States, clearing 392 items of UXO. MAG also delivered EORE to host communities, internally displaced persons (IDPs), and returnees.
A clearance team in South Sudan walks to work. [Photo courtesy of MAG]
A clearance team in South Sudan walks to work. [Photo courtesy of MAG]

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY98–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,598 1,000 2,500 19,684
DoD 337 243 88 4,337
Country Total 3,935 1,243 2,588 24,021
Dollars in thousands

Zimbabwe still retains dense anti-personnel minefields along its borders with Mozambique and Zambia that kill and injure civilians and constrain economic development, particularly by killing livestock and preventing agricultural activities. At the end of 2019, the Zimbabwe Mine Action Center reported nearly 42.7 million square meters (10,549 acres) of land were contaminated.

From 1998 to 2020, the United States invested more than $24 million for CWD in Zimbabwe. This assistance released 9.1 million square meters (2,249 acres) of contaminated land to productive use and destroyed 42,861 landmines and other ERW.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued demining in Mashonaland Central Province. HALO released 601,209 square meters (148.5 acres) to productive use, conducted EOD call-outs, destroyed 6,262 landmines and other ERW, and provided EORE to 1,637 people.
  • NPA continued demining operations in Manicaland Province. It released 843,287 million square meters (208.4 acres) to productive use, destroyed 289 landmines, and provided EORE to 551 people.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, HALO continued to evaluate a soil-sifting excavator attachment and the dual-sensor HSTAMIDS developed by HD R&D. HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 10,264 mines from 770,339 square meters (190 acres) of land since 2014.

A deminer conducts manual clearance in Zimbabwe. [Photo courtesy of NPA]
A deminer conducts manual clearance in Zimbabwe. [Photo courtesy of NPA]

Africa--Regional Programs

Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda contain vast stretches of porous, unguarded borders in which SA/LW proliferation is common. In addition, poorly-secured munitions stockpiles in remote areas, such as near Kenya’s border with Somalia, are attractive targets for exploitation by criminals and terrorists.

To reduce illicit SA/LW proliferation, governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004 and subsequently created the Regional Center on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa, and Bordering States (RECSA) to implement the protocol. From 2006 to 2020, the United States provided more than $6.8 million in support of RECSA’s initiatives.

In 2020, CWD funding supported the following initiatives to strengthen stockpile security, increase accountability, and reduce the threat of proliferation (with prior year funds):

  • Kenya: RECSA trained 106 police officers in PSSM and provided five mobile armories to police units deployed near the border with Somalia, where there is high risk of attacks by violent extremists.
  • Rwanda: RECSA provided hydraulic shears to the police to facilitate the rapid, high-volume destruction of excess SA/LW.
  • Tanzania: RECSA supported the translation of a PSSM handbook into Swahili and distributed 200 copies to the Tanzania National Focal Point Coordinator to enable military storekeepers to learn PSSM best practices in their own language.
  • Uganda: RECSA helped the Uganda People’s Defense Forces to destroy 136 metric tons of excess ammunition in Mubende District.

Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S Marine Corp Forces Africa (MARFORAF) instructors, the Vermont National Guard, and MAG conducted the second year of the Senegal PSSM program for Senegal army students.

As part of a multi-regional program, USAID’s LWVF supported the International Committee for the Red Cross /MoveAbility Foundation (ICRC/MoveAbility) to strengthen the rehabilitation sector in Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Tanzania, Togo, and Zambia. They also supported the World Health Organization (WHO) to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in healthcare systems in Rwanda as part of a multi-regional program. In addition, they supported Results for Development (R4D) to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in healthcare systems in Ethiopia as part of a multi-regional program.


Regional Profile: East Asia and Pacific

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in East Asia and Pacific From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020: More Than $665 Million

Landmines and UXO have remained a persistent threat in several countries in the East Asia and Pacific region since World War II. During the Second World War, the Pacific Islands endured intense aerial and naval bombardment, and fierce land battles were fought between Japanese and Allied forces. During the Vietnam War, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam all experienced significant ground combat and massive U.S. aerial bombing campaigns. The impact from these wars did not end when the fighting stopped. To this day, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands suffer from the deadly dangers of explosive hazards generated by all combatants.

The year 2020 marked the 25th anniversary of U.S.-Vietnam diplomatic relations and 70th anniversary of U.S.-Cambodia diplomatic relations. HMA has been a lynchpin in establishing and building lasting ties between the United States and East Asia and Pacific countries, allowing us to move beyond the divisions and legacies of the past to focus on a brighter, shared future. Working closely with regional governments, the United States is not only clearing mines and UXO, but also bolstering local capacity to manage these challenges independent of U.S. assistance over the long term.

Since 1993, the U.S. CWD program has provided more than $665 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for local capacity building, explosive ordnance clearance, EORE, survivor assistance, and improving munitions stockpile security.

Map of East Asia and Pacific, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of the $71.3 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to East Asia and Pacific in FY2020 by Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $71.3 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to East Asia and Pacific In FY2020 By Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding. Percent of the $71.3 Million In U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to East Asia and Pacific In Fy2020 By Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding. Burma: 1.40% , Cambodia: 11.22% , Laos: 55.34% , Marshall Islands: 0.00% , Palau: 0.15% , Solomon Islands: 0.00% , Thailand: 0.95% , Vietnam: 25.33%.
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70.

Cambodia

Cambodia
Funding  FY18  FY19  FY20  FY93–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 9,320 10,525 7,000 118,342
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 1,601 2,473 1,012 29,149
USAID 0 0 0 15,084
Country Total 10,921 12,998 8,012 167,618
Dollars in thousands

Over three decades of armed conflict left Cambodia seriously affected by landmines and UXO, and kept poor communities impoverished by limiting their access to land for agriculture and development. The Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF), Vietnamese, and Thai militaries laid extensive minefields during the Indochina Wars, Vietnamese occupation, and factional fighting that ended in 1999.

The 2020 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor reports that clearance of Cambodia’s anti-personnel mines has been challenged by “un-demarcated border areas; available resources; inaccessible areas; competing development priorities and demands; and data discrepancies,” among other factors.

In addition to its landmine problem, U.S. air and artillery strikes during the Vietnam War left behind heavy concentrations of UXO in the eastern and northeastern areas of the country along Cambodia’s border with Vietnam. The Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority has worked with international partners to develop the National Mine Action Strategy 2018–2025 with the goal of ensuring that “Cambodia is mine free and the threat of explosive remnants of war is minimized, and human and socioeconomic development takes place safely.” Cambodia continues to have the right technical tools in place to meet this goal, but resource constraints make the outlook uncertain. In 2020, the United States marked the 70th anniversary of the U.S.-Cambodia diplomatic relationship. As part of these celebrations, the United States used several public events to highlight the importance of UXO survey and clearance to the relationship.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West), in partnership with the RCAF, continued to support an explosive harvesting system. This project takes the explosive material from excess munitions in Cambodia’s stockpiles and repurposes it for use in the demolition of landmines and UXO discovered by clearance organizations.
  • HALO continued to deploy clearance teams in some of the densest anti-personnel and anti-tank minefields in the K-5 mine belt in northwestern Cambodia.
  • Landmine Relief Fund continued to support Cambodia Self Help Demining, an indigenous demining organization, as it conducted clearance and EORE in small villages in northwestern Cambodia.
  • MAG continued to operate throughout Cambodia, deploying survey and clearance teams and equipment in western Cambodia and cluster munition clearance assets in eastern Cambodia. MAG also continued its partnership with HD R&D to perform technology testing through survey and clearance in Ratanakiri Province.
  • NPA continued its partnership with the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) on survey and clearance in eastern Cambodia. NPA also deployed clearance teams in Ratanakiri Province on Cluster Munitions Remnants Survey (CMRS) work.
  • Spirit of Soccer (SoS) delivered a final series of EORE instruction to primary school children by training youth soccer coaches, distributing EORE materials, and holding soccer tournaments to engage local populations. Eighty teachers successfully graduated from the SoS program, which will allow them to continue teaching without further assistance.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies were used to clear 37.2 million square meters (8,624 acres) of land and 43,790 mines and items of UXO to date. HALO, MAG, and Golden West continued evaluating the Armored Remote-Control Chase Vehicle, Badger tracked excavator, Bearcat vegetation clearance system, HSTAMIDS, Mini MineWolf tilling system, Nemesis and Rex tools, Piranha minefield area reduction and technical survey (TS) skid steer, Rambo demining team support vehicles, Scorpion UXO detection systems, Traxx remote area preparation platforms, the VMX10 UXO detector, and wet soil sifting excavator attachments. HALO began evaluating the Little Storm severe terrain area preparation and clearance system.
  • MARFORPAC in partnership with the RCAF conducted two HMA TTT engagements in capacity building. MARFORPAC, in partnership with the CMAC, conducted one Pre-Deployment Site Survey, one Phase 1 EOD/Blast Trauma, one Phase II EOD/Blast Trauma, and one Phase III EOD/Blast Trauma HMA TTT engagements.

 

The Little Storm extreme terrain demining system is tested by HALO in Cambodia. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]
The Little Storm extreme terrain demining system is tested by HALO in Cambodia. [Photo courtesy of HD R&D]

Laos

Laos
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY95–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 30,000 30,000 37,500 241,864
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 0 24 8 7,053
USAID 1,750 0 2,000 20,721
Country Total 31,750 30,024 39,508 270,388
Dollars in thousands

Contamination from the Indochina Wars of the 1960s and 1970s left Laos with the world’s highest level of unexploded submunitions. Cluster munitions account for the bulk of UXO contamination in Laos; however, other ERW and landmines also contributed to contamination during the wars. Most of the country’s 17 provinces are contaminated with UXO, much of which is of U.S. origin. Population growth in rural areas and other socioeconomic factors have increased pressure to release UXO-contaminated land to productive use, which leads to greater risk of death and injury. In September 2016, the United States committed to invest $90 million over a three-year period. This commitment was met in 2019 and the United States has continued to match record-levels of funding with $37.5 million allocated for FY2020. Additional funds will continue to support the first-ever comprehensive national UXO contamination survey focused on identifying cluster munition strike zones. Ongoing clearance, EORE, and survivor assistance efforts remain at sustained historic levels.

From 1995 to 2020, the United States invested more than $270 million in CWD programs in Laos that supported survey and clearance activities, EORE, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO continued to support large-scale survey in Savannakhet Province, deploying 20 teams.
  • Health Leadership International continued to provide portable ultrasound, trauma care, and medical training for healthcare providers on post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide-prevention. This medical education and training significantly improved diagnostic capabilities and improved the overall competency of district-level medical personnel in UXO-affected districts.
  • Tetra Tech partnered with UXO Laos on survey and clearance efforts, and provided managerial and technical support to the National Regulatory Authority, which oversees all UXO-related activity in Laos.
  • MAG continued to deploy 20 teams to support survey and clearance teams in Xieng Khouang Province to undertake TS activities and UXO clearance.
  • NPA continued its CMRS work in Champasak, Sekong, Salavan, and Attapeu Provinces through the deployment of 24 teams.
  • SoS delivered a final series of EORE messages for schoolchildren through soccer activities in the Xieng Khouang and Salavan Provinces.
  • World Education, Inc. continued to support integrating EORE within the primary-school curriculum and development of a comprehensive case management system for UXO survivors in Xieng Khouang Province.

With funding from USAID, the LWVF supported World Education, Inc. to improve and sustain the independent living and functional ability of persons with disabilities.

World Education, Inc. uses puppets in its EORE curriculum in primary schools in Laos. [Photo courtesy of World Education, Inc.]
World Education, Inc. uses puppets in its EORE curriculum in primary schools in Laos. [Photo courtesy of World Education, Inc.]

Marshall Islands

Marshall Islands
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY13–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 341 0 0 2,009
Country Total 341 0 0 2,009
Dollars in thousands

More than 70 years after the end of World War II, UXO from both U.S. and Japanese forces continue to pose a threat in the Marshall Islands. Despite massive clearance efforts in the 1950s, UXO contamination still affects some of the Marshall Islands’ atolls.

From 2013 to 2020, the United States invested more than $2 million in CWD in the Marshall Islands.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • Golden West continued to conduct survey operations in the Wotje Atoll and recovered, relocated, and destroyed ERW/munitions. Golden West also continued to identify legacy munitions and assist with creating a database of locations with known ERW/UXO contamination.

Palau

Palau
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY09–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 655 731 0 4,311
DOD 0 106 110 216
Country Total 655 837 110 4,527
Dollars in thousands

Many of Palau’s islands are contaminated with UXO remaining from World War II. From 2009 to 2020, the United States invested more than $4.5 million in CWD in Palau.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • NPA continued to work with the government of Palau to create a sustainable UXO clearance program and respond to current UXO challenges. This included creating a national UXO survey plan, conducting UXO surveys, and building the national capacity of the Palau government to manage UXO issues on its own.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, through a partnership with NPA, continued an evaluation of the Mobile Bomb Cutter. To date, the cutter has destroyed 1,874 items of World War II-era UXO.

UXO cleared from the waters near Palau is loaded for transport to a safe location for destruction. [Photo courtesy of NPA]
UXO cleared from the waters near Palau is loaded for transport to a safe location for destruction. [Photo courtesy of NPA]

Solomon Islands

Solomon Islands
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY11–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 715 550 0 4,628
DoD 234 92 0 2,190
Country Total 949 642 0 6,818
Dollars in thousands

The Solomon Islands face serious impacts from World War II-era UXO. From 2011 to 2020, the United States invested more than $6.8 million in CWD in the Solomon Islands. Support for the remediation of UXO has grown in recent years following joint capacity-building efforts funded by the United States and Australia.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • NPA continued a project designed to assist the Solomon Islands government in developing an information management database to record and understand the extent of contamination from UXO. This project includes activities to establish the national database and train technicians to conclude non-technical survey (NTS).

Vietnam

Vietnam
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY93–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 12,500 15,000 17,500 131,489
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 115 1,211 584 6,205
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 12,615 16,211 18,084 166,332
Dollars in thousands

Thirty years of conflict from World War II through the Vietnam War left much of Vietnam contaminated with UXO. The majority of this UXO is concentrated in provinces that adjoin the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Tri, Quang Binh, Ha Tinh, and Quang Nam Provinces. Parts of southern Vietnam and the country’s northern border with China also remain contaminated with UXO and some landmines. U.S. support for the Vietnam National Mine Action Center (VNMAC), the host government’s lead for issues related to UXO and landmines, continued in 2020 with the provision of a technical advisor, support for the information management unit within VNMAC headquarters, and a TS pilot project in Hue Province. Supporting VNMAC’s development will ensure Vietnam maintains the capacity to deal with residual UXO and landmine threats independent of U.S. assistance. The United States continued to fund large-scale survey and clearance work in Quang Tri in support of the provincial government’s goal to become UXO-impact free by 2025.

Based on the success of operations in Quang Tri and with the support of local government partners, the United States expanded support in 2020 to increase survey and clearance operations in Quang Binh Province. Working with indigenous and international NGOs, the United States increased support to help Quang Binh build its capacity to clear UXO. Additionally, the United States also initiated projects in recognition of the 25th anniversary of U.S.-Vietnam diplomatic relations. UXO survey and clearance continues to be an important foundation for U.S. engagement with the people of Vietnam.

From 1993 to 2020, the United States invested more than $166 million for CWD programs in Vietnam that cleared mines and UXO, provided EORE and survivor assistance, and supported national capacity development. While UXO remains a threat, no more landmines have been found in those areas where the United States has supported clearance operations since at least 2012.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Catholic Relief Services (CRS) completed its four-year project focused on EORE in primary and secondary schools. As a result of that project, the provincial government decided to include Mine Risk Education Integration Guidelines in the compulsory curriculum for all primary and secondary schools. From 2016–2020, through this project, CRS trained over 555,000 primary and secondary school children, 19,000 teachers, 667 parents, 39 lecturers and, 463 undergraduates on EORE, contributing to declining UXO/mine casualties in targeted areas. CRS initiated a new and separate EORE program in 2020, with an emphasis on expanding capacity in secondary schools and provided risk education messages to more than 157,000 primary and secondary school children.
  • The International Center-Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (IC-VVAF) concluded its project to help develop the capacity of VNMAC and the executive office of the National Mine Action Program to plan, coordinate, and manage the program in Vietnam. The IC-VVAF program helped develop VNMAC leadership of the mine action sector.
  • NPA continued to provide the survey component for a comprehensive survey and clearance project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards through the deployment of 39 teams. NPA, working alongside MAG and PeaceTrees Vietnam, will expand these operations into Quang Binh Province.
  • NPA continued to support capacity development of VNMAC through provision of a technical advisor and establishment of an information management unit. Additionally, NPA concluded its support for the development of VNMAC’s technical skills by adopting evidenced-based survey procedures through a field pilot in Hue Province. Under this support, NPA trained 30 individuals and completed a NTS in six communes.
  • MAG also continued to provide survey and clearance for a project aimed at making Quang Tri safe from known UXO hazards. Additionally, funding from the United States enabled MAG to lead a consortium with NPA and PeaceTrees Vietnam to conduct survey and clearance operations in Quang Binh Province.
  • PeaceTrees Vietnam continued to field EOD response teams and fund clearance operations along the heavily-contaminated Quang Tri provincial border with Laos. Working with MAG and NPA, PeaceTrees Vietnam also provided an EOD clearance component to a consortium for UXO survey and clearance in Quang Binh Province.
  • In celebration of the 25th anniversary of U.S.-Vietnam relations, the Department of State funded two special projects. The first, with PeaceTrees Vietnam in Quang Tri Province, focused on UXO clearance to support provincial social welfare development projects. The second, with NPA in Hue Province, provided a dedicated EOD team to clear the footpaths, historical sites, and monument areas of UXO on Dong Ap Bia or “Hamburger Hill.”

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 5,979 mines and UXO from 1,247,425 square meters (308 acres) of land to date. Five technologies, including a Scorpion UXO detection system and a Bearcat vegetation clearance system, were evaluated in partnership with NPA and MAG.
  • Late in 2019, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM), in partnership with VNMAC and Engineering Command of the Vietnamese Army conducted one Phase II+ EOD/Blast Trauma TTT engagement.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID/LWVF supported ICRC/MoveAbility to strengthen Vietnam’s rehabilitation sector; and supported the WHO to integrate rehabilitation into existing healthcare systems.

A deminer in Vietnam prepares to detonate UXO remotely. [Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees Vietnam]
A deminer in Vietnam prepares to detonate UXO remotely. [Photo courtesy of PeaceTrees Vietnam]

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Programs

With funding from the Department of State, the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) began a new phase of its regional support for long-term risk management through a project titled Completion and Beyond: Risk Management for Mine Action. The goal of this three-year project is to build off previous risk management work to support national authorities in the Southeast Asia and Pacific region as they address residual explosive contamination, reinforcing national policies and implementing frameworks to enable nationally owned and sustainable residual risk management practices.


East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, Thailand received the following support:

  • HD R&D, in partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), continued to evaluate the Mini MineWolf, an earth-tilling system capable of clearing anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines developed by HD R&D, as well as an Armored Remote Control Chase Vehicle.
  • MARFORPAC, in cooperation with the TMAC and Royal Thai Armed Forces Engineering Command, executed HMA TTT engagements that consisted of a Program Development Visit, Phase I EOD/Blast Trauma, Phase II EOD/Blast Trauma, and Phase III EOD/Blast Trauma; and conducted a program focused on team leader/company commander level instruction covering TS and NTS, recording and reporting procedures per International Mine Action Standards (IMAS).

Burma: With funding from USAID, the LWVF supported the United Nations Office for Project Services to ensure civilian victims of conflict and persons with disabilities have access to health, rehabilitation, and assistive technology services, and provide support to their families and communities. They also supported Development Alternatives, Inc., to assist communities in conflict-affected areas improve access to essential services, recover from strife, improve resilience, and participate in the national reconciliation processes. As part of a multi-regional program, they also supported the WHO to integrate rehabilitation into existing healthcare systems.


Regional Profile: Europe

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in Europe From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020: More Than $485 Million

The United States’ enduring CWD priorities for Europe are to prevent illicit transfers of SA/LW and unplanned explosions at munitions sites (UEMS) through PSSM programs, and to clear landmines and UXO left from the Yugoslav Wars and Russia’s ongoing aggression in eastern Ukraine. The United States continues to support regional security and build national capacity through a military stockpile reduction initiative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, clear cluster munitions from the Kosovo War, reduce excess munitions stockpiles in Serbia, clear UXO hotspots in Albania, and perform PSSM and battle area clearance (BAC) in Ukraine. These programs also help return cleared land to productive use.

Since 1993, the United States has supported extensive efforts to rid Eastern Europe of the vestiges of past conflicts, providing more than $485 million in CWD support. Funding and clearance efforts by the United States and other donors have freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and UXO. Significant progress has also been made in reducing this region’s stockpiles of aging and excess munitions.

Map of Europe, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of the $29.8 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Europe in FY2020 by Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $29.8 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to Europe In FY2020 By Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding. Albania: 9.40% , Bosnia & Herzegovina: 10.11% , Croatia: 1.96% , Georgia: 7.76% , Kosovo: 17.57% , Moldova: 5.3% , North Macedonia: 1.16% , Serbia: 3.35% , Ukraine. 43.39%
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70.

Albania

Albania
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY00–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 44,247
DoD 80 2,059 1,807 4,443
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 1,080 3,059 2,807 50,079
Dollars in thousands

Albania declared itself mine free in 2009 but continues to address UXO contamination from UEMS. UXO at some of the remaining former military impact ranges and depot explosion sites, known in Albania as UXO hotspots, also pose a threat.

From 2000 to 2020, the United States provided more than $50 million to Albania for CWD efforts that included hotspot clearance, stockpile security enhancements, and munitions disposal projects.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF and NPA completed U.S.-funded hotspot clearance in Albania prior to handing over this program to the Albanian Armed Forces (AAF) to address remaining contamination resulting from prior depot explosions. Through ITF and NPA, the United States donated one vehicle, one large loop detector, 10 radios, 17 Ebinger detectors, 10 Schondstedt detectors, 28 personal protective equipment (PPE) vests, 45 PPE visors, and medical supplies. AAF EOD teams also received training to address remaining contamination at the Jube Sukth site and began clearance operations independent of U.S. assistance.
  • United Nations Development Programme’s South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNDP/SEESAC) initiated additional security upgrades for the Ministry of Interior (MOI) facility in Mullet to international standards (continuing the work done in FY2019), allowing safer and more secure weapons storage by the Albanian State Police. UNDP/SEESAC also conducted PSSM training for key personnel.
  • UNDP/SEESAC completed physical security and safety upgrades at the Ministry of Defense’s (MOD) Mirake facility and installed 70 secure small arms lockers in the Zall-Herr facility.
  • ITF and UNDP/SEESAC, with U.S. funding, provided final U.S. support to the Albanian Mine and Munitions Coordination Office (AMMCO). In addition to operational support, the U.S. donated two vehicles for AMMCO to conduct its work.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the New Jersey National Guard and the U.S. Air Force in Europe (USAFE) completed an IMAS EOD Level 2 and 3 TTT curriculum under the State Partnership Program (SPP). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, planned resident PSSM courses were postponed but mentorship, including skill development, progress assessment, and advice on capacity development and operations management, continued through a partnership with Golden West. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed the renovation of an EOD training range. Through Golden West, U.S. European Command (EUCOM) conducted infrastructure renovations at two munitions storage locations (Miraka and the Engineer Battalion Tirana) and conducted mentorship in Class V accounting systems, introduction to risk management, and basic introduction to ammunition and PSSM.

Work progressed at Sinanaj, Albania during completion of UXO hotspot clearance. [Photo courtesy of NPA and ITF]
Work progressed at Sinanaj, Albania during completion of UXO hotspot clearance. [Photo courtesy of NPA and ITF]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY96–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,445 5,629 3,000 94,455
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 126 8 22 5,143
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 2,571 5,637 3,022 124,308
Dollars in thousands

Over 20 years after the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts, Bosnia and Herzegovina remains heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO. Most remaining minefields exist around formerly contested areas along the separation line between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. As of late 2020, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center (BHMAC) estimated that 965 million square meters (238,456 acres) of its territory remained either SHAs or CHAs.

From 1996 to 2020, the United States provided more than $124 million in CWD assistance to Bosnia and Herzegovina, including landmine clearance, EORE, survivor assistance, and munitions stockpile destruction.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • In coordination with the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and U.S. Embassy Sarajevo, Tetra Tech destroyed 359 U.S. tons (220,667 items) of excess, obsolete arms and ammunition, respectively.
  • ITF returned 2,357,721 square meters (582.6 acres) of land to productive use through manual demining or TS throughout the country by utilizing local, private operators working in close coordination with U.S. Embassy Sarajevo and BHMAC.
  • ITF, in partnership with the Mine Detection Dog Center of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MDDC) and the Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) continued the Sarajevo Free of Mines project in 2020. This project aims to make Sarajevo and four surrounding municipalities mine-impact free. In 2020, this project enabled the safe return of 2,507,711 million square meters (619.7 acres) of land back to the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina utilizing land release methodology.
  • The United States partnered with the government of Japan and ITF to enable the safe return of 59,101 square meters (14.6 acres) of land through manual clearance and TS.
  • MAG continued land release projects, returning 668,922 square meters (165.3 acres) to local communities.
  • MLI also continued its Children Against Mines Program (CHAMPS). Through CHAMPS, MLI provided EORE to over 51,586 individuals, provided 23 landmine survivors with prosthetics and rehabilitative care, and connected schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina with schools in the United States as a part of the broader CHAMPS EORE project. Participating schools in the United States included: The Laboratory Charter School (Philadelphia, PA); North Mianus School (Greenwich, CT); Cos Cob Elementary School (Cos Cob, CT); John Moffet School (Philadelphia, PA); and the Glenelg Country School (Ellicott City, MD).

With funding from the Department of Defense HD R&D program, MAG continued to evaluate the Rambo demining team support vehicle and the Target Reacquisition and Positioning System to facilitate project planning, supervision, and mapping. The Rambo support vehicles helped MAG clear 1,126 mines from 778,124 square meters (over 192 acres) to date from minefields in areas of rough terrain inaccessible to larger commercial vehicles.

Excess, obsolete arms and ammunition are destroyed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech]
Excess, obsolete arms and ammunition are destroyed in Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Photo courtesy of Tetra Tech]

Croatia

Croatia
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY99–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 0 40,728
DoD 55 80 585 1,461
Country Total 1,055 1,080 585 42,189
Dollars in thousands

Croatia is still affected by legacy landmines and UXO contamination from the Yugoslav Wars of 1991-2001. Croatia also maintains a robust commercial demining sector, which provides services in Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The Croatian government funds most demining projects, in addition to research and development for demining-related technologies. Croatia also possesses a sizeable stockpile of conventional arms and ammunition inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds its national defense requirements. Much of this material is beyond its useful life, is at risk for accidental detonation, and requires urgent destruction or demilitarization.

From 1999 to 2020, the United States provided more than $42 million for CWD in Croatia.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF worked with Croatia’s MOD to demilitarize or destroy 980.4 U.S. tons (47,984 items) of its excess and aging munitions.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Naval Forces Europe (NAVEUR) EOD Mobile Units provided an IMAS EOD Level 1 and 2 TTT curriculum to Croatian MOD EOD forces in Split, Croatia. NAVEUR also conducted an assessment to determine requirements for an upgrade to the National Humanitarian Demining Training Center that will provide a gender inclusive training center for HMA EOD, SCUBA Diver, and Underwater UXO/ERW clearance training and an EOD training range.

Artillery shells are warped in the process of demilitarizing excess and aging munitions in Croatia. [Photo courtesy of ITF]
Artillery shells are warped in the process of demilitarizing excess and aging munitions in Croatia. [Photo courtesy of ITF]

Georgia

Georgia
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY99–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 29,105
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 55 1,165 1,811 4,596
USAID 1,000 1,000 502 4,500
Country Total 1,055 2,165 2.313 40,845
Dollars in thousands

In addition to inheriting large stockpiles of deteriorating legacy Soviet munitions that are now over 30 years old, Georgia is contaminated with landmines and UXO from the conflicts in its South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions, and the 2008 conflict with Russia. This contamination is concentrated along the boundary lines between these regions and around former Soviet military bases. In November 2011, all 336 known minefields in the Abkhazia region were declared by HALO to be mine free thanks in large part to United States’ assistance.

From 1998 to 2020, the United States provided more than $40 million in CWD programs in Georgia aimed at training, clearance, safe disposal of mines and UXO, and destruction of excess and aging conventional military weapons and ammunition.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • HALO completed U.S.-funded operations cleaning up the Primorsky UEMS, clearing 147,297 square meters (36.4 acres) of land and destroying 24,205 pieces of UXO.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • EOD units from the Georgia National Guard completed an IMAS EOD Level 2 EOD TTT curriculum for the Georgian MOD forces under the State Partnership Program. The Georgia National Guard conducted the first phase of an Explosive Limit Licensing and Site Planning Course with the local Georgian personnel in Tbilisi, Georgia.
  • Utilizing the EUCOM Joint Munitions Command Liaison, EUCOM completed a PSSM Depot Managers course based on the best practices outlined in the United Nations International Ammunition Technical Guidelines (IATG) with the Georgian MOD general staff, key operational and tactical commanders, and key personnel from their defense industrial base.
  • Through its NGO implementing partner, Golden West, EUCOM completed infrastructure upgrades at the Vartsikhe munitions central storage location consisting of security fencing, supplies, equipment, and on-the-job training to safely transport, store, and inspect munitions based on IATG best practices.
  • Subject-matter expert mentorship provided advice and guidance in the development of a Class V (Ammunition) automated accounting system, and worked closely with MOD leadership, legal advisors within MOD, and MOI on initial development for National Regulations on Ammunition and Explosive Safety towards International Guidelines and best practices.

With funding from USAID, the LWVF supported the Emory University School of Medicine to expand access to quality, affordable physical rehabilitation services and assistive technologies. As part of multi-regional programs, USAID funded R4D to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.


Kosovo

Kosovo
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY96–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,000 0 5,000 19,725
DoD 86 276 249 5,471
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 5,086 276 5,249 42,668
Dollars in thousands

UXO contamination in Kosovo resulted primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later between the FRY and NATO forces in 1999.

From 1996 to 2020, the United States provided more than $42 million in CWD assistance to Kosovo for TS, NTS, and BAC.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO returned over 265,966 square meters (65.7 acres) of land to local populations by conducting survey and BAC.
  • NPA returned 1,334,851 million square meters (329.8 acres) of land to local communities by performing survey and BAC activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, through a partnership with HALO, cleared 455,881 square meters (113 acres) of land and removed 44 mines since 2016 using HSTAMIDS dual-head mine detectors and a soil-sifting device loaned by HD R&D.
  • EUCOM planned resident EOD courses, which were postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
A deminer uses HSTAMIDS while conducting BAC in Kosovo. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
A deminer uses HSTAMIDS while conducting BAC in Kosovo. [Photo courtesy of HALO]

Montenegro

Montenegro
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY07–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,400 0 10,599
DoD 141 39 0 1,927
Country Total 141 1,439 0 12,526
Dollars in thousands

Montenegro’s UXO contamination stems from the conflicts during the breakup of the former FRY in the 1990s, and from U.S. and NATO air strikes between March and June 1999.

From 2007 to 2020, the United States invested more than $12 million in CWD efforts in Montenegro to support munitions disposal and stockpile security improvements in addition to mine and UXO clearance programs.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF continued a PSSM project to reduce national stockpiles of excess and obsolete small arms and ammunition, improve munitions storage facilities, and provide EOD training for MOI personnel. In 2020, 123.6 U.S. tons of munitions were demilitarized.

Serbia

Serbia
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY07–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 23,230
DoD 0 0 0 310
Country Total 1,000 1,000 1,000 23,540
Dollars in thousands

Serbia’s landmine and UXO contamination is the result of the Yugoslav Wars of 1991-2001 and NATO air strikes targeting military sites during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. In addition to UXO, landmine contamination persists along Serbia’s shared border with Kosovo. As of December 2020, 1.05 million square meters (259 acres) of land remain as CHAs or SHAs with landmines in the municipality of Bujanovac. Cluster munition contamination remains confirmed or suspected in five municipalities for a total area of 2.09 million square meters (519 acres). Serbia also faces additional risks of illicit proliferation and UEMS of the large stockpiles of ammunition it inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army.

From 2007 to 2020, the United States invested more than $23 million in CWD efforts in Serbia supporting SA/LW and ammunition destruction programs and reducing mine and UXO contamination.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • ITF utilized local, private operators to clear and release over 704,845 square meters (174.1 acres) of land in Bujanovac, Niš, Raška, Sjenica, and Tutin that was formerly contaminated with cluster munitions and landmines.
  • NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) utilized the Tehnički Remontni Zavod Kragujevac munitions demilitarization facility to dispose of 431.7 U.S. tons of surplus munitions from Serbian MOD conventional stockpiles.
  • UNDP/SEESAC continued safety and security enhancements of the MOI’s Duvanište storage site.

With funding from the Department of Defense, EUCOM planned resident EOD courses, but they were postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

BAC is conducted in a residential area of Niš, Serbia. [Photo courtesy of ITF]
BAC is conducted in a residential area of Niš, Serbia. [Photo courtesy of ITF]

Ukraine

Ukraine
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY07–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 6,000 8,500 8,500 57,067
DoD 656 726 4,464 7,090
USAID 958 0 0 3,957
Country Total 7,614 9,226 12,964 68,114
Dollars in thousands

Ukraine continues to address the legacy of the massive quantities of conventional arms and ammunition it inherited after the dissolution of the Soviet Union thirty years ago. In 2005, NSPA estimated Ukraine held as many as seven million SA/LW and stored as much as two million metric tons of ammunition in more than 80 depots. Most of these munitions are excess, aging, potentially unstable, and no longer suitable for use. They represent a significant security and proliferation threat domestically, regionally, and globally. In September 2019, a fire set off six UEMS in the Vinnytsya region southwest of Kyiv. Fortunately, no casualties occurred. In October 2018, major explosions at the Ichnya ammunition depot in Chernihiv Oblast resulted in mass evacuations and power outages.

The now seven-year long ongoing conflict with Russia-led forces in eastern Ukraine has resulted in a line of contact (LOC) between the Ukrainian government and the anti-government forces that Russia arms, trains, leads, and fights alongside. The LOC running through the Donetsk and Luhansk regions suffers from extensive landmine and UXO contamination. These explosive hazards pose a major threat to thousands of Ukrainians living in the conflict area. In 2020, there were 16 civilian and 12 military ERW-related deaths, and 68 civilian and 39 military ERW-related injuries in eastern Ukraine.

From 2004 to 2020, the United States provided more than $68 million for SA/LW and ammunition destruction, as well as BAC in Ukraine.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO cleared and returned 824,052 square meters (203.6 acres) of land to local communities. HALO also conducted 33 EORE sessions in eastern Ukraine.
  • Danish Demining Group (DDG) continued to enhance the capacity of State Emergency Services (SES) personnel to IMAS-compliant standard operating procedures (SOPs). SOPs were completed, validated, and disseminated to all SES regional directorates and relevant units. In mid-2020, DDG began planning and procurement for U.S.-funded clearance operations which will return land back to local populations in government-controlled areas.
  • Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) established clearance operations and quality management capacity building for the MOD with U.S. funding in mid-2020. FSD teams released 63,935 square meters (15.8 acres) of land back to local populations in government-controlled areas. FSD began training Ukrainian MOD HMA personnel in quality management. FSD also provided EORE to affected populations along the LOC, conducting 1,307 EORE sessions.
  • GICHD began a U.S.-funded project to enhance Ukrainian national capacity to establish its National Mine Action Authority (NMAA). This includes deploying an information management (IM) technical advisor to build Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) capacity and conduct training on NTS methods, operational efficiency, and IMAS.
  • The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Project Coordinator Unit continued advising the government of Ukraine on the NMAA and coordinating with relevant mine action stakeholders. In 2020, the Ukrainian parliament passed legislation to establish its NMAA.
  • The United States also contributed to a multi-year, multi-donor OSCE project, which is enhancing the SA/LW and EOD capabilities of the Ukrainian National Police.
  • The United States funded the destruction and demilitarization of 1,855 U.S. tons of munitions via the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund (PfPTF), with NSPA as its implementing partner. Additionally, through the PfPTF, the United States and Germany funded an e-management system for ammunition and SA/LW, which will enhance and modernize the management of the MOD’s conventional weapons and ammunition stockpiles. The United States also funded the modernization of testing laboratories to enhance the lifecycle maintenance for ammunition, as well as procuring machines to make wooden boxes to organize, classify, and store their conventional munitions. This increases storage facility capacity to implement NATO-standard hazard classification, organization, and munitions storage. The United States is the lead nation for the PfPTF, which demilitarizes and destroys excess munitions to lower the risk of UEMS and reduce the security threat they pose.
  • To help Ukraine more safely and securely store their munitions stockpiles to international standards, HALO continued infrastructure upgrades at an MOD munitions storage facility.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, through a partnership with HALO, continued to evaluate the Traxx remote vegetation clearance system, clearing 321,241 square meters (79 acres) of land to date.
  • EUCOM Joint Munitions Office and the New Jersey National Guard conducted an IATG TTT course at the MOD cadet training facility in Odesa, Ukraine. While remaining planned resident PSSM and EOD training was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. Special Operations Command Europe munitions experts conducted online IATG training and mentorship in all subjects of PSSM with the recently-established MOD Ammunition Safety Office.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID/LWVF supported United Cerebral Palsy/Wheels for Humanity (UCPW) to strengthen rehabilitation service delivery systems; World Education, Inc. to improve and sustain the independent living and functional ability of persons with disabilities; Johns Hopkins University-Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHU) to develop health systems that are responsive to growing needs for rehabilitation across the lifespan; and the WHO to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.


Europe--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided support for CWD in other European countries

  • Moldova. Under the SPP, EOD personnel from the North Carolina National Guard presented an IMAS EOD Level 1 TTT course to Moldovan MOD EOD forces in Chisinau, Moldova. Through Golden West, EUCOM implemented infrastructure upgrades at two munitions storage locations (Floresti and Cahul). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resident PSSM courses were postponed; but mentorship, including skill development, progress assessment, and advice on capacity development and operations management, continued through the utilization of NGO implementing partners.
  • North Macedonia. Under the SPP, EOD personnel from the Vermont National Guard conducted a Requirements Determination Site Survey in preparation for a planned IMAS EOD TTT event. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, resident EOD courses were postponed.

Regional Profile: Middle East and North Africa

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in the Middle East and North Africa From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020:  More Than $904 Million

United States CWD programs are designed to enhance stability and improve human security in the Middle East and North Africa. In Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, and Syria, ISIS-emplaced IEDs and landmines still threaten returning populations, impede stabilization, and block economic development. In Libya, illicit trafficking of SA/LW fuels both domestic and regional violence, imperiling U.S. national security interests and continuing to fuel displacement. In Yemen, significant quantities of UXO and the massive use of landmines and IEDs continues to kill civilians and block the delivery of urgent humanitarian assistance.

Of the 10 countries worldwide with the highest number of casualties from landmines and ERW in 2019, three—Iraq, Syria, and Yemen—are in the Middle East, according to the 2020 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor. This was due in large part to the ongoing conflicts in these countries.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $904 million in CWD to support regional stability in the Middle East and North Africa. U.S.-funded survey, marking, and clearance operations enable the safe return of displaced families to their communities, economic development, and the restoration of basic services as well as development of strong and capable host country CWD capacities. EORE reduces deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provide rehabilitation and reintegration support. All these programs help lay the groundwork for stability and prosperity across the region.

Map of Middle East and North Africa, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of the $51.5 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Middle East and North Africa in FY2020 by Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $51.5 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Middle East and North Africa in FY2020 By Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70. Iraq: 79.30% , Jordan: 0.78% , Lebanon: 9.80% , Libya: 1.94% , Morocco: 0.29% , Syria: 0.01% , West Bank: 0.11%, Yemen: 7.77%
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70.

Iraq

Iraq
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY03–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 55,000 40,190 40,650 487,301
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 85 71 159 105,552
Country Total 55,085 40,261 40,809 594,295
Dollars in thousands

ISIS seeded large swaths of Iraq with an unprecedented level of mass-produced, technologically sophisticated IEDs and other explosive hazards with the deliberate intent of harming civilians, discouraging the return of IDPs, and hindering stabilization efforts. Significant progress clearing ISIS IEDs has been made since 2015, but much work remains. The United States remains dedicated to supporting the survey and clearance of these explosive hazards from areas that remain heavily impacted as well as delivering EORE to those communities, including the ancestral homelands of Iraq’s ethnic and religious minority communities in Ninewa Province. Clearance of liberated areas remains a U.S. priority, as we continue long-standing support for the survey and clearance of legacy contamination in northern and southern Iraq, along with capacity building assistance for Iraq’s Directorate of Mine Action (DMA) and the Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Authority.

From 2003 to 2020, the United States invested more than $594 million to support the operations of more than 100 survey, clearance, and EORE teams across Iraq, as well as munitions destruction, and remains the largest international supporter of HMA activities there.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DDG cleared more than 2,250 explosive hazards in southern Iraq, including U.S.-origin ERW. They assisted in developing the program capacity of the Regional Mine Action Center-South (RMAC-S) in coordination with DMA and delivered EORE to more than 5,000 men, women, and children in southern Iraq.
  • FSD cleared approximately 1,500 IEDs and ERW in towns liberated from ISIS between Mosul and Erbil, including areas historically inhabited by Christian, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka’i, and Turkmen minority communities, thereby increasing civilian security, facilitating the return of IDPs, and enabling the safe resumption of farming and animal husbandry. FSD also established a Facebook EORE campaign that reached close to 231,000 individuals from May-December 2020.
  • HALO began conducting survey and clearance operations in support of stabilization efforts in the Salah Al-Din Governorate, clearing approximately 400 explosive hazards and over 59,000 square meters (14.6 acres) of land.
  • iMMAP continued to provide operational information management assistance and strategic planning capacity building support to Iraqi NMAAs. They also helped coordinate demining efforts between Iraqi authorities and organizations conducting demining operations in support of broader stabilization efforts, and served as third-party monitors for U.S.-funded demining projects.
  • MAG cleared more than 4,200 explosive hazards in Iraqi Kurdistan and areas liberated from ISIS in the Ninewa Plains and Sinjar, increasing security and allowing IDPs, including those from predominantly Christian, Shabak, and Yezidi villages, to safely return home and begin rebuilding their lives. MAG also provided EORE to over 6,000 individuals to increase the safety of civilians living in areas impacted by ISIS and legacy contamination.
  • NPA cleared over 4,400 explosive hazards in southern Iraq and approximately 3,200 explosive hazards in Anbar Province. NPA continued to provide technical advisors to strengthen the ability of Iraq’s RMAC-S in its role as the regulatory body for coordinating and monitoring mine action activities in southern Iraq.
  • SoS held soccer workshops across Iraq and adapted online programming that provided more than 20,000 children education and outreach about ERW risks, trauma resilience training for those affected by ISIS-related violence, and a meaningful alternative to joining extremist groups and participating in at-risk behavior.
  • In coordination with Iraqi officials at the local, governorate, and national level, UN agencies, and other stakeholders, Tetra Tech surveyed, marked, and cleared 485 explosive hazards from Ninewa and 336 explosive hazards across Anbar, while delivering a combined total of 862 EORE sessions.

With funding from the Department of Defense HD R&D program, MAG cleared 2,234 mines and UXO from over 284,000 cubic meters (10 million cubic feet) of soil to date, using a Rebel contaminated soil processing plant, several excavator sifting attachments, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and multiple commercial front-loader attachments. Due to the terrain of clearance locations, the equipment was maintained but not used by MAG in 2020.

ERW and IED clearance is conducted between Mosul and Erbil, Iraq. [Photo courtesy of FSD]
ERW and IED clearance is conducted between Mosul and Erbil, Iraq. [Photo courtesy of FSD]

Jordan

Jordan
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY96–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 400 400 23,636
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 400 400 400 29,322
Dollars in thousands

Although Jordan declared itself mine free in 2012 and made significant progress in reducing the threat of landmines and ERW from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war, residual contamination remains along its northern border and in the Jordan River Valley.

From 1996 to 2020, the United States invested more than $29 million in CWD programs in Jordan, to include clearance of mines and ERW, delivery of EORE, rehabilitation and reintegration support for survivors of landmine and UXO accidents, and destruction of aging and obsolete munitions.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner:

  • Polus continued to provide rehabilitative care, vocational training, and prosthetics support to Jordanians and Syrian refugees who are survivors of mine and UXO accidents due to ISIS-placed IEDs and other ERW.

Lebanon

Lebanon
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY98–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,000 5,000 5,000 60,999
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 22 30 44 9,368
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 5,022 5,030 5,044 82,217
Dollars in thousands

PSSM programs in Lebanon provided crucial support in 2020 as U.S.-funded upgrades to the Lebanese Armed Forces’ (LAF) First Artillery Regiment ammunition depot—located at the Port of Beirut—helped prevent further destruction after the August 4 explosion at the port. Lebanon remains contaminated with mines and ERW from the 1975–1990 civil war, the laying of minefields along the Blue Line between 1984–2000, the Israel-Hizballah conflict of 2006, and in northeastern Lebanon, where ISIS and other extremist groups more recently seeded fertile land with landmines and IEDs. As of late 2020, over 35 million square meters (8,649 acres) of land remained contaminated with explosive hazards according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center (LMAC).

From 1998 to 2020, the United States invested more than $82 million to support landmine and ERW survey and clearance, mine detection dog procurement and training, EORE, capacity building for the LMAC, and medical assistance and vocational training for landmine survivors, making the U.S. the largest international donor in Lebanon for these activities. U.S. assistance has also strengthened the LAF’s PSSM capacity.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • MAG continued its PSSM capacity building engagement with the LAF, providing structural upgrades to ammunition depots, emergency repairs to the First Artillery Regiment depot in the wake of the Port of Beirut explosion, and assessing other LAF sites for possible future assistance. MAG continued to conduct ERW survey and clearance in South Lebanon, Nabatieh, and Arsal, clearing nearly 3,000 landmines, IEDs, and pieces of UXO. Operations in Nabatieh and South Lebanon facilitated access to fertile land that local communities can now use for raising livestock and agricultural development. In Arsal, MAG’s survey and clearance operations allowed local communities to safely plant and harvest cherry trees.
  • DCA cleared over 360 explosive hazards from the Israeli–Lebanese conflict and the 1975–1990 civil war in Mount Lebanon governorate. This crucial program will facilitate the economic development of mine-impacted communities in the Aley and Baabda districts.
  • HI continued to conduct ERW survey and clearance in northern Lebanon, clearing 37 landmines and other explosive hazards from the 1975–1990 civil war in and around Lebanon’s famed cedar forests. This life-saving work will allow local communities to use this land as well as enable visitors from Lebanon and beyond to visit surrounding recreational areas safely.

With funding from the Department of Defense HD R&D program, MAG continued to evaluate the Terrapin small remote excavator and several soil excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments mounted on armored excavators. Since 2011, HD R&D technologies have been used to clear 7,844 mines and UXO from 241,274 square meters (60 acres) of land.

A manual clearance team pauses work in Batroun District, Lebanon. [Photo courtesy of HI]
A manual clearance team pauses work in Batroun District, Lebanon. [Photo courtesy of HI]

Libya

Libya
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY11–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 2,000 1,000 30,000
DOS Other 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 3,000 2,000 1,000 49,575
Dollars in thousands

The full extent of landmine and ERW contamination in Libya remains unknown due to the 2011 revolution and more recent fighting. In addition to ERW contamination, illicit SA/LW proliferation fuels conflict in Libya and its neighbors. The U.S. government is working with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to mitigate the CWD threat that prevents development, prohibits delivery of humanitarian assistance, and threatens the security of returning IDPs. Additionally, renewed fighting in western Libya, which began in April 2019, likely has resulted in significant new contamination in and around Tripoli, although a comprehensive survey has not been conducted. Libya is also contaminated with IEDs in areas previously occupied by ISIS, particularly Sirte.

From 2011 to 2020, the United States invested more than $49 million working with partners and allies to coordinate a CWD response with a focus on MANPADS destruction and ERW clearance.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • DCA conducted BAC, EOD spot tasks, and EORE in Benghazi following its liberation from the Islamic State. In 2020, DCA cleared 362 UXO items, destroyed over 16 metric tons of unsecure munitions, and responded to 319 EOD spot tasks.
  • Free Fields Foundation, a local Libyan organization, conducted emergency EOD call-outs to clear UXO in response to requests received in recently liberated suburbs of southern Tripoli. These efforts drastically reduced the number of casualties among returning IDPs compared to the months before the call-outs began.
  • HALO planned to deploy mechanical assets and multi-task teams to Tripoli to survey and clear ERW and rubble. Clearance enables recovery efforts as HALO removes explosive hazards at priority sites to facilitate stabilization activities. The project began in the last quarter of 2020, so activities will yield results in 2021.
  • ITF continued to sustain the Libya Mine Action Center (LibMAC), supporting staff and facilities maintenance and the development of SOPs and national standards while building ERW destruction capacity. With ITF support, NGO demining and EORE teams accredited by LibMAC issued over 65 task orders and conducted more than 45 quality assurance visits.
An EOD searcher views destruction in downtown Benghazi, Libya. [Photo courtesy of DCA]
An EOD searcher views destruction in downtown Benghazi, Libya. [Photo courtesy of DCA]

Yemen

Yemen
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY97–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 4,000 4,000 43,555
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 2,000 4,000 4,000 48,401
Dollars in thousands

Landmines, UXO, and IEDs stemming from the conflict between the Republic of Yemen government and Iranian-backed Houthis are killing and maiming Yemenis across the country while simultaneously blocking access to critical infrastructure needed to deliver basic services and obstructing the delivery of desperately needed humanitarian assistance. Yemeni officials estimate that Houthi forces have laid over one million landmines, making Yemen one of the most heavily mined countries in the world.

The United States is the largest donor to the UNDP’s demining engagement with the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) and provided more than $22 million between FY2015 and FY2020 to support ERW survey and clearance, capacity development with the YEMAC, EORE, and survivor assistance implemented by UNDP and other partners.

From 1997 to 2020, the United States invested more than $48 million in CWD programs in Yemen.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • UNDP’s engagement with the YEMAC enabled the clearance of over 2.9 million square meters (730 acres) of contaminated land and removal of approximately 44,000 explosive hazards. Also, more than 128,000 Yemenis benefited from UNDP’s EORE efforts.
  • MLI continued to conduct survivor assistance programs in partnership with the YALS and YEMAC to provide EORE, medical assistance, rehabilitative care, vocational training, and micro-grants to more than 170 landmine survivors.
  • HALO continued to provide capacity building training for the YEMAC in Aden that strengthened the Yemeni government’s capacity to respond to a wide range of explosive hazards across Yemen. HALO also became the first international NGO to deploy survey and clearance teams in Yemen, working closely with the YEMAC and the newly established Yemen Mine Action Coordinating Center to destroy over 1,800 landmines and UXO.
  • DDG conducted capacity building programs with the YEMAC and worked towards deploying EOD teams to southern Yemen.
  • GICHD introduced the IMSMA to the Aden-based YEMAC and trained staff on information management practices and procedures. GICHD also delivered virtual training on how to conduct NTS and helped the YEMAC to systematize their reporting and documentation procedures.

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • West Bank: HD R&D, through a partnership with HALO, evaluated two soil-sifting excavator attachments, Ferex 4.034 and Magnex magnetometer systems, and a Target Reacquisition and Positioning System (a low-cost differential global positioning system) that can map humanitarian demining tasks. Additionally, HALO began evaluation of a large mine sifting screener. HD R&D technologies have cleared 464 mines from 191,746 square meters (47 acres) of land in the West Bank since 2018.
  • Morocco: AFRICOM and MARFORAF instructors, with the Utah National Guard, continued training Moroccan Royal Armed Forces students in accordance with competencies outlined in IMAS 09.30, and completed a validation of EOD Level I principles. This program is designed to train Moroccan counterparts in the basic-to-intermediate methodology and techniques used to mitigate explosive hazards in consideration of IMAS and NATO Standardized Agreements.
  • Syria: HD R&D, through a partnership with HALO, continued evaluating IP (internet protocol) camera systems on robotic armored demining platforms that allow remote access to structures to search for explosive hazards.
USAFRICOM and Moroccan Royal Armed Forces discuss training methods. [Photo courtesy of USAFRICOM]
USAFRICOM and Moroccan Royal Armed Forces discuss training methods. [Photo courtesy of USAFRICOM]

Regional Profile: South and Central Asia

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in South and Central Asia From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020: More Than $659 Million

U.S. assistance to South and Central Asian countries advances U.S. regional and global security priorities. This support enables those countries to assume national ownership of their CWD projects, secure weapons and ammunition stockpiles, promote peace and stability, and strengthen economic ties.

Afghanistan has one of the most capable mine action programs in the world with significant capacity and experience. As of December 2020, the Directorate for Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) reported over 1.5 billion square meters (370,658 acres) of contamination (suspected and confirmed minefields, battlefields, and high-explosive training ranges), which directly impact 1,500 communities. Kyrgyzstan faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating weapons and ammunition stockpiles, which threaten nearby population centers. In Sri Lanka, landmines and UXO endanger civilian security and impede the resettlement of communities. As a regional leader in HMA and explosive hazard remediation, Tajikistan is successfully managing aging stockpiles and clearing landmines and other explosive hazards along its borders and within the central Rasht Valley region.

Since 1993, the United States invested more than $659 million in CWD funding in South and Central Asia, with Afghanistan receiving most of these funds.

Map of South and Central Asia, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.
*Turkmenistan benefited in FY13 from Defense Threat Reduction Agency programs. The funding does not appear in the chart on page 46 or on the funding charts beginning on page 64 because the Defense Threat Reduction Agency does not assign dollar amounts to countries. **Countries with activities in 2020 that were solely held as part of Global/Multi-country funding.

 

Percent of the $28.6 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to South and Central Asia in FY2020 by Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $28.6 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to South and Central Asia in FY2020 By Country With Active Programs This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding. Afghanistan: 71.29%, Kazakhstan: 2.06%, Kyrgyzstan: 0.00%, Nepal: 0.00%, Sri Lanka: 19.87%, Tajikistan: 6.78%
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY93–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 20,000 21,321 20,000 454,606
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 225 408 377 9,636
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 20,225 21,729 20,377 537,489
Dollars in thousands

To improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides CWD funding and support to help clear legacy landmine and UXO contamination left by the 1979 Soviet invasion, internal armed conflict from 1992 to 2001, and contamination resulting from the 2003 NATO-led intervention. According to the Mine Action Program of Afghanistan (MAPA), more than 1,300 civilian casualties were caused by landmines, improvised mines, and ERW in 2020. Children comprised 54 percent of those casualties. ERW and improvised mines/IEDs caused 99 percent of these incidents, while one percent of civilian casualties were attributed to legacy landmine contamination.

From 1993 to 2020, the United States provided more than $537 million for CWD including demining assistance to Afghanistan. Since 1997, PM/WRA implementing partners cleared over 297.6 million square meters (73,538 acres) of land and removed or destroyed over 8.39 million mines, UXO, stockpile munitions, and homemade explosives.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • NPA assisted PM/WRA in monitoring and evaluating more than 225 mine clearance projects, seven Afghan NGOs, and two international NGOs.
  • Afghan Technical Consultants continued clearance operations in Kandahar, Baghlan, Kabul, Kunar, and Laghman Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • The Demining Agency for Afghanistan continued clearance operations in Baghlan, Kandahar, Kapisa, and Paktya Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • The Mine Detection Center began clearance operations in Zhari district of Kandahar Province on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • FSD continued clearance operations in northern Badakhshan Province on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • GICHD held a five-day Landmine Release Study and Survey Workshop to support DMAC that enabled Afghan nationals and international representatives to discuss, develop, and standardize landmine survey and hazard area release procedures.
  • HALO continued WAD operations and assessments throughout central, western, and northern Afghanistan. HALO also deployed eight CWD teams that responded to emergency call-outs to identify, secure, and destroy SA/LW, ammunition stockpiles, and explosive hazards. HALO continued clearance operations in Kabul, Baghlan, Balkh, Laghman, Panjsher, and Samangan Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA. Additionally, HALO conducted PSSM tasks to secure and destroy excess or poorly-protected SA/LW and ammunition in Kabul and Mazar-i-Sharif cities.
  • ITF continued their support of DMAC with an emphasis on developing host-nation capacity through enhanced IMSMA training and program management skills improvement.
  • The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) continued NTS in 180 impacted communities within 26 UXO-contaminated districts throughout Afghanistan. Also, MCPA concluded clearance operations and released land in Logar Province, while continuing clearance in Baghlan and Nimroz Provinces on high-priority tasks selected by DMAC in coordination with NPA.
  • DMAC increased oversight of its regional offices by recruiting six new regional managers. This improved DMAC’s quality management, coordination, and oversight of regional mine action.
  • Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) continued their support of physical rehabilitation centers in Farah and Paktia Provinces to provide physiotherapy, orthotics, and prosthetics services for Farah, Nimroz, Ghor, Paktia, Khost, and Ghazni Provinces. AABRAR also referred beneficiaries to other services addressing health, social inclusion assistance, and economic reintegration through DMAC and the wider survivor assistance network. Additionally, AABRAR provided disability awareness, advocacy, and community mobilization to persons with disabilities and their families.
  • Accessibility Organization for Afghan Disabled (AOAD) continued to provide vocational skills and development training for landmine survivors and their immediate family members living with disabilities. The majority of these individuals rejoined the workforce as tailors, electricians, and mobile phone repairers. Additionally, AOAD implemented and managed physical accessibility measures and renovations that allow persons with disabilities to access and use public facilities and classrooms.
  • Development and Ability Organization (DAO) concluded their program to provide physiotherapy, prosthetics, disability awareness, health education, and orthotic services to persons with disabilities in Afghanistan. Additionally, DAO provided rehabilitation services, repaired assistive devices, and referred mine/UXO survivors to appropriate medical, vocational, and educational services in both Kunar and Uruzgan Provinces.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D, in partnership with HALO, evaluated 11 technologies including Minehound Lite mine detectors, the Scorpion UXO detection system and the Storm Steep Slope Excavator. They also evaluated the Minehound, a hand-held detector for minimum-metal anti-tank mines; Orbit Screen, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders; and three Raptor armored tractors with the Rotary Mine Comb anti-tank mine clearance attachment. HD R&D technologies have been used in the clearance of 23.7 million square meters (5,856 acres) of land and 23,033 mines and UXO to date.

Manual clearance in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan involves working in rough terrain. [Photo courtesy of DAFA and NPA]
Manual clearance in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan involves working in rough terrain. [Photo courtesy of DAFA and NPA]

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY09–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 750 300 0 3,285
DoD 0 0 0 7
Country Total 750 300 0 3,292
Dollars in thousands

Kyrgyzstan faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating arms and ammunition storage sites that threaten civilian safety due to their proximity to populated areas. From 2009 to 2020, the United States invested more than $3 million to help Kyrgyzstan refurbish existing explosives storage facilities and segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable munitions. Such activities improve host-nation capacity to prevent spontaneous explosions and catastrophic injuries to civilian populations living near storage depots and reduce the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions pilfered from national stockpiles.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • ITF, in coordination with the Kyrgyz MOD, continued the disposal of expired artillery ammunition, renovated artillery ammunition storehouses, and continued national capacity PSSM training and development through deployment of a Slovenian MOD expert. Due to these efforts, the Kyrgyz MOD completed demilitarization of more than 200 metric tons (more than 45,000 pieces) of large-caliber ammunition. These outcomes enhance the CWD program capacity in Kyrgyzstan and reduce the risk of unplanned explosions at military sites.
In Osh, Kyrgyzstan, new explosives melting equipment is tested. [Photo courtesy of ITF]
In Osh, Kyrgyzstan, new explosives melting equipment is tested. [Photo courtesy of ITF]

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY95–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 9,500 2,500 5,500 65,341
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 310 84 179 4,502
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 9,810 2,584 5,679 78,040
Dollars in thousands

Landmines and UXO still contaminate Sri Lanka over a decade after the end of a 26-year armed conflict between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam. Contamination remains a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and to other development initiatives. This is particularly true as the government returns land previously controlled by the military. The widespread presence of mines and UXO pose an ongoing threat to returnees in those areas. According to the 2020 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, as of July 2018 approximately 25.8 million square meters (6,375 acres) of CHA remained.

From 1995 to 2020, the United States invested more than $78 million in CWD funding for survey, clearance, EORE, PSSM, and capacity building.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • HALO deployed 62 mechanical demining teams, 275 manual demining teams, and three survey/EOD teams to aid the government of Sri Lanka’s efforts to return displaced families to their homes in Jaffna, Kilinochchi, and Mullaitivu Districts by conducting survey, clearance, and EORE.
  • MAG continued to conduct surveys of newly-accessible areas and clear mines and other explosive hazards, restoring access to land for resettlement and development in Mannar, Trincomalee, and Vavuniya Districts.
  • Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH), Sri Lanka’s first indigenous demining NGO, deployed seven manual demining teams to clear mines and UXO to help resettle displaced families in Jaffna, Kilinochchi, and Mullaitivu Districts.
  • MAG continued a project to assist the Sri Lankan Armed Forces Engineer Brigade to better secure and account for their stocks of arms and ammunition by increasing physical security of SA/LW through the construction and upgrades of 18 existing storage facilities. Additionally, MAG provided armory storekeeper and manager training to increase safe handling, management, and storage of national stockpiles.

With funding from the Department of Defense, HD R&D continued to support existing technology, including evaluations of the Rex light-weight armored excavator, the Improved Backhoe system and rake attachments, the Light Soil Sifter, a soil-sifting excavator attachment, and HSTAMIDS detectors. The equipment provided area preparation, area reduction, and mine-clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land. HD R&D technologies were used to clear 22,273 mines and UXO from 2.4 million square meters of land (593 acres) to date.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID/LWVF supported the WHO and R4D to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

A mechanical clearance team in Sri Lanka takes a break from work on the Mulhamalai minefield. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
A mechanical clearance team in Sri Lanka takes a break from work on the Mulhamalai minefield. [Photo courtesy of HALO]

Tajikistan

Tajikistan
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY95–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 2,500 1,500 22,983
DoD 98 25 439 3,309
USAID 406 0 0 2,880
Country Total 2,004 2,525 1,939 29,172
Dollars in thousands

Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging ammunition, including large-caliber ordnance and other explosives, following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Due to Tajikistan’s porous borders with Afghanistan, massive quantities of poorly-secured SA/LW and ammunition present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine contamination along its southern, western, and northern borders that stems from both its civil war in the 1990s and earlier Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During the civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily contaminated with landmines and UXO that continue to impede socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and endanger border crossings, farming, wood-gathering, and grazing.

From 2005 to 2020, the United States invested more than $29 million in Tajikistan to support mine and UXO clearance, destruction of excess and aging munitions, PSSM of SA/LW, survivor assistance, and national capacity building of the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC).

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • FSD continued to destroy SA/LW, large-caliber ammunition, and MANPADS, and conducted NTS and clearance of UXO through the deployment of one WAD team.
  • NPA continued deployment of two mixed-gender clearance teams along the southern Tajik-Afghan border and supported capacity-development activities in coordination with TNMAC.
  • Phase II of OSCE’s Integrated Cooperation on Explosive Hazards program with emphasis on sharing regional lessons learned, originally scheduled for completion in 2019, was completed in 2020. OSCE conducted three EOD training courses in the newly-built Regional Explosive Hazard Training Center and managed the first Tajik-led EOD Level 1 course that established a regional response capability to mitigate and counter explosive hazards.
  • TNMAC continued operational control and management of three multi-task, humanitarian demining teams, and three NTS teams that deployed throughout the Tajik-Afghan border region. TNMAC continued to develop the capacity and capability of its mine action program with emphasis on information analysis, strategic planning, demining training, project development, and program management.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) and U.S. Embassy Dushanbe continued to build humanitarian demining capability by providing equipment to the Tajik MOD National Mine Action Authority’s Regional Explosive Hazards Training Center. CENTCOM also conducted two TTT missions, training 45 Tajik personnel to National Mine Action Standards.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID/LWVF supported UCPW to strengthen rehabilitation service delivery systems; the ICRC/MoveAbility to strengthen the rehabilitation sector; and the WHO to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare.

WAD trainees in Tajikistan visit the country’s central demolition site. [Photo courtesy of FSD]
WAD trainees in Tajikistan visit the country’s central demolition site. [Photo courtesy of FSD]

South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

Kazakhstan: With funding from the Department of Defense, CENTCOM and U.S. Army Central Command (ARCENT) developed a three-year timeline to establish a similar HMA program to that being executed in Tajikistan. With the help of HDTC and CENTCOM and the nonprofit provider Shoulder-to-Shoulder, ARCENT revamped EOD Level 1 and 2 curricula to successfully meet regional HMA needs. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on military movement and foreign travel, ARCENT has postponed the return training trip to Kazakhstan. Through CENTCOM and HDTC, ARCENT also provided training equipment to Kazakhstan to strengthen its HMA efforts.

Nepal: With funding from USAID, the LWVF supported HI to establish a sustainable, integrated, public-private rehabilitation system to improve the mobility and functional independence of survivors of conflict and others in need of rehabilitation services. As part of multi-regional programs, they supported the WHO to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems; and JHU to develop health systems that are responsive to needs for rehabilitation across the patient lifespan.

Pakistan: As part of a multi-regional program, USAID/LWVF supported JHU to develop health systems that are responsive to needs for rehabilitation across the patient lifespan.


Regional Profile: Western Hemisphere

Overview

Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in the Western Hemisphere From All U.S. Agencies, 1993–2020: More Than $225 Million

The United States’ CWD programs in Latin America seek to strengthen civilian protection and advance U.S. national security objectives, including safeguarding the integrity of the U.S. southern border. CWD assistance strengthens foreign munitions depot management and security, curbs the pilferage and illicit trafficking of SA/LW, and reduces the risk of catastrophic explosions at munitions storage sites. In addition, CWD assistance makes it more difficult for drug traffickers, criminal gangs, and terrorists to obtain weapons from poorly-secured stockpiles. The United States currently supports such PSSM initiatives in Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Peru.

Beyond illicit weapons proliferation, landmines and ERW threaten civilians in the aftermath of conflicts, in some cases for decades after fighting has ended. The 2016 peace accord between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (the FARC) enabled significant increases in demining operations as previously non-permissive locations became accessible. Colombia remains the most landmine contaminated country in the hemisphere, but support from the United States and other donors, and its significant domestic clearance capacity, continues to facilitate progress in returning large tracts of land to productive use.

Map of Western Hemisphere, Legend: Red - U.S. supported activity in 2020; Yellow - Received U.S. support in the past; Blue - Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2020; Green - Mine-impact free with past U.S. support.

 

Percent of the $26.1 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Western Hemisphere in FY2020 by Country With Active Programs

Percent of the $26.1 Million in U.S. CWD Funding Allocated to the Western Hemisphere in FY2020 By Country With Active Programs. This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding. Colombia: 91.72%, Ecuador: 0.00%, El Salvador: 0.00%, Guatemala: 0.00%, Honduras: 0.00%, Peru: 0.64%.
This chart illustrates funding directly designated to a specific country. It does not include regional funding, which is included in the Global/Multi-country funding line found on page 70.

Colombia

Colombia
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY01–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 21,000 21,000 21,000 122,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 3,285 3,492 23 12,559
USAID 2,874 0 3,000 24,367
Country Total 27,159 24,492 24,023 159,975
Dollars in thousands

More than 50 years of conflict between the government of Colombia, guerilla movements, and other non-state actors resulted in widespread improvised landmine contamination. The Office of the High Commissioner for Peace (OACP) reports that Colombia has suffered more than 11,900 mine incidents since 1990, the highest number of recorded casualties in the Western Hemisphere. Its most heavily affected Departments are Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Meta, Nariño, and Norte de Santander. To confront this threat, the government of Colombia has committed significant resources to returning previously-contaminated land to productive use, including more than 5,200 humanitarian deminers from its military.

From 2001 to 2020, the United States invested more than $159 million to support Colombia’s mine action sector by facilitating the survey of priority municipalities and clearance of high-impact minefields, focusing on areas where such efforts coincide with planned development and stabilization projects. Additionally, the Department of State’s assistance is embedding technical advisors within the OACP to strengthen its capacity and support a country-wide quality management program to ensure land is cleared in accordance with international and national standards.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners:

  • Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM) continued to conduct survey and clearance in Putumayo Department and returned 2,655 square meters of land, directly benefitting 378 people. CCCM also provided EORE to 1,572 community members.
  • DDG continued to conduct survey and began clearance in San Jose del Fragua, a municipality within Caquetá Department. In 2020, DDG successfully returned 8,652 square meters (2.1 acres) and provided EORE to 1,331 people.
  • FSD continued to strengthen the OACP’s capacity by embedding technical advisors to support operations and share knowledge. FSD also helped update existing national standards and prepare new standards, including a process on land release, which should greatly expedite progress in Colombia.
  • GICHD began a new project to conduct a third-party review and assessment of the quality management system in Colombia.
  • HALO continued to conduct survey, clearance, and EORE in Antioquia, Cauca, Meta, and Norte de Santander Departments. HALO cleared 84,557 square meters (20.9 acres) of hazardous land, directly benefitting 338 people. Through manual clearance and EOD callouts, 100 items of explosive ordnance were safely destroyed. HALO delivered 50 EORE sessions, benefitting 1,221 people. HALO also successfully handed over five municipalities across three departments to be landmine free. A post-clearance impact assessment was carried out in two municipalities in Antioquia. The impact assessment further demonstrated the causal link between humanitarian demining activities and socioeconomic development, measured through five key indicators: the return of IDPs; land restitution; socio-economic development; post-clearance land use; and the establishment of development projects.
  • HI continued to implement survey and clearance in Cauca and Meta Departments. HI provided EORE to over 1,136 Colombians.
  • OAS continued to implement the country-wide quality management program, including accreditation and quality assurance/quality control of civilian and military humanitarian demining organizations and personnel, and provided technical expertise and advice to the OACP. The OAS also collaborated with the government of Colombia to begin transitioning oversight of the quality management program back to the government. Additionally, the OAS continued to provide equipment and support to the Colombian Marine humanitarian demining teams conducting survey and clearance in Bolívar and Sucre Departments.
  • SoS continued to disseminate EORE messages through community and school events in locations where broader security considerations currently preclude clearance, and safely delivered EORE to more than 3,138 men, women, and children living in or near suspected mine and ERW contamination.

With funding from the Department of Defense,

  • HD R&D, through a partnership with HALO, continued evaluating the Bearcat vegetation clearance system.
  • U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM), in partnership with HD R&D donated a Bearcat and five Rambo 4X4s (Polaris Pro XD 4000D ATVs). In addition, due to COVID-19 travel restrictions SOUTHCOM and HDTC postponed a scheduled Requirements Determination Site Survey (RDSS) visit to assess the Colombian military’s requirements for PSSM and EOD training and equipment.

With funding from USAID, the LWVF supported the International Organization for Migration to strengthen functional rehabilitation services in Colombia. They also supported the Arcangeles Foundation to develop inclusive sport activities and physical rehabilitation services in conflict affected communities. As part of multi-regional programs, the LWVF also supported both R4D and WHO to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

Manual clearance operations are conducted in the heavily contaminated Caquetá Department, Colombia. [Photo courtesy of DDG]
Manual clearance operations are conducted in the heavily contaminated Caquetá Department, Colombia. [Photo courtesy of DDG]

Ecuador

Ecuador
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY01–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,000 0 6,025
DoD 0 0 0 3,791
Country Total 0 1,000 0 9,816
Dollars in thousands

Ecuador has invested a significant amount of internal resources to store and protect its national weapons stockpiles. Many of the country’s stockpiles hold obsolete weapons from a border conflict with Peru in 1995. The military maintains a capacity to manage its inventory and dispose of obsolete and aging munitions items. The United States is supporting Ecuador to improve maintenance at priority depots, facilitate the destruction of obsolete ordnance, and further align its EOD curriculum with international standards. Following President Moreno’s visit to the White House in February 2020, Ecuador hosted a senior Department of State official to coordinate and plan a new CWD program.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partner (with prior year funds):

  • MAG facilitated the destruction of obsolete ordnance, including over 220,000 rounds of small arms ammunition, and provided ammunition management courses to Ecuador’s armed forces. In the future, this program will enhance priority facilities’ infrastructure with improved physical security upgrades.

With funding from the Department of Defense, SOUTHCOM and HDTC, with the assistance of the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, Embassy Quito’s Security Cooperation Office, and MAG, conducted an RDSS of the Ecuadorian Army 68th Engineering Battalion (“Cotopaxi”), which houses the EOD component of Ecuador’s military engaged in BAC and counter-IED operations, to identify capabilities and shortfalls in landmine clearance and casualty care. The changes recommended by the RDSS, scheduled for implementation in the last quarter of CY 2020, were postponed due to the travel restrictions imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic.


El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras

El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY17–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,000 1,500 2,500
Country Total 0 1,000 1,500 2,500
Dollars in thousands

*Funding prior to FY18 was bilateral, FY19 forward is included in Global/Multi-country funding (page 70).
**Final allocation of FY19 and FY20 funding by country to be determined.

Central America’s porous borders and illegally armed groups facilitate and sustain illicit proliferation of SA/LW that threatens civilians and host nation security forces. Additionally, the significant number of confiscated and stored weapons remain a major proliferation risk as they are often highly vulnerable to theft. Many of the weapons confiscated from criminal organizations are military-grade.

From 2016-2019, the United States invested more than $2.9 million to support CWD in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Specifically, CWD projects are designed to better secure vulnerable depots through PSSM enhancements and provide specialized PSSM and EOD training to develop national capacity within the military and national police forces. In coordination with local authorities, confiscated firearms and obsolete ammunition and ordnance were also destroyed.

In 2020, the Department of State consolidated the El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras projects into one regional project. Specifically, HALO is destroying obsolete weapons, strengthening the national military and police PSSM capacities, upgrading weapons storage facilities, and reducing easy access to government weapons. This project will also include a research-based assessment to highlight effective approaches to combat armed violence.

A team in Guatemala prepares UXO for demolition. [Photo courtesy of HALO]
A team in Guatemala prepares UXO for demolition. [Photo courtesy of HALO]

Peru

Peru
Funding FY18 FY19 FY20 FY99–20 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 0 0 16,006
DoD 0 17 168 12,129
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 2,000 17 168 29,135
Dollars in thousands

Peruvian military stockpiles contain a significant amount of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition stemming from a border conflict with Ecuador in 1995. Many stockpiles are either located near major cities or in remote and relatively isolated facilities near its border with Ecuador or deep in its own jungles. Ensuring that these aging munitions are appropriately secured, destroyed, and properly maintained reduces the risk of illicit proliferation and unplanned depot explosions.

From 1999 to 2020, the United States contributed more than $29 million to first support HMA activities and, more recently, to implement a SA/LW project. Previous assistance with Peru’s mine action sector strengthened its NMAA and ensured the country was sufficiently equipped to reduce its landmine contamination on its own. Currently, the Department of State’s assistance helps mitigate the risk of unplanned explosions of obsolete ordnance and strengthen Peru’s capacity to efficiently manage its munitions stockpiles.

In 2020, the Department of State supported the following implementing partners (with prior year funds):

  • MAG continued to support Peru’s Army in addressing its excess and obsolete munitions at priority depots, resulting in the destruction of more than 109 tons.
  • NPA continued to support Peru’s air force in destroying obsolete and at-risk munitions in the districts of Ica and Pucusana, resulting in the destruction of 103.4 tons of munitions through disassembly, detonation, and burning. In addition, NPA provided the Air Force with specialized PSSM and EOD training.

With funding from the Department of Defense, SOUTHCOM procured equipment and prepared for the execution of PSSM and EOD training in response to recommendations from the RDSS completed in 2019, but activity was postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

A team in Peru prepares surplus and obsolete ammunition for destruction. [Photo courtesy of MAG]
A team in Peru prepares surplus and obsolete ammunition for destruction. [Photo courtesy of MAG]

Implementing Partners

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS), established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, CRS has worked to reduce the risk of injury or death from UXO in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in EORE. http://crs.org 

The Emory University School of Medicine, based in Atlanta, is a leading institution with the highest standards in education, biomedical research, and patient care committed to recruiting and developing a diverse group of students and innovative leaders in biomedical science, public health, medical education, and clinical care. https://www.med.emory.edu/ 

Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (Golden West) is a U.S.-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to innovation in training and technology, overcoming limitations in HMA operations. Golden West provides expert EOD and PSSM consulting, IMAS and IATG compliant training, and technology, making HMA safer, faster, and more cost-effective. http://goldenwesthf.org 

Health Leadership International (HLI) is a Seattle-based nonprofit organization that provides sustainable medical training to rural healthcare providers in Laos. Partnering with the Laotian Ministry of Health, HLI provides medical training in emergency clinical medicine, ultrasound imaging, medical leadership, and medical English to hundreds of Laotian health care workers. http://healthleadershipinternational.org 

The International Center is a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that focuses on issues between the United States and the developing world. Its Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation program, which has been active in Vietnam since 1994, addresses the consequences of war through its UXO impact survey and by strengthening the national capacity of Vietnamese HMA agencies. http://ic-vvaf.org 

Johns Hopkins University-Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHU), based in Baltimore and founded in 1916, works with communities and populations to identify the causes of disease and disability, and implement large-scale solutions. https://www.jhsph.edu/ 

The Landmine Relief Fund, a California-based nonprofit, was created in 2004 to support the work of an all-Cambodian demining NGO, Cambodian Self Help Demining (CSHD). http://landmine-relief-fund.com 

The Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI) is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. MLI has established indigenous programs in 15 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact. http://marshall-legacy.org 

PeaceTrees Vietnam is a Seattle-based NGO founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and UXO clearance, EORE, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects. http://peacetreesvietnam.org 

The Polus Center for Social and Economic Development (Polus), established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit NGO. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and UXO on communities around the world. http://poluscenter.org 

United Cerebral Palsy/Wheels for Humanity (UCPW) is a California nonprofit founded in 2007 that helps people with mobility impairments maximize their independence and quality of life by building and strengthening rehabilitation services, including assistive technologies. https://ucpwheels.org/ 

World Education, Inc., a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance through nonformal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support survivor assistance, EORE, and disability inclusion. http://worlded.org 

 

International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Accessibility Organization for Afghan Disabled (AOAD) is a nonprofit, and nonpolitical NGO working for persons with disabilities along with their immediate family members as a peer-supporter advocate organization founded in 2007 in Kabul, Afghanistan. https://aoad-af.page.tl/Home.htm 

Afghan Amputee Bicyclists for Rehabilitation and Recreation (AABRAR) is an Afghan NGO concerned with the rehabilitation and socioeconomic integration of disabled people and other vulnerable groups. In 1992, AABRAR began a bicycle-training program for amputees to improve mobility and increase their independence, enabling them to travel to and from work, and save on transportations costs. Since then, AABRAR has expanded its activities. https://bit.ly/3pG2qVK 

Afghan Technical Consultants (ATC), established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining NGO in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. ATC works to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and EORE. http://atc-wlfhdngo.org.af 

APOPO, established in 1995, is a registered Belgian NGO and U.S. non-profit that trains sub-Saharan African pouched rats and MDDs to help detect landmines, returning safe land back to communities for development so they can proceed with their lives. https://www.apopo.org/en 

Arcangeles Foundation is a nonprofit working to improve the living conditions of vulnerable populations in Colombia. Its main objective is to achieve social inclusion and to ensure for future generations an inclusive and sustainable world. https://arcangeles.org/ 

The Colombian Campaign Against Landmines (CCCM) monitors fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention on behalf of the Colombian government, compiles reports each year for the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, and supports survivor assistance and EORE. https://colombiasinminas.org/ 

DanChurchAid (DCA) is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, that provides humanitarian assistance and mine action programs combining EORE, mine clearance, and community-development activities. http://dca.dk 

The Danish Demining Group (DDG) an HMA and Armed Violence Reduction unit within the Danish Refugee Council (DRC), is a non-profit and NGO working to protect and to provide long-lasting solutions to communities affected by war and armed conflict. https://danishdemininggroup.dk/ 

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH) is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010 to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and UXO. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, DASH strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of households. http://slnmac.gov.lk/dash 

The Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA), formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. DAFA’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration. sattar_dafa@yahoo.ca or dafafinance@yahoo.com

The Development and Ability Organization (DAO) works in Afghanistan for a more inclusive society by raising public and governmental awareness of the rights of persons with disabilities while building capacity of the civil society organizations and disabled persons organizations through physical rehabilitation, civic education, mentoring, community dialogue, vocational training, and income generation programs. http://daoafghanistan.ngo/ 

The Directorate of Mine Action Coordination (DMAC) of the Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority is a regulatory body for the Humanitarian Mine Action Programme of Afghanistan. DMAC manages, coordinates, and oversees the HMA activities implemented by national and international NGO and commercial companies. https://dmac.gov.af/ 

The HALO Trust (HALO) is the world’s largest humanitarian landmine removal organization. Its mission is to protect lives and restore livelihoods for those affected by conflict. HALO employs more than 8,600 staff and operates in over 25 countries and territories. HALO’s work, clearing landmines and other debris of war, creates safe and secure environments in some of the world’s most vulnerable communities. https://www.halotrust.org/ 

Humanity and Inclusion (HI), works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. HI implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and UXO from civilian areas, providing EORE programs, and rendering assistance to those who have been injured. https://www.hi-us.org/ 

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP) is an international nonprofit NGO that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners. http://immap.org 

The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) is a coalition of NGOs whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives. http://www.icbl.org/en-gb/home.aspx 

International Organization for Migration (IOM) founded in 1951, helps ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, and provides humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, be they refugees, displaced persons, or other uprooted people. https://www.iom.int/ 

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF) is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia government in March 1998. ITF focuses on humanitarian demining, CWD, and other forms of post-conflict assistance and continues to expand its thematic and geographic scope of activities globally. http://itf.si 

Mines Advisory Group (MAG) began operations in Afghanistan in 1989 clearing mines and UXO. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based MAG is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and UXO, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide EORE, and offer capacity-building support. http://maginternational.org 

The Mine Action Support Group (MASG), established in 1998, is comprised of the world’s major HMA donor states including the United States. It endeavors to coordinate and prioritize their respective programs and increase donor support for mine action where it is most needed. The MASG serves as a forum for the exchange of information as well as the coordination of financial support and resources. https://mineaction.org/en/mine-action-support-group-masg 

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA) is an Afghan NGO founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical and battle area surveys, polygon surveys, and mine- and UXO-impact free community surveys. MCPA provides manual, mechanical, and MDD clearance, EOD, EORE, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs. hajiattqullah@gmail.com

The Mine Detection Center (MDC) was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan from the impacts of mines and UXO so that individuals and communities can live in a safe environment conducive to national development. MDC clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and UXO using a variety of assets and techniques. https://mdcafghan.org/ 

The Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC) in Bosnia and Herzegovina trains dogs to detect landmines, explosives, narcotics, and to conduct search and rescue operations. It also trains dog handlers and trainers. More than 450 dogs for various purposes were trained by MDDC so far and deployed in dozens of countries. MDDC is involved in demining projects, EORE and mine survivor assistance. http://www.mddc.ba/ 

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), a Norwegian NGO, was founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom. For more than 20 years, NPA has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 countries and territories. http://npaid.org 

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and UXO. In 1992, OMAR expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, BAC, EOD, and working with MDDs.

Results for Development (R4D) is a global nonprofit founded in 2008 that supports local change agents—government officials, civil society leaders, and social innovators—to drive reforms and engage in continuous improvement. https://r4d.org/ 

Spirit of Soccer (SOS), founded in 1996, is a UK- and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and UXO in conflict and post-conflict regions. SOS has created risk education courses in more than 10 post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Moldova. http://spiritofsoccer.org 

The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) was established in 1997 and has worked in over 30 countries worldwide. The objective of FSD is to clear contaminated land of explosive contamination and to promote mine action in general. FSD aims to mitigate the social, economic, and environmental impacts of landmines and environmental contamination worldwide. https://fsd.ch/en 

 

Government and International Organizations

The International Committee of the Red Cross/MoveAbility (ICRC/MoveAbility) was established in 1983 under the ICRC and aims to improve physical rehabilitation capacities in low- and middle-income countries by maintaining and increasing access to quality and sustainable services. https://www.icrc.org/en/document/moveability-liquidation 

NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA), NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider agency, implements the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund in Ukraine. In addition to Ukraine, NSPA has worked on CWD programs in several countries including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Jordan, Mauritania, and Serbia. https://www.nspa.nato.int/ 

The Organization of American States (OAS) was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The OAS supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes CWD programs. http://oas.org 

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states in Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The OSCE offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation. http://osce.org 

The Regional Centre on Small Arms (RECSA), established in June 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 African member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against SA/LW proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation. http://recsasec.org 

The Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects. muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience, and resources to help people build a better life. UNDP supports the host country’s own solutions to development challenges by building national and local capacities. http://undp.org 

The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS), established in 1997 by the UN General Assembly, is housed in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions. It is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 12 UN organizations involved in mine action to set priorities among UN participants and share information. UNMAS sets up and manages mine action coordination centers in countries and territories as part of peacekeeping operations. http://www.mineaction.org/unmas 

United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), established in 1973, helps advance sustainable implementation practices in development, humanitarian, and peacebuilding contexts in some of the world’s most challenging environments. UNOPS concentrates its support in areas where it has a clear mandate and expertise: infrastructure, procurement, project management, human resources, and financial management services. https://www.unops.org/ 

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO’s broad mandate includes advocating for universal healthcare, monitoring public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting human health and well-being. https://www.who.int/ 

 

Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR), was established at James Madison University in 1996. Through its publications, training courses, fellowships, and web tools, CISR supports information exchange within the HMA and CWD communities. CISR produces To Walk the Earth in Safety, and publishes The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction, which was first published in 1997, and is the longest-running source of information on CWD in the world. http://jmu.edu/cisr 

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance. The center enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity. http://gichd.org 

Small Arms Survey (SAS), based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and civil society. http://smallarmssurvey.org 

 

Contractors

Tetra Tech is a leading provider of consulting and engineering services for projects worldwide. With 20,000 associates working together, Tetra Tech delivers clear solutions to complex problems in water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, international development, and munitions response. 4tetratech.com/munitionsresponse

A deminer removes the danger mine signs after the completion of the land release activities in one of the locations in East Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Photo courtesy of MDDC]
A deminer removes the danger mine signs after the completion of the land release activities in one of the locations in East Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Photo courtesy of MDDC]

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding 1993–2020

From 1993 through 2020, the United States contributed more than $4 billion for CWD programs in more than 100 countries. The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for CWD globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2019 (October 1, 2018–September 30, 2019) in this edition reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2020 (October 1, 2019–September 30, 2020) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 21st edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2020 that reflect the final allocations.

DOS NADR-CWD Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs
DOS Other Department of State – Other funding
CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
DoD Department of Defense
USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History

(To view full table, use scroll bar at the bottom, or view PDF version.)

Country Sources  FY93-12  FY13  FY14  FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 *FY20  Total
Afghanistan DOS NADR – CWD 264,784 30,785 22,450 22,700 32,066 20,500  20,000 21,321 20,000 454,606
DOS Other 20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 1,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 6,780 355 162 744 451 134  225 408 377 9,636
USAID 51,447 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 344,811 31,140 22,612 23,444 32,517 20,634 20,225 21,729 20,377 537,489
Albania DOS NADR – CWD 32,311 2,324 2,135 1,777 1,500 1,200  1,000 1,000 1,000 44,247
DoD 22 10 185 147 100 33  80 2,059 1,807 4,443
USAID 1,389 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 33,722 2,334 2,320 1,924 1,600 1,233  1,080 3,059 2,807 50,079
Angola DOS NADR – CWD 80,204 6,000 6,000 5,600 4,700 4,000  7,000 4,100 7,000 124,604
DOS Other 3,170 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150
DoD 6,564 1,345 179 152 551 193  179 245 48 9,456
USAID 8,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 98,439 7,345 6,179 5,752 5,251 4,193  7,179 4,345 7,048 145,731
Argentina DoD 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
Country Total 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
Armenia DOS NADR – CWD 2,991 700 301 300 0 0 0 0 0 4,292
DOS Other 3,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,000
DoD 2,835 169 187 40 10 226  237 64 3,768
USAID 2,148 0 0 997 0 0 0 0 0 3,145
Country Total 10,974 869 488 1,337 10 226  237  64 0  14,205
Azerbaijan DOS NADR – CWD 21,460 325 325 532 0 0 0 0 0 22,642
DOS Other 1,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,100
DoD 6,975 0 0 0 140 41  62 11 0 7,229
Country Total 29,535 325 325 532 140 41  62  11 0  30,971
Bahrain DoD 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Country Total 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Belize DOS NADR – CWD 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Country Total 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Benin** DoD 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Country Total 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Bosnia &
Herzegovina
DOS NADR – CWD 63,312 4,445 4,400 3,974 4,500 2,750  2,445 5,629 3,000 94,455
DOS Other 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 3,210 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 4,263 241 156 0 78 249  126 8 22 5,143
USAID 20,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 92,285 4,686 4,556 3,974 4,578 2,999  2,571 5,637 3,022 124,308
Bulgaria DOS NADR – CWD 8,229 2,250 0 0 0 0 0 2,000 0 12,479
DoD 0 0 31 0 0 8  12 0 0 51
Country Total 8,229 2,250 31 0 0 8  12 2,000 0 12,530
Burkina Faso DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 941 600 0  900 1,000 500 3,941
Country Total 0 0 0 941 600 0  900 1,000 500 3,941
Burma
(Myanmar)
DOS NADR – CWD 835 0 0 2,000 0 0 0 0 0 2,835
DOS-OTHER 0 0 850 0 0 0 0 0 0 850
USAID 0 1,350 1,500 0 500 500  500 0 1,000 5,350
Country Total 835 1,350 2,350 2,000 500 500  500 0 1,000 9,035
Burundi DOS NADR – CWD 1,935 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,935
DoD 430 322 566 118 0 0 0 0 0 1,436
Country Total 2,365 322 566 118 0 0 0 0 0 3,371
Cambodia DOS NADR – CWD 56,300 5,800 6,216 8,307 8,522 6,352  9,320 10,525 7,000 118,342
DOS Other 4,943 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100
DoD 14,865 1,411 1,722 2,379 1,717 1,969  1,601 2,473 1,012 29,149
USAID 13,048 600 633 500 303 0 0 0 0 15,084
Country Total 89,256 7,811 8,571 11,186 10,542 8,321  10,921 12,998 8,012 167,618
Central African Republic DOS NADR – CWD  37 0 187 0 0 0  785 0 0  1,009
Country Total  37 0 187 0 0 0  785 0 0  1,009
Chad DOS NADR – CWD 6,899 0 0 1,657 750 1,000  1,250 1,000 1,000 13,556
DoD 4,291 384 325 0 50 54  86 0 0 5,190
Country Total 11,190 384 325 1,657 800 1,054  1,336 1,000 1,000 18,746
Chile DoD 3,062 0 385 3 0 0 0 0 0 3,450
Country Total 3,062 0 385 3 0 0 0 0 0 3,450
Colombia DOS NADR – CWD 12,495 4,100 6,465 7,039 8,500 21,000  21,000 21,000 21,000 122,599
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 1,679 0 0 0 742 3,338  3,285 3,492 23 12,559
USAID 9,400 1,900 1,300 2,000 3,085 808  2,874 0 3,000 24,367
Country Total 24,024 6,000 7,765 9,039 12,327 25,146  27,159 24,492 24,023 159,975
Congo, DR DOS NADR – CWD  6,098 1,265 2,500 500 3,221 3,000  4,000 3,000 3,000 27,334
DoD  370 0 373 107 0 0 0 0 0 1,083
USAID  1,300 0 1,300 2,000 1,722 1,275 0 0 0 7,597
Country Total  7,768 1,265 4,173 2,607 4,943 4,275  4,000 3,000 3,000 36,014
Congo,
Republic of the
DOS NADR – CWD 6,848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,320
DoD 603 371 690 191 0 0 0 0 0  1,519
Country Total 8,751 371 690 191 0 0 0 0 0 2,839
Croatia[1] DOS NADR – CWD 33,939 999 900 850 2,040 0  1,000 1,000 0 40,728
DoD 0 713 0 0 0 28  55 80 585 1,461
Country Total 33,939 1,712 900 850 2,040 28  1,055 1,080 585 42,189
Cyprus DOS NADR – CWD  10 0 0 250 0 0 0 0 0  260
DoD 0 76 19 18 20 196 32 0 0  361
Country Total  10 76 19 268 20 196 32 0 0 621
Czechia DOS NADR – CWD  600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
Country Total  600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
Djibouti DOS NADR – CWD  1,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,900
DoD  1,172 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,172
Country Total  3,072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,072
Dominican Republic USAID  500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total  500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Ecuador DOS NADR – CWD 4,825 200 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 6,025
DoD 3,791 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,791
Country Total 8,616 200 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 9,816
Egypt DoD  718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
Country Total  718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
El Salvador DOS NADR – CWD 1,038 0 0 0 350 300 0 0 0  1,688
CDC 2,840 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,840
USAID 2,000 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,300
Country Total 5,878 300 0 0 350 300 0 0 0 6,828
Eritrea DOS NADR – CWD  11,623 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  11,623
DOS Other  1,560 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,560
CDC  450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  450
DoD  4,485 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,485
Country Total  18,118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  18,118
Estonia DOS NADR – CWD  2,499 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,499
DoD  1,866 195 87 54 0 7 236 272 0  2,717
Country Total  4,365 195 87 54 0 7  236  272 0  5,216
Eswatini DOS NADR – CWD  439 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 439
DoD  836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 836
Country Total  1,275 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,275
Ethiopia** DOS NADR – CWD  3,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3,545
DOS Other  1,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,500
CDC  2,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,846
DoD  3,984 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3,984
USAID  3,882 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3,882
Country Total  15,757 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  15,757
Georgia DOS NADR – CWD 26,105 1,500 500 500 0 500 0 0 0 29,105
DOS Other 2,644 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 1,114 0 167 209 20 55  55 1,165 1,811 4,596
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 1,998  1,000 1,000 502 4,500
Country Total 29,863 1,500 667 709 20 2,553  1,055 2,165 2,313 40,845
Guatemala DOS NADR – CWD 250 0 0 0 350 300 0 0 0 900
Country Total 250 0 0 0 350 300 0 0 0 900
Guinea DOS NADR – CWD 103 0 0 0 500 500 0 0 0 1,103
Country Total 103 0 0 0 500 500 0 0 0 1,103
Guinea-
Bissau
DOS NADR – CWD  6,037 0 0 0 0 500  700 0 0  8,037
DoD  1,444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,444
Country Total  7,481 0 0 0 800 500  700 0 0  9,481
Haiti USAID  2,500 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,500
Country Total  2,500 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,500
Honduras DOS NADR – CWD 316 500 0 0 300 348 0 0 0 1,464
Country Total 316 500 0 0 300 348 0 0 0  1,464
Hungary DOS NADR – CWD 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350
Country Total 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350
India USAID 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Country Total 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Iraq DOS NADR – CWD 129,349 23,805 23,177 37,835 30,945 106,350  55,000 40,190 40,650 487,301
DOS Other 992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 992
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 104,237 160 573 0 58 209  85 71 159 105,552
Country Total 235,028 23,965 23,750 37,835 31,003 106,559  55,085 40,261 40,809 594,295
Jordan DOS NADR – CWD 19,936 1,200 0 500 400 400  400 400 400 23,636
DOS Other 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
CDC 2,968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 2,418 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 25,622 1,200 0 500 400 400  400 400 400 29,322
Kazakhstan DOS NADR – CWD 295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 295
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 588 588
Country Total 295 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 588 883
Kenya** DOS NADR – CWD 1,482 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,482
DoD 492 70 162 151 280 0 0 0 0  1,155
USAID 400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  400
Country Total 2,374 70 162 151 280 0 0 0 0  3,037
Kosovo DOS NADR – CWD 7,350 100 0 550 475 1,250  5,000 0 5,000 19,725
DoD 4,300 0 165 120 204 71  86 276 249 5,471
USAID 17,472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 29,122 100 165 670 679 1,321  5,086 276 5,249 42,668
Kyrgyzstan DOS NADR – CWD  500 300 0 400 285 750  750 300 0 3,285
DoD  7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
Country Total  507 300 0 400 285 750  750 300 0 3,292
Laos DOS NADR – CWD 45,144 9,000 12,840 26,880 20,500 30,000  30,000 30,000 37,500 241,864
DOS Other 750 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 750
DoD 6,900 0 0 0 111 10 0 24 8 7,053
USAID 9,300 0 500 2,000 2,166 3,005  1,750 0 2,000 20,721
Country Total 62,094 9,000 13,340 28,880 22,777 33,015  31,750 30,024 39,508 270,388
Lebanon DOS NADR – CWD 28,675 3,000 2,500 3,324 4,500 4,000  5,000 5,000 5,000 60,999
DOS Other 2,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 9,020 80 50 44 39 39  22 30 44 9,368
USAID 9,850 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 49,545 3,080 2,550 3,368 4,539 4,039  5,022 5,030 5,044 82,217
Lesotho DOS NADR – CWD 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Country Total 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Liberia DOS NADR – CWD  360 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  360
CDC  150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  150
USAID  4,429 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,429
Country Total  4,939 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,939
Libya DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 0 1,000 1,500 2,500 16,000  3,000 2,000 1,000 30,000
DOS Other 17,800 1,775 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 20,800 1,775 1,000 1,500 2,500 16,000  3,000 2,000 1,000 49,575
Lithuania DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Malawi DoD  0 0 0 0 0 0 130 0 0 130
Country Total  0 0 0 0 0 0 130 0 0 130
Mali DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 1,200 500 1,000  1,250 1,000 1,000 5,950
DoD 0 0 0 0 170 182  110 0 0 462
Country Total 0 0 0 1,200 670 1,182  1,360 1,000 1,000 6,412
Marshall Islands DOS NADR – CWD 0 267 361 285 295 460  341 0 0  2,009
Country Total 0 267 361 285 295 460  341 0 0  2,009
Mauritania DOS NADR – CWD  2,395 0 0 300 500 0  0 0 0 3,195
DoD  4,410 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,410
Country Total  6,805 0 0 300 500 0  0 0 0 7,605
Mexico DOS NADR – CWD  0 0 0 0 0 275 0 500 0 775
Country Total  0 0 0 0 0 275 0 500 0 775
Moldova DoD  71 154 282 132 35 78  78 1,993 1,582 4,405
Country Total  71 154 282 132 35 78  78 1,993 1,582 4,405
Montenegro[2] DOS NADR – CWD 7,449 0 0 0 1,750 0 0 1,400 0 10,599
DoD 11 294 422 428 562 30  141 39 0 1,927
Country Total 7,460 294 422 428 2,312 30  141 1,439 0 12,526
Morocco DoD 0 0 0 0 90 0  368 73 147 678
Country Total 0 0 0 0 90 0  368 73 147 678
Mozambique DOS NADR – CWD 29,557 3,000 1,525 700 0 0 0 0 0  34,782
DOS Other 1,600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,600
CDC 2,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,100
DoD 12,466 599 122 189 0 0 0 0 0  13,376
USAID 4,533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,533
Country Total 50,256 3,599 1,647 889 0 0 0 0 0  56,391
Namibia DOS NADR – CWD 3,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  3,351
DOS Other 670 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  670
DoD 4,952 151 45 110 80 0  42  114 0  5,494
Country Total 8,973 151 45 110 80 0  42  114 0  9,515
Nepal** DOD 0 0 165 36 36 0 0 0 0  237
USAID 2,000 0 0 131 1,580 420  406  2,162 0  6,699
Country Total 2,000 0 165 167 1,616 420  406  2,162 0  6,936
Nicaragua DOS NADR – CWD  4,081 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,081
DoD  200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  200
Country Total  4,281 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,281
Niger DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 693 500 1,250  1,250 1,000 1,000 5,693
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 3  325 0 0  328
Country Total 0 0 0 693 500 1,253  1,575 1,000 1,000 6,021
Nigeria DOS NADR – CWD  1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,449
DoD 0 0 0 0 315 321  55 0 0  691
Country Total  1,449 0 0 0 315 321  55 0 0  2,140
North
Macedonia
DOS NADR – CWD  1,998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 345 348 693
Country Total  1,998 0 0 0 0 0 0 345 348 2,691
Oman DOS NADR – CWD  1,785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,785
DoD  2,553 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,553
Country Total  4,338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,338
Pakistan** DOS NADR – CWD  832 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 832
Country Total  832 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  832
Palau DOS NADR – CWD 235 390 690 505 505 600  655 731 0 4,311
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 106 110 216
Country Total 235 390 690 505 505 600  655 837 110 4,527
Paraguay DOS NADR – CWD  200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Country Total  200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Peru DOS NADR – CWD 10,906 0 0 0 2,600 500  2,000 0 0 16,006
DoD 11,944 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 168 12,129
USAID 0 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 22,850 1,000 0 0 2,600 500  2,000 17 168 29,135
Philippines DOS NADR – CWD  920 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  920
DoD 0 0 0 173 45 335 0 0 0  553
USAID  1,550 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,550
Country Total  2,470 0 0 173 45 335 0 0 0  3,023
Romania DOS NADR – CWD  2,369 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,369
DoD  150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  150
Country Total  2,519 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,519
Rwanda** DOS NADR – CWD  4,203 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  4,203
DOS Other  700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  700
DoD  7,790 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  7,790
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,500 0  1,500
Country Total  12,693 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,500 0  14,193
São Tomé/
Príncipe
DOS NADR – CWD  50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
Country Total  50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
Senegal DOS NADR – CWD  2,505 0 0 400 400 450 0 0 0 3,755
DOS Other 0 260 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 260
DoD  252 0 367 1,147 100 10  90 12 129 2,107
USAID  500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total  3,257 260 367 1,547 500 460  90 12 129 6,622
Serbia[2] DOS NADR – CWD 13,785 2,000 900 195 2,100 1,250  1,000 1,000 1,000 23,230
DoD 0 0 0 3 200 107 0 0 0 310
Country Total 13,785 2,000 900 198 2,300 1,357  1,000 1,000 1,000 23,540
Serbia & Montenegro[2] DOS NADR – CWD  5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,656
Country Total  5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,656
Sierra Leone DOS NADR – CWD 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  147
USAID  1,593 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,593
Country Total  1,740 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,740
Slovenia DoD 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 270
Country Total 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 270
Solomon
Islands
DOS NADR – CWD 967 560 473 446 350 567  715 550 0 4,628
DoD 325 35 429 306 569 200  234 92 0 2,190
Country Total 1,292 595 902 752 919 767  949 642 0 6,818
Somalia DOS NADR – CWD 15,045 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 2,740  2,165 2,000 2,000 33,050
Country Total 15,045 3,300 2,000 1,800 2,000 2,740  2,165 2,000 2,000 33,050
South Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD 3,900 2,500 2,135 2,000 300 300  1,000 2,000 2,000 16,135
DoD 367 459 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 826
Country Total 4,267 2,959 2,135 2,000 300 300  1,000 2,000 2,000 16,961
Sri Lanka DOS NADR – CWD 28,166 3,300 4,625 4,250 2,500 5,000  9,500 2,500 5,500 65,341
DOS Other 122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122
CDC 175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 175
DoD 887 522 715 507 601 697  310 84 179 4,502
USAID 7,400 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 36,750 4,322 5,340 4,757 3,101 5,697  9,810 2,584 5,679 78,040
Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,800
Country Total 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,800
Sudan and South Sudan[3] DOS NADR – CWD  24,427 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24,427
Country Total  24,427 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24,427
Suriname DOS NADR – CWD  390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
Country Total  390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
Syria DOS NADR – CWD 0 550 0 8,000 9,510 63,000 0 5,000 0 86,060
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 10
Country Total 0 550 0 8,000 9,510 63,000 0 5,005 5 86,070
Tajikistan DOS NADR – CWD 5,565 2,028 3,190 2,275 1,975 2,450  1,500 2,500 1,500 22,983
DoD 2,432 0 101 67 147 0  98 25 439 3,309
USAID 1,500 0 0 0 534 440  406 0 0 2,880
Country Total 9,497 2,028 3,291 2,342 2,656 2,890  2,004 2,525 1,939 29,172
Tanzania** DOS NADR – CWD 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  16
DoD 429 274 44 123 50 0 0 0 0  920
USAID 1,700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,700
Country Total 2,145 274 44 123 50 0 0 0 0 2,636
Thailand DOS NADR – CWD 4,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,190
DoD 7,589 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 518  608 724 681 15,448
Country Total 11,779 1,200 1,805 561 1,762 518  608 724 681 19,638
Togo** DOS NADR – CWD  32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Country Total  32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Tunisia DoD  217 0 0 536 630 0 0 0 0 1,383
Country Total  217 0 0 536 630 0 0 0 0 1,383
Uganda** DOS NADR – CWD  56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  56
DoD  – 0 0 0 207 0 0 0 0  207
USAID  1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  1,000
Country Total  1,056 0 0 0 207 0 0 0 0  1,263
Ukraine DOS NADR – CWD 15,032 2,000 7,095 1,940 2,000 6,000  6,000 8,500 8,500 57,067
DoD 177 0 0 303 108 656  656 726 4,464 7,090
USAID 0 0 0 1,031 920 1,048  958 0 0 3,957
Country Total 15,209 2,000 7,095 3,274 3,028 7,704  7,614 9,226 12,964 68,114
Uruguay DOS NADR – CWD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Country Total 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Uzbekistan DoD  99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
Country Total  99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
Vietnam DOS NADR – CWD 35,596 4,500 10,506 12,548 10,709 12,621  12,500 15,000 17,500 131,480
CDC 1,848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 1,338 471 256 340 722 1,168  115 1,211 584 6,205
USAID 26,799 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 65,581 4,971 10,762 12,888 11,431 13,789  12,615 16,211 18,084 166,332
West Bank DOS NADR – CWD 991 917 1,180 1,000 1,000 1,000  0 0 0 6,088
DoD 0 0 0 20 0 44  85 76 55 280
Country Total 991 917 1,180 1,020 1,000 1,044  85 76 55 6,368
Yemen DOS NADR – CWD 16,355 2,000 700 2,000 3,500 9,000  2,000 4,000 4,000 43,555
DoD 4,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 21,201 2,000 700 2,000 3,500 9,000  2,000 4,000 4,000 48,401
Zambia** DOS NADR – CWD  2,050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  2,050
DoD  437 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  437
Country Total  2,487 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,487
Zimbabwe DOS NADR – CWD 3,336 500 2,750 3,000 1,000 2,000  3,598 1,000 2,500 19,684
DoD 3,265 0 0 173 78 153  337 243 88 4,337
Country Total 6,601 500 2,750 3,173 1,078 2,153  3,935 1,243 2,588 24,021
Global/
Multi-Country
DOS NADR – CWD 142,984 16,007 20,662 6,326 8,234 10,037 7,435 7,294 28,000 246,979
DOS Other 1,450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,450
CDC 18,653 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,653
DoD 202,755 0 0 1,313 861 576 42 3,043 2,621 211,211
USAID 98,393 4,850 7,000 2,841 687 3,502 4,262 7,757 6,954 136,246
Global Total 464,235 20,857 27,662 10,480 9,782 14,115 11,739 18,094 37,575 614,539
Grand Total 2,168,391 165,283 175,708 200,223 203,968 366,434 243,903 238,465 259,339 4,021,713

*Initial planned allocations
**Activity funded via FY19 Global/Multi-Country funding


U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History By Source

(To view full table, use scroll bar at the bottom, or view PDF version.)

Sources  FY93-12  FY13  FY14  FY15  FY16  FY17 FY18 FY19 *FY20  Total
DOS NADR – CWD 1,289,731 142,417 150,688 177,779 180,532 341,500  221,589 206,440  227,550 2,938,226
DOS Other[4] 65,301 2,035 850 0 0 0 0 0 0  68,186
CDC  38,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  38,190
DoD[5]  469,985 10,331 10,937 10,944 11,939 11,938  10,158  19,606  18,333  574,171
USAID[6]  287,184 10,500 13,233 11,500 11,497 12,996  12,156  12,419  13,456  402,941
Grand Total 2,150,391 165,283 175,708 200,223 203,968 366,434  243,903 238,465 259,339  4,021,713

(Dollars in thousands)
*Initial planned allocations


U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History Total By Year

U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program Funding History Total By Year: *2020: $259,339, 2019: $238,465, 2018: $243,903, 2017: $366,434, 2016: $203,968, 2015: $200,223, 2014: $175,708, 2013: $165,283, 2012: $189,858, 2011: $163,917 , 2010: $201,132, 2009: $160,840 , 2008: $147,588 , 2007: $106,799 , 2006: $115,620, 2005: $122,340 , 2004: $196,466 , 2003: $127,730 , 2002: $110,429, 2001: $93,616 , 2000: $111,248 , 1999: $82,722 , 1998: $74,992 , 1997: $55,301, 1996: $36,129 , 1995: $41,589 , 1994: $19,932, 1993: $10,143

*Initial planned allocations

Footnotes for charts on pages 65-71:

  1. FY08 amount includes $110,000 from the Support for Eastern European Democracy (SEED) fund, which was apportioned as NADR.
  2. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007.
  3. South Sudan and Sudan split into two countries in 2011.
  4. DOS – Other includes a variety of DOS funding sources.
  5. DoD funds include OHDACA, the Research Development Test and Evaluation fund, the Humanitarian Assistance – Excess Property Program and the Iraq Relief and Construction fund. All U.S. Central Command demining-centric activities for FY10 were conducted with Theater Security Cooperation funding, not funding from U.S. OHDACA.
  6. USAID includes historical funding in addition to USAID Leahy War Victims funding.
Girls in Libya show their EORE material. [Photo courtesy of HI]
Girls in Libya show their EORE material. [Photo courtesy of HI]

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future