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22nd Edition To Walk the Earth in Safety Fiscal Year 2022 October 1, 2021-September 30, 2022 Documenting the United States’ Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction U.S. Department of State Bureau of Political-Military Affairs

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

Commonly Used Terms and Symbols

  • A green ball with gray markings on the edges  Cluster Munitions Remnant Survey: The application of all reasonable effort, through non-technical survey and technical survey procedures, to identify and define a confirmed hazardous area impacted by unexploded cluster munition remnants.
  • A blue rectangle with the letters EOD inside and three black dots in a row above the blue box  Explosive Ordnance Disposal: The detection, identification, evaluation, render safe, recovery and disposal of explosive ordnance.
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  Explosive Ordnance Disposal Callout: Investigation and disposal activity of suspected explosive ordnance(s).
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  Explosive Ordnance Risk Education: Activities which seek to reduce the risk of injury from mines or explosive remnants of war by raising awareness through public information dissemination, education, and training.
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  Explosive Remnant of War: Abandoned explosive ordnance and unexploded ordnance.
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  Implementing Partner: Organizations selected to implement specific grant agreements according to an agreed upon work plan.
  • An illustration of a clock  Improvised Explosive Device: A device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, destructive, lethal, noxious, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, disfigure, distract, or harass. They may incorporate military stores, but are normally devised from non-military components.
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  Landmine: An anti-personnel or anti-tank mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure, or kill one or more persons or a mine designed to detonate by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle.
  • A solid green circle  Land Cleared: A defined area cleared through the removal and/or destruction of all specified explosive ordnance hazards to a specified depth.
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  Land Released: The process of applying all reasonable effort to identify, define, and remove all presence and suspicion of explosive ordnance through non-technical survey and/or technical survey.
  • An illustration of 4 long weapons stacked vertically  Man-Portable Air Defense System (MANPADS) and Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM): MANPADS are shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile consisting of a guided missile enclosed in a launch tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), and a single-use battery or battery-cooling unit. ATGMs are guided missiles primarily design to destroy armored military vehicles, but are also used against divers static and slower moving targets.
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  Physical Security and Stockpile Management: Standards for arms and ammunition maintenance including monitoring of stockpiles, training of qualified experts, facility upgrades and maintenance, and long-term planning for infrastructure, resources, and procurement associated with arms and ammunition.
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  Stockpile Management Training: The training of personnel in physical security and stockpile management (see definition above).
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  Small Arms Ammunition: Cartridges ranging in size from .22 caliber through 30 millimeter that are intended for various types of handheld or mounted weapons including rifles, pistols, revolvers, machine guns, and shotguns.
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  Small Arms and Light Weapons: Man-portable weapons systems designed either for individual use, or by two or three persons serving as a crew. For example: handguns, grenades launchers, machine guns, etc.
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  Survivor Assistance: Aid, relief, and support provided to explosive ordnance survivors to reduce the immediate and long-term medical and psychological implications of their trauma.
  • Battle Area Clearance: The systematic and controlled clearance of hazardous areas where the hazards are known not to include mines.
  • Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System: A dual sensor, handheld mine detector that combines an electromagnetic induction sensor, ground penetrating radar, and sophisticated algorithms to detect landmines while rejecting most clutter, also known as false positives.
  • Humanitarian Mine Action: Clearance, risk education, survivor assistance, advocacy, and stockpile destruction of mines and explosive remnants of war by humanitarian organizations to restore peace and security at the community level.
  • International Ammunition Technical Guidelines: An internationally recognized frame of reference developed by the United Nations to achieve and demonstrate effective levels of safety and security of ammunition stockpiles.
  • International Mine Action Standards: The framework by which the Anti-personnel Mine Ban Convention and Convention on Cluster Munitions can be practically implemented.
  • Unexploded Ordnance: Explosive ordnance that has been primed, fuzed, armed, or otherwise prepared for use or used. It may have been fired, dropped, launched, or projected, yet it remains unexploded either through malfunction or design or for any other reason. This does not include landmines or stockpiled ammunition and explosives.
  • Weapons and Ammunition Destruction: The process of final conversion of weapons, ammunition and explosives into an inert state that can no longer function as designed.
A person wearing protective gear uses a chop saw to cut a gun so it is no longer functional

A Message From Assistant Secretary Jessica Lewis

Jessica Lewis

As the fiscal year closed at the end of September 2022, I took stock of some of the incredible accomplishments of our conventional weapons destruction program. After deadly landmines are removed and booby-traps and improvised explosive devices are cleared, wheat fields are now ready for harvesting, children can run to school on a path, families can return to their partially destroyed homes, and elephants are able to migrate through grasslands. Elsewhere, man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) and small arms and light weapons were secured or destroyed to prevent terrorists from acquiring them and attacking civilians. These are just some of the successes the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program achieves day after day, year after year, one step at a time. In fiscal year 2022, the United States again answered the call to confront the threats of landmines, unexploded ordnance, and unsecured small arms and light weapons, to make this world a better place. The dedication of all those involved in the removal of these hazards and securing weapons must be commended and applauded every time a life is saved due to their efforts. These successes are well documented in this year’s To Walk the Earth in Safety.

While conducting its unlawful war and full-scale invasion of Ukraine, Russia has intentionally polluted massive swaths of the country with landmines, explosive remnants of war, and improvised explosive devices. The Government of Ukraine estimated that, as of September 2022, 160,000 square kilometers of its land may have been contaminated—this is roughly the size of the states of Virginia, Maryland, and Connecticut combined, or nearly twice the size of Austria. These explosive hazards impede reconstruction, prevent displaced people from returning home, and continue to kill and maim Ukraine’s innocent civilians. The United States is helping the Government of Ukraine address this urgent humanitarian challenge. U.S. funding supports humanitarian demining teams and is enabling a large-scale train and equip project to strengthen the Government of Ukraine’s demining and explosive ordnance disposal capacity.

One glaring consequence of Russia’s aggression in Ukraine is that farmers have lost their livelihoods waiting for landmine-riddled fields to be cleared so that they can once more supply the world with much-needed wheat, corn, and barley. Global food security has become a keystone of U.S. conventional weapons destruction efforts, and not just in Ukraine. For example, in Iraq, where the United States supports massive demining and battle area clearance programs, farmers can return to their land for the first time since Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) occupation and harvest wheat, one of the most lucrative crops there. In Serbia and elsewhere in the Balkans, U.S. demining efforts are enabling homeowners to tend once again to their backyard vegetable gardens and forage for mushrooms in the woods, supplementing their diets and providing extra income too.

We continue to chronicle in this year’s edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety how the United States empowers women to work in the humanitarian demining sector, including by leading demining teams in Vietnam, Sri Lanka and elsewhere. Women who work in peace and security positions, as part of demining teams or by providing explosive ordnance risk education, are a critical part of the process of post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation. These women bring valuable perspectives to every endeavor, including conventional weapons destruction, with solutions often rooted in strengthening communities through inclusion and empowerment of all.

Environmental resiliency and conservation are a high priority for this Administration, and we have highlighted this effort in several stories included in this edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety. For example, in Zimbabwe we have cleared land so that wildebeests and other wildlife may roam freely without the threat of stepping on a landmine. The result will be a thriving ecosystem, safe wildlife migration, and economic development resulting from increased eco-tourism.

It is with all these goals in mind that I come to work not only as a public servant, but as a mother who wants all children to enjoy the beauty and peace this world has to offer. Every child, adult, and animal should be able to walk the earth in safety!

Jessica Lewis
Assistant Secretary
Bureau of Political-Military Affairs

A group of elephants stand together

Adobe Stock Photos

The United States’ Commitment to Conventional Weapons Destruction

United States flag: 13 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars;

Stockpiles of excess, poorly-secured, or otherwise at-risk conventional weapons continue to challenge peace and prosperity worldwide. In the wrong hands, small arms and light weapons, including more advanced types such as man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), fuel political instability and violence and threaten international security. Aging ammunition stockpiles may also explode without warning, devastating nearby population centers and causing extensive contamination that can degrade soil and water sources. Meanwhile, landmines, improvised explosive devices, and explosive remnants of war, including cluster munition remnants, unexploded artillery shells and mortar shells, kill and maim people decades after conflicts end. Clearing land enables stabilization assistance, allowing displaced persons to return home, economic revitalization to begin, and political stability to take root. U.S. clearance and disposal efforts are returning land to productive use, while helping ensure air, soil, and water is clean and safe to use. These critical efforts help foster food security and climate resilience in communities affected by explosive hazards.

The U.S. Government’s Collaborative Approach

The United States is committed to reducing these threats worldwide and is the leading financial supporter of conventional weapons destruction, providing more than $4.6 billion in assistance to more than 120 countries and areas since 1993. The Department of State, Department of Defense, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) work together with foreign governments, private companies, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations to reduce excess small arms and light weapons and conventional munitions stockpiles (including MANPADS), implement best practices for physical security and stockpile management at conventional weapons storage sites, and carry out humanitarian mine action programs.

In fiscal year 2022, Department of State invested over $319 million* in conventional weapons destruction programs globally. It also led the U.S. interagency MANPADS Task Force, which coordinates counter-MANPADS efforts by the Departments of State, Defense, Homeland Security, and other relevant stakeholders, and helps partner nations eliminate or better secure the MANPADS they retain. In addition to these Department of State-led efforts, the Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center trains deminers, ammunition handlers, and stockpile managers from partner countries. The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program improves conventional weapons destruction technologies, enhancing the efficiency and safety of humanitarian demining around the world. USAID also assists survivors of landmine and explosive remnants of war, providing medical and rehabilitative care through the Leahy War Victims Fund.

Department of State Support for Conventional Weapons Destruction

The Department of State has managed more than 75 percent (more than $3.4 billion) of the United States’ contribution to conventional weapons destruction since 1993, with a three-fold objective:

  • Enhance U.S. and international security by destroying and securing small arms and light weapons, including MANPADS, at risk of proliferation to terrorists, insurgents, and other violent non-state actors;
  • Improve stability and prosperity by clearing landmines and explosive remnants of war and returning land to productive use;
  • Build trust and deepen relationships with key partners to accelerate achievement of broader U.S. foreign policy objectives.

Robust project performance standards, enhanced monitoring and evaluation strategies, and a comprehensive program planning process guide the State Department’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement’s decisions and hold implementing partners accountable.

The measurable, tangible results that flow from the U.S. Government’s commitment to CWD strongly support U.S. foreign policy priorities. In addition, these programs help protect the lives and livelihoods of civilians so they can more safely remain in their own countries.

*Initial planned allocations

A man putting on a safety vest.

The HALO Trust

1993–2022 Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program

Global map of 1993–2022 Global Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program, program countries appear in red, yellow, blue, or green, refer to regional maps in Appendix A for full text description
Top 10 Countries Funded FY1993–FY2022 (Aggregate), full text description in Appendix A
Percent of Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding by Region FY1993–FY2022, full text description in Appendix A

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  174,670,025 SQUARE METERS (43,161 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  69,306,346 SQUARE METERS (17,126 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  16,561 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  37,564 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  200,112 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a clock  9,099 IED OR COMPONENTS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  3,436,0371 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  53,714 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  3,938 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  730 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS MARKED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  14,165 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of 4 long weapons stacked vertically  223 MANPADS, ATGMS, OR COMPONENTS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  775 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • A blue rectangle with the letters EOD inside and three black dots in a row above the blue box  428 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  103 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  50 IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS

1. This total reflects the number of recipients reached through in-person risk education. More than 18 million additional recipients were reached through social media in Ukraine.

Explosive Ordnance Disposal Qualifications and Expertise

Article and images contributed by Drew Pater, Master EOD Technician. Edited by The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery, and the Department of State.

The United States is committed to assisting countries around the world that are contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war to make their land safe and productive again. This requires painstaking clearance work to detect, identify, render safe, and/or destroy explosive hazards, often in very austere environments. The people who do this lifesaving work are called explosive ordnance disposal operators / technicians, or humanitarian deminers. They come from countries worldwide, and some receive their training during military service, while others are trained by nongovernmental organizations and commercial companies.

The International Mine Action Standards provide specifications and guidance for the conduct of explosive ordnance disposal operations. These standards are a United Nations endorsed set of best practices for humanitarian mine action activities that are updated regularly based on lessons learned, and technological and procedural advancements. While the standards do not provide specific technical guidance for the disposal of particular types of explosive ordnance, they categorize training levels for operators into four distinct level—Levels 1, 2, 3 and 3+, with 3+ as the highest level of training.

Explosive ordnance disposal Level 1 is the basic level of explosive ordnance disposal training, which teaches the operator to locate, expose, and destroy in place the specific individual munitions upon which they have been trained. Individuals with Level 1 qualification may only perform this work under carefully controlled and supervised circumstances. The explosive ordnance disposal Level 1 operator can also function as a team member, assisting Level 2 and 3 operators on tasks requiring additional support.

Level 2 is the intermediate level of explosive ordnance disposal training. An explosive ordnance disposal operator with Level 2 qualification may perform all Level 1 tasks, as well as determine when it is safe to move and transport munitions. They can also conduct simultaneous disposal of multiple munitions but are still limited to those specific munitions upon which they have been trained. A Level 2 operator is qualified to conduct tasks in all environments with the written approval of an explosive ordnance disposal operator with Level 3 or above qualification.

The explosive ordnance disposal Level 3 qualification allows the operator to perform all Level 1 and 2 tasks, conduct procedures to render explosive hazards safe from unintended detonation, and control the final disposal of a wide range of specific types of explosive ordnance on which the individual has been trained. Level 3 operators can also authorize an explosive ordnance disposal Level 2 operator to perform tasks in various environments. As with Level 1 and Level 2 qualification, operators may only work with specific types of munitions on which they have been trained.

Explosive ordnance disposal Level 3+ is the most advanced explosive ordnance disposal qualification, with the operator achieving competency in one or more of the following subjects: 1) advanced explosive theory; 2) bombs; 3) clearance of damaged tanks and other armored fighting vehicles; 4) basic chemical munitions and procedures; and 5) bulk demolitions and guided weapons. These competencies may be taught individually, meaning an explosive ordnance disposal Level 3+ operator qualification does not necessarily mean that training in all five skill sets has been received.

The U.S. Department of State requires that all operators engaged in humanitarian demining and battle area clearance funded by the U.S. Government be qualified according to International Mine Action Standards. By adhering to the International Mine Action Standards, nongovernmental organizations and companies funded by U.S. taxpayers can build competent teams to achieve the common goal of making land that was once contaminated with explosive hazards safe and productive again.

A person in protective gear kneeling in a large dirt pit

Drew Prater
A man with a shovel standing in a narrow dirt pit

Drew Prater

United States Agency for International Development Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund

Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund Access to Rehabilitation Services Improves Lives

Established in 1989, the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) Leahy War Victims Fund is an important source of U.S. assistance to civilian survivors of conflict in developing countries. The Fund’s financial and technical support develops sustainable, quality physical rehabilitation services, including prosthetic and orthotic, physical and occupational therapy, and assistive technology services in conflict-affected countries. The fund supports the development of a range of services while maintaining its focus on victims of conflict and persons with disabilities.

In 2022, the Leahy War Victims fund provided more than $13 million to support the rehabilitation of survivors of conflict in 13 countries. To date, the fund has provided approximately $337 million in assistance to more than 50 countries.

USAID’s physical rehabilitation activity in Nepal, funded by the Leahy War Victims Fund, aims to establish a sustainable, integrated, public-private rehabilitation system to improve the functional independence of victims of conflict (including from landmines and unexploded ordnance)and others that would benefit from rehabilitation services. The activity is working to establish sustainable rehabilitation services within the health system by employing a systems strengthening approach and the World Health Organization Rehabilitation 2030 strategy and tools. Additionally, the activity provides technical support to local physical rehabilitation centers throughout Nepal and fosters relationships between the physical rehabilitation centers and public sector physiotherapy units. The activity is implemented by Humanity and Inclusion.

Historically, Sudurpaschim Province is one of the least developed in the country, and access to rehabilitation services is limited. The Nepalese Civil War 1996–2006 had a significant impact on Sudurpaschim Province and resulted in many civilian victims of conflict (including survivors of landmines and explosive remnants of war). According to the Landmine Monitor, the total number of mine/explosive remnants of war survivors in Nepal is unknown, but at least 1,060 survivors of landmines or explosive remnants of war incidents have been recorded. The physical rehabilitation activity strives to ensure that civilian victims of conflict have access to appropriate services in five provinces.


Ram Bahadur Badayak

Ram Bahadur Badayak is a farmer from Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal. He lives in a multigenerational home with his wife, son, daughter-in-law, and grandchildren. After Ram had his leg amputated several years ago, he was unable to return to work in the field. This led to him developing significant stress, low-self-esteem, and depression.

A community outreach worker from the Nepal National Social Welfare Association, one of USAID’s partners under the rehabilitation activity, referred Ram to the prosthetic service of the physical rehabilitation center so he could be fitted for a prosthetic device. The local social welfare association holds outreach events and mobile physical rehabilitation “camps” to identify civilian victims of conflict, persons with disabilities, and others who would benefit from rehabilitation services and refers them to the appropriate service such as prosthetics, physical therapy, assistive technology and/or social services.

After receiving his initial prosthetic device, Ram continues to use rehabilitation services for repairs and periodic replacement and encourages other people in his community, especially victims of the conflict, to use these services. The physical rehabilitation project emphasizes that the need for rehabilitation does not end with a single visit. Follow-up care is crucial and the team can provide referrals to other services, such as vocational training or psychosocial services tailored to individual needs.

“With timely access to the rehabilitation services, one can regain function and mobility like Ram Bahadur,” says Nepal National Social Welfare Association prosthetist Krishna Raj Bhatta. “Even after amputation, it is extremely important for patients to have access to prosthetics and other assistive services to improve their health and well-being.”

Devices such as prosthetic limbs help survivors perform their daily activities with the greatest degree of independence. Access to rehabilitation services and appropriate assistive technology further enables survivors to earn a living, attend school, and engage in community activities.

For Ram, having access to rehabilitation services means that he can resume work as a farmer and support his family. He explains, “The prosthetic limb does not feel artificial, [it is] a part of me.” His confidence has increased, and he has become more active. Recently, Ram participated in a physical rehabilitation activity to highlight the importance of rehabilitation services to promote the integration of persons with disabilities.

A man seated on straw with a prosthetic leg

Image courtesy of Yeti Raj Nuraula/Humanity and Incl

Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program

The U.S. Army Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program  develops, demonstrates, and validates new landmine and unexploded ordnance detection and clearance technologies using a rapid development process that focuses on the transformation of commercial off-the-shelf equipment into demining technologies that are improving the safety and efficiency of mine clearance worldwide. The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program also uses mature technologies or leverages existing military countermine technologies for implementation in a humanitarian demining role.

The program’s current technology development areas include hazardous area confirmation, vegetation and obstacle clearance, landmine and unexploded ordnance detection, mechanical-mine and unexploded ordnance clearance, mechanical-mine neutralization, post-clearance quality control, and information management. Technology development plans are based on feedback from ongoing field evaluations, biannual requirements workshops with implementing partners and country programs, and periodic site assessments with these same partners.

The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program partners with humanitarian demining organizations to conduct operational field evaluations of developmental technology in their own demining operations to provide assessment and feedback on new technologies. Operational field evaluations are one of the most important aspects of the program because the equipment undergoes testing in actual minefields. These evaluations allow the host country to operate the equipment and determine whether it is useful, cost effective and efficient, and is key to Humanitarian Demining Research and Development success in research and development.

The program coordinates extensively with U.S. Department of Defense Geographic Combatant Commands, the office of the Department of Defense Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Policy) for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, U.S. Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, and the Defense Security Cooperation Agency and its Humanitarian Demining Training Center, host nation mine action centers, and foreign militaries to ensure that program requirements are being met.

In FY2022, the program performed testing and operational field evaluations in Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Iraq, Kosovo, Lebanon, Palau, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, the West Bank and Zimbabwe.

A large tractor-like piece of machinery

U.S. Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center

The Defense Security Cooperation Agency operates the Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Training Center  at Fort Lee, Virginia. The Center trains and prepares U.S. military forces, U.S. government stakeholders, and international partners to conduct humanitarian mine action missions, explosive remnants of war disposal, and physical security and stockpile management using “Train the Trainer” instructional methods.

The Center conducts the Humanitarian Mine Action Basic Course that prepares U.S. service members to teach others the curriculum on landmine clearance and battle area clearance that conforms to International Mine Action Standards and international best practices. The course also covers humanitarian mine action mission planning and course development, including lesson plans, communication, and policy and laws related to conventional weapons destruction. Students are exposed to a wide variety of clearance techniques and equipment, as well as internationally recognized best practices for clearance of hazard areas.

The Humanitarian Demining Training Center also conducts a non-resident course via a mobile training team. The course provides an overview of the humanitarian mine action program including applicable laws, policies and regulations, international treaties, International Mine Action Standards, test and evaluation, and concept of operations.

In addition, the Center provides program management support, capacity-building training, technical assistance, and demining and stockpiled conventional munitions assistance to partner nations for mine action programs and physical security and stockpile management administered by the U.S. military’s geographic combatant commands: Africa Command, Central Command, European Command, Indo-Pacific Command, and Southern Command. When a partner nation is accepted into the Department of Defense mine action program, the Center deploys program analysts to assess the state of a partner nation’s capability to conduct demining and stockpile conventional munitions management. The assessment provides a viable plan with established objectives and outcomes and is a tool used by combatant commands to request resources funded by the Department of Defense’s Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid Appropriation to execute mine action projects. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency in consultation with the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Special Operations Low Intensity Conflict, Stability and Humanitarian Affairs, and the Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement approve mine action and stockpiled conventional munitions assistance projects. Subjects cover demining, battle area clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, underwater unexploded ordnance disposal, and physical security and stockpile management of conventional stockpiled munitions. Training is conducted in accordance with U.S. law and policy, and international guidelines governing mine action, unexploded ordnance disposal, and physical security and stockpile management.

Humanitarian Demining Training Center personnel also provide a suite of tools and expertise to perform physical security and stockpile management, landmine clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and underwater unexploded ordnance disposal in partnership with other public organizations or private industry. The beneficiaries of this capacity building are foreign junior military officers, non-commissioned officers, and civil servants tasked with conducting mine action. In order to sustain the capabilities of partner nation humanitarian mine action programs, the Center, in coordination with the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, also executes projects to enhance the skills of mine action managers and ministerial or executive level personnel through seminars and workshops on legal, policy, and programmatic topics at the operational and strategic levels.

The Humanitarian Demining Training Center continually improves its management systems and educational services to meet the changing needs of customers and U.S. humanitarian mine action programs. In FY2022, the center spent $19.5 million to execute its vital global mission.

A person in protective gear laying on his stomach probing the ground with a metal stick

U.S. Department of State Quick Reaction Force: Ready to Help Avert or Respond to Emergencies Worldwide

Ready to Help Avert or Respond to Emergencies Worldwide 

The Quick Reaction Force (QRF) is a team of civilian explosive ordnance disposal experts that serves as the State Department’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement’s first responders to conventional weapons destruction emergencies worldwide, including munitions depot explosions, ammunition depots at risk of imminent explosions, and clearance of explosive remnants of war that present an imminent danger to civilians. These situations require fast action to secure or dispose of poorly guarded or unstable ammunition, prevent loss of life, protect critical infrastructure, and conduct needs assessments for further conventional weapons destruction help.

“The QRF is one of the more unique foreign assistance capabilities that the United States has to offer,” remarks Karen Chandler, Director of the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement. “In a world where military depots are often directly adjacent to or even within communities with growing civilian populations, it has become tragically common for unplanned explosions of aging, insecure, or unstable ammunition to threaten many lives. The QRF’s ability to respond flexibly, with high levels of capability and speed, is unparalleled.”

Besides being ready to respond to catastrophic explosions, the QRF can also provide foreign governments with expert advice on proper physical security and stockpile management of their munitions, advice that can avert disasters. Director Chandler observes that “It’s better for foreign governments, their citizens, and for the U.S. taxpayers, frankly, if the QRF is invited to advise on proper physical security and stockpile management, and for their advice to be followed, than it is for the QRF to respond after massive explosions have killed and injured innocent civilians and destroyed civilian infrastructure.”

The Golden West Humanitarian Foundation, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement’s implementing partner for the QRF, is an American non-profit charity specializing in humanitarian demining, battle area clearance, physical security and stockpile management, and safely “harvesting” explosives to create affordable and effective “donor charges.”

Since 2001, the QRF and its precursor, the Quick Reaction Demining Force, have deployed to:

Albania | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Cambodia | Croatia | Cyprus | Democratic Republic of the Congo | Equatorial Guinea | Federated States of Micronesia | Guatemala | Iraq | Kazakhstan | Kiribati | Kyrgyz Republic | Liberia | Libya | Malawi | Marshall Islands | Papua New Guinea | Palau | | Paraguay | Peru | Philippines | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Serbia | Sierra Leone | Solomon Islands | Sri Lanka | Sudan | Tanzania | Tuvalu | Ukraine | Uruguay | Vietnam

A building destroyed by an explosion

U.S. Department of State

The Interagency MANPADS Task Force: Building Partnerships to Protect Global Aviation

A missile sits on top of a wooden pallet

U.S. Department of State

WHY DO MANPADS MATTER?

Since 1970, terrorists and other non-state actors have struck dozens of civilian aircraft with man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS), often referred to as shoulder-fired missiles, killing over 1,000 civilians. MANPADS were first developed in the 1960s to help legitimate armed forces defend against air attacks. However, in the hands of terrorists, criminals, or other non-state actors, MANPADS pose a serious threat to civilian and military aircraft around the world. The effectiveness of MANPADS used by Ukrainian Armed Forces as they defend their country from Russia’s unprovoked invasion demonstrates their continued lethality in combat and serves as a reminder of why preventing illicit diversion remains critical.

WHAT IS A MANPADS?

A MANPADS is typically a shoulder-fired surface-to-air missile, consisting of a guided missile enclosed in a launch tube, a reusable trigger mechanism (“gripstock”), a single-use battery or battery-cooling unit, and a disposable tube that protects the missile. Most MANPADS are 1.4 to 1.6 meters (4.5 feet to 5.5 feet) long, about 72 millimeters (3 inches) in diameter, and weigh between 15 and 18 kilograms (33 to 39 pounds). They can travel at twice the speed of sound and hit aircraft flying as high as 20,000 feet out to a horizontal range of up to 5 kilometers (3.1 miles). A single individual or crew can carry and fire MANPADS. Their small size makes them easy to transport and conceal.

WHAT WE ARE DOING

The U.S. Department of State chairs the Interagency MANPADS Task Force (MTF), which counters illicit proliferation of MANPADS to protect civil and military aviation. The MTF was formed in 2006 by a White House directive to coordinate comprehensive efforts by government agencies, including the Departments of Defense, Transportation, Homeland Security, and the Intelligence Community to address risks posed by MANPADS in the United States and around the world.

  • DESTROYING WEAPONS: To prevent potential illicit proliferation of MANPADS, the MTF, in collaboration with the Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement Program Management Division, provides conventional weapons destruction assistance to partner governments to destroy excess, unserviceable, or obsolete munitions including MANPADS and to better secure stockpiles retained by states for legitimate defense needs. Since 2006, the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement’s stockpile management and conventional weapons destruction programs have reduced over 43,000 at-risk MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) worldwide and remain critical to preventing further illicit proliferation of these dangerous arms.
  • BUILDING PARTNERSHIPS: The MTF continues to lead bilateral and multilateral coordination to build partners’ understanding of the risks associated with MANPADS, encourage responsible sales and disrupt attempted black-market sales, and advocate for MANPADS stockpile reduction and improved physical security and stockpile management in Europe, Africa, and other regions. The 42 participating members of the Wassenaar Arrangement have agreed to export control measures to curb the illicit transfer of MANPADS. The MTF coordinates with international organizations to curb illicit transfers and strengthen compliance with international regimes on MANPADS and anti-tank guided missile proliferation. For example, the MTF is supporting the Organization of American States to strengthen the capacity of Organization of American States member states, particularly law enforcement and aviation security authorities, to identify, prevent and mitigate threats to civil aviation.
  • RESPONDING TO TODAY’S CRISES TO PROTECT GLOBAL AVIATION: The MTF supports international efforts to respond to new threats as they arise. In response to Russia’s further illegal invasion of Ukraine in early 2022, and under direction from the National Security Council, the MTF led U.S. government efforts to conceptualize, develop, and execute the U.S. Plan to Counter Diversion of Certain Advanced Conventional Weapons in Eastern Europe, which calls on the United States, Allies, and partners to help Ukraine and neighboring states bolster accountability of MANPADS stockpiles, strengthen border security, and build capacity to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking.
  • BUILDING SUBJECT-MATTER EXPERTISE: The MTF works across the U.S. Government and with allies and partners to build international capacity to counter illicit trafficking of MANPADS and anti-tank guided missiles. The MTF provides MANPADS and anti-tank guided missile recognition training as well as training and identification guides to border security, aviation security, and defense personnel fighting illicit weapons proliferation. Along with the focused recognition training, MTF offers Countering Aviation Security Ecosystem Threats (CASET) training, a broader course to help authorities counter a range of technology and weapons threats to civilian aviation infrastructure. In coordination with the MTF, the Transportation Security Administration conducts MANPADS Assist Visits and International MANPADS Outreach and Training Programs that help partner countries understand and mitigate risks from MANPADS and other aviation threats and vulnerabilities.

About the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement

Overview

ANGOLA | BENIN | BURKINA FASO | CHAD | DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO | GUINEA-BISSAU | MALAWI | MAURITANIA | NIGER | SENEGAL | SOMALIA | SOUTH SUDAN | SUDAN | ZIMBABWE

Adults hold up a poster to show an audience information on how to be aware of explosive remnants of war

Mines Advisory Group

The United States invests in conventional weapons destruction in Africa to foster lasting peace, security, and prosperity. Explosive hazards, or even their suspected presence of them, hinder travel to and from schools and water sources, and limit local agricultural growth and economic development. Additionally, state-controlled stockpiles of obsolete or excess small arms and light weapons may threaten civilians and fuel violence if acquired by terrorists, transnational criminal organizations, and other destabilizing actors. Aging and unstable ammunition stockpiles pose the threat of accidental explosions like the March 2021 catastrophe in Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

The United States works closely with its African partners to address these threats through a wide range of activities. Demining and explosive ordnance risk education programs funded by the United States protect local communities, strengthen food security, and facilitate economic development, while also advancing critical climate and conservation priorities. Of note, U.S. demining programs play an important role protecting animals and facilitating wildlife conservation efforts in Angola’s Okavango watershed and Zimbabwe’s Gonarezhou National Park. The United States also partners with countries across Africa to reduce the availability of small arms and light weapons, ammunition, and improvised explosive device components used by violent extremist groups, while increasing the operational effectiveness and accountability of security forces. U.S. programs help strengthen African partners’ capacity to secure and effectively manage their arms and ammunition inventories by marking weapons, building or refurbishing armories and depots, destroying excess and unstable arms and ammunition, and training security forces to safely handle, manage, and store weapons and ammunition. For example, in Somalia, the United States funded small arms and light weapons storehouse management courses in a train-the-trainer format. This specific format has a multiplier effect, extending the lifetime of the tangible skill sets of the curriculum as participants of the initial course become qualified trainers for other military units. These initiatives help partner governments improve security sector governance, enhance accountability, and prevent munitions from being lost or stolen.

A solid green circle A white circle with a thick green outline
125,509,787
SQ M
LAND CLEARED
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
6,280
LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
5,217
EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
185
METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
An illustration of three guns stacked vertically
1,141
SMALL ARMS/LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
54,466
RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
1993–2022 Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: Africa Regional Map, full text description in Appendix A

Map and table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in Africa FY1993–FY2022
Africa FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 Total
Regional funding 18,649 500 1,950 2,000 23,099
red circle Angola 138,683 7,048 4,172 8,645 158,548
red circle Benin 14 562 500 0 1,076
red circle Burkina Faso 3,441 500 1,500 1,500 6,941
green circle Burundi 3,371 0 0 0 3,371
yellow circle Central African Republic 1,009 0 0 0 1,009
red circle Chad 17,746 1,000 1,000 1,000 20,746
red circle Congo, DRC 33,014 3,000 3,000 2,000 41,014
yellow circle Congo, Republic of the 2,839 0 0 0 2,839
green circle Djibouti 3,072 0 0 0 3,072
yellow circle Eritrea 18,118 0 0 0 18,118
green circle Eswatini 1,275 0 0 0 1,275
yellow circle Ethiopia 15,757 0 0 0 15,757
yellow circle Guinea 1,103 0 0 0 1,103
blue circle Guinea-Bissau 9,481 500 300 0 10,281
red circle Kenya1 3,037 0 0 0 3,037
yellow circle Lesotho 15 0 0 0 15
yellow circle Liberia 4,939 0 0 0 4,939
red circle Malawi 130 1,500 1,300 0 2,930
red circle Mali 5,412 0 0 1,000 6,412
red circle Mauritania 7,605 1,000 500 500 9,605
green circle Mozambique 56,391 0 1,000 0 57,391
green circle Namibia 9,515 0 0 0 9,515
red circle Niger 5,021 1,000 1,000 1,000 8,021
yellow circle Nigeria 2,140 0 0 0 2,140
blue circle Rwanda 14,193 0 1,000 505 15,698
yellow circle Sao Tome and Principe 50 0 0 0 50
red circle Senegal 6,493 1,129 1,488 56 9,166
red circle Sierra Leone 1,740 0 0 39 1,779
red circle Somalia 31,050 2,000 4,000 4,000 41,050
red circle South Sudan2 14,961 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,961
red circle Sudan2 2,800 650 1,000 0 4,450
yellow circle Sudan and South Sudan2 24,427 0 0 0 24,427
red circle Tanzania1 2,636 0 0 0 2,636
red circle Togo1 32 0 0 0 32
red circle Uganda1 1,263 0 0 0 1,263
blue circle Zambia1 2,487 0 0 0 2,487
red circle Zimbabwe 21,433 2,588 1,685 3,253 28,959
Total 485,342 24,977 27,395 27,498 565,212

1. Countries with activities in FY22 that were solely funded through Global/Multi-Country funding, but received direct funding in the past.
2. The “Sudan and South Sudan” budget line reflects the total funding for Sudan until 2011, when the country split into Sudan and South Sudan. The separate funding lines for “Sudan” and “South Sudan” reflect their respective separate funding totals since 2011.

Percentage of the $27.5 Million Allocated to Africa in FY2022 by Country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving lives through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: U.S. Demining Support Contributes to Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe

A man stands in a field surrounded by cattle.

APOPO

Article courtesy of APOPO.

Gonarezhou means “The Place of Elephants,” a suitable name to describe one of Africa’s last great, mostly untouched, wildernesses, inhabited by herds of lions, zebras, and over 150 other species of mammals. The Sengwe Wildlife Corridor connects Gonarezhou and Kruger National Parks, which are part of the larger Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park spanning multiple countries in southern Africa. These nature preserves ensure vulnerable wildlife like elephants can breed and maintain healthy populations. 

During the Zimbabwe Liberation War from 1964 to 1979, Rhodesian Security Forces placed millions of landmines along Zimbabwe’s border with Mozambique. Today these landmines, along with explosive remnants of war from the conflict, litter the border and affect the Sengwe Wildlife Corridor, which runs between the Kruger National wildlife park in South Africa and the Gonarezhou National Park in Zimbabwe’s Southeast Lowveld. Known as the CORSAN minefield, it is one of the most densely laid minefields in the world, with an estimated 5,500 mines per square kilometer that continue to threaten human security, kill and injure wildlife, block economic development, and impede conservation efforts. 

APOPO, established in 1995, is a registered Belgian nongovernmental organization and U.S. non-profit humanitarian demining organization that has supported the United States in landmine clearance in Zimbabwe since 2020. Their task: clearing approximately 7.23 million square meters (1,787 acres) of the CORSAN minefield to make the land safe for cross-border communities to engage in agricultural development, promote eco-tourism, and protect wildlife and animal migration. 

A Sengwe Wildlife Corridor free of explosive hazards will make the Gonarezhou National Park accessible to the millions of wildlife tourists who come to southern Africa. It will also reduce the widespread harm to the vulnerable wildlife in the Gonarezhou and Kruger National Parks caused by landmines and explosive remnants of war. The clearance of minefields not only increases Zimbabwe’s ability to protect its national parks and local wildlife but also contributes to regional stability and economic growth.

Through 2022, APOPO released more than 2.2 million square meters of land (over 543 acres) back to communities for safe use and destroyed more than 8,700 landmines. In conjunction with this clearance, APOPO has delivered explosive ordnance risk education to more than 9,000 members of local at-risk communities, saving lives and increasing economic opportunity for families living in the area.

The additional landmines APOPO expects to find and clear in the CORSAN minefield in the coming years will not only enable the cleared land to safely connect nature preserves for safe wildlife migration, but also grant access to agricultural lands and enable safe passage for human populations in the area. Additionally, eco-tourists on safari in Kruger National Park will be able to safely cross into Gonarezhou National Park, potentially generating additional revenue and providing employment opportunities to the local population.

By clearing the deadly legacies of former wars, Zimbabweans are empowered to pursue economic development opportunities, advance conservation goals, and live their lives free from the threat of mines.

An elephant stands alone in a field.

U.S. Department of State

Angola

A man bent over a marked area in a field looking for landmines.

The HALO Trust

Angola Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Angola made great strides in 2022 to recover from over 40 years of conflict that ended in 2002. According to Mine Action Review’s Clearing the Mines 2022 Report, Angola exceeded its land release targets and more than doubled its clearance outputs compared to the prior year. In 2022, U.S. funded demining operations contributed significantly to this achievement, returning more than 2 million square meters (515 acres) of land to local communities. While much land has been cleared of landmines and unexploded ordnance, Angola still has more than 76.18 million square meters (18,827 acres) of contaminated land remaining as of 2022 according to Angola’s National Mine Action Agency.

From FY1994 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $158.5 million for conventional weapons destruction in Angola. This assistance has released a total of more than 469 million square meters (116,064 acres) to productive use and destroyed 106,969 landmines and explosive remnants of war. Conventional weapons destruction assistance also destroyed 112,445 excess small arms and light weapons and 615 metric tons of unserviceable ammunition from government stockpiles, reducing the risk of explosions and illicit diversions.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Expanded demining in Bié, Cuando Cubango, and Moxico Provinces that released land through survey and demining and destroyed cleared landmines and other explosive hazards. Many of the clearance sites were high priority due to their proximity to populated areas, most of which are experiencing significant population growth and require more land for housing, agriculture, grazing, and other activities. Survey and clearance operations in southern Moxico and Cuando Cubango Provinces directly support the Government of Angola’s environmental conservation efforts and eco-tourism development in the Okavango River basin.
  • Further physical security and stockpile management programs in Moxico, Lunda Sul, and Lunda Norte Provinces that strengthened security forces’ management of weapons, through training and destroying surplus, unstable, or abandoned weapons and ammunition.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program supported deployment of a versatile, lightweight armored excavator modified by the integration of demining attachments and deployed the GPZ-7000 handheld detector.

Angola
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY94–22 total
DOS NADR – CWD 7,000 4,000 8,500 137,104
DOS Other 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 0 0 0 150
DoD 48 172 145 9,773
USAID 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 7,048 4,172 8,645 158,548
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  2,083,988 SQUARE METERS (515 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  611,525 SQUARE METERS (151 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  430 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  885 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  2,409 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  22,243 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  4.9 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  154 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  26 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST, MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Benin

Benin Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red (bottom) with a vertical green band on the hoist side

U.S. conventional weapons destruction assistance to Benin strengthens its national defense forces’ capacity to manage stockpiles of small arms, light weapons, ammunition, and explosives and keep them from falling into the hands of violent extremist organizations. From FY2007 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $1 million to destroy old stockpiles, build secure storage facilities for weapons and ammunition, and train Beninese forces on weapons and ammunition management. This assistance helps Benin stand up to violent extremism and staunch the flow of weapons that can lead to destabilization across the Coastal West Africa region.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • Destruction of obsolete and surplus ammunition to reduce the likelihood of diversion and unplanned explosions at storage sites, and trained members of the Benin Armed Forces to properly conduct their own ammunition destruction programs.

As part of a multi-regional program, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the International Committee of the Red Cross to strengthen the rehabilitation sector.

Benin
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY07–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 562 500 0 1,062
DoD 0 0 0 14
Country Total 562 500 0 1,076
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  78.2 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  19 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  1 ARMORY BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS, MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow five-pointed star in the center

Since 2018, violent extremist organizations in Burkina Faso have become more aggressive in their efforts to utilize diverted and illicitly trafficked weapons and ammunition for their attacks against the state and civilians. From FY2015 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $6.9 million in Burkina Faso to improve its physical security and stockpile management to help Burkinabe security forces better stand up to the threat of terrorism and prevent arms leakage to the wider Sahel region.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Improved accountability by marking weapons for the gendarmerie, police, and military with unique serial numbers.

Physical security and stockpile management training to the Burkinabe security forces.

Burkina Faso
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY15–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 1,500 1,500 6,941
Country Total 500 1,500 1,500 6,941
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  34 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP
Two men watch another man using a drill to disable a gun.

Mines Advisory Group

Chad

Chad Flag: Three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red

Chad is a key transit point for illicit weapons flowing to and from Libya and a destination point for weapons trafficked illicitly from Sudan. With U.S. support, conventional weapons destruction programs help ensure Chadian Government arms and ammunition stockpiles remain secure and serviceable as the Chadian military continues to make substantial efforts to counter threats from violent extremists.

From FY1998 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $20.7 million in Chad to clear landmines, destroy excess small arms and light weapons and ammunition, and improve physical security and stockpile management.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Marking weapons with unique serial numbers to improve stockpile accountability.
  • Destruction of excess ammunition, small arms, and light weapons
  • Training in stockpile management.
  • Building and refurbishing of storage facilities for the military, gendarmerie, and national guard.
Chad
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY98–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 15,556
DoD 0 0 0 5,190
Country Total 1,000 1,000 1,000 20,746
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  2.5 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  984 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  730 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS MARKED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  27 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  16 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Democratic Republic of the Congo

DRC Flag: sky blue field divided diagonally from the lower hoist corner to upper fly corner by a red stripe bordered by two narrow yellow stripes; a yellow, five-pointed star appears in the upper hoist corner

The Democratic Republic of the Congo’s eastern provinces continue to suffer from intense fighting between non-state actors and government forces, fueled by the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons and ammunition, resulting in further population displacement, contamination with explosive remnants of war, and a lack of economic development. The conflict also exacerbates public health crises when health workers and humanitarian assistance personnel lack safe and reliable access to conflict areas.

From FY2002 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $41 million in funding for conventional weapons destruction in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, destroying a total of 180,739 small arms and light weapons and 1,807 metric tons of ammunition, as well as upgrading armories and training security force personnel in physical security and stockpile management. Support for landmine survey and clearance released 645,223 square meters (159 acres) of land to productive use and prevented injuries through explosive ordnance risk education provided to 141,219 individuals.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Explosive ordnance risk education and demining operations in eight priority areas including South Kivu, North Kivu, Ituri, Nord Ubangi, Kasai, Tshuapa, Maniema, and Tanganyika Provinces.
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY02–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 3,000 2,000 32,334
DoD 0 0 0 1,083
USAID 0 0 0 7,597
Country Total 3,000 3,000 2,000 41,014
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  33,770 SQUARE METERS (8.3 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  4,170 SQUARE METERS (1 ACRE) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  111 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  15 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  117 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  17,194 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, POLUS CENTER FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and green with a vertical red band on the hoist side; there is a black five-pointed star centered in the red band

U.S. conventional weapons destruction program assistance has enabled Guinea-Bissau to secure its weapons and ammunition management and supply chains, destroy large stockpiles of outdated and degraded explosive munitions, and declare itself free from known antipersonnel landmine contamination in 2012.

From FY2000 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $10.2 million with a primary focus on physical security and stockpile management needs in recent years.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • Destruction of excess stockpiled ammunition.
  • Construction of secure armories and ammunition storage facilities.

Physical security and stockpile management training to security forces so they could effectively manage their new facilities. This program complements an earlier African Union-sponsored assessment of Guinea-Bissau stockpiles under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative.

Guinea-Bissau
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY00–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 300 0 8,837
DoD 0 0 0 1,444
Country Total 500 300 0 10,281
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  3 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  7.9 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  40 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  6 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST

Malawi

Malawi Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant, rising, red sun centered on the black band

The African Union sponsored an assessment of Malawi’s stockpiles of small arms, light weapons, and ammunition in 2018 under its Ammunition Management Safety Initiative to identify gaps in security measures and degraded ammunition that pose a high risk of accidental explosion. Based on that initial assessment and the findings of subsequent assessments, between 2019 and 2022 the United States upgraded physical infrastructure, destroyed excess ammunition, and trained Malawian security forces to international standards for physical security and stockpile management to prevent diversions and depot explosions.

From FY2018 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $2.9 million in conventional weapons destruction efforts in Malawi.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • Extensive program of armory and ammunition storehouse construction.
  • Training of security forces in physical security and stockpile management standards.
Malawi
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY18–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 1,300 0 2,930
Country Total 1,500 1,300 0 2,930
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  8 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  49 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  49.6 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  96 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  1 ARMORY BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST
Men stand in a dug out pit with a stack of old ammunition that is being prepared for destruction.

Mines Advisory Group

Mauritania

Mauritania Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down

Most of Mauritania is in the Sahara Desert, with remote areas that provide a haven for terrorists who illicitly traffic small arms and light weapons into the Sahel and beyond. U.S. investments in conventional weapons destruction have helped Mauritanian security forces to secure their weapons and ammunition in facilities that meet international standards and effectively manage weapons to prevent diversion to violent extremists and arms traffickers.

From FY1999 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $9.6 million in Mauritania. This funding supported the building and refurbishing of 13 storage facilities, destroyed 3,149 metric tons of ammunition and 375 MANPADS, and trained 54 personnel in stockpile management.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • A new physical security and stockpile management project to greatly increase explosive storage capacity for serviceable ammunition and procure equipment for destruction of obsolete munitions.
Mauritania
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY99–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1.000 500 500 5,195
DoD 0 0 0 4,410
Country Total 1,000 500 500 9,605
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  41.7 METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION
  • An illustration of 4 long weapons stacked vertically  75 MANPADS, ATGMS, OR COMPONENTS DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Niger

Niger Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band

Niger is a key partner in regional and international counterterrorism efforts, including the G5 Sahel, Multi-National Joint Task Force-Niger, and United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in neighboring Mali.

From FY2015 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $8 million in conventional weapons destruction funding to build or rehabilitate 30 storage facilities, train personnel in physical security and stockpile management, destroy 15 metric tons of excess ordnance, and mark 6,000 small arms and light weapons belonging to Nigerien security forces.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Construction of secure armories to store small arms and light weapons, and ammunition.
  • Training of Nigerien security forces to prevent the illicit trafficking and diversion of small arms and light weapons.
Niger
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY15–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 7,693
DoD 0 0 0 328
Country Total 1,000 1,000 1,000 8,021
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Senegal

Senegal Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

More than 30 years of internal conflict between the Government of Senegal and the separatist Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance left parts of Senegal’s Casamance region impacted by landmines and explosive remnants of war. From 2008 through 2018, the United States provided demining assistance in Casamance. These clearance efforts facilitated the Casamance peace process and the return of internally displaced persons. In more recent years, U.S. efforts have shifted to support emerging priorities for physical security and stockpile management to help build Senegal’s national capacity to safeguard its stockpiles.

From FY2002 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $9.1 million in conventional weapons destruction funding to reduce the risk of unplanned explosions at munitions sites, provide armory storage management training, and clear landmines and unexploded ordnance.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • A physical security and stockpile management project to reduce the risk of unplanned explosions at munitions storage sites in Dakar by collaborating with Senegal’s armed forces to safely destroy confiscated explosive material and relocate ammunition to secure facilities away from population centers.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the U.S. Africa Command invested in building the Senegalese Armed Forces’ physical security and stockpile management capacity to reduce the risk of an unplanned explosion at munitions sites. Through the State Partnership Program, the Vermont National Guard provided train-the-trainer sessions to build a cadre of Senegalese instructors who will be able to conduct future physical security and stockpile management training. The Vermont National Guard and the Senegalese Armed Forces also evaluated ammunition storage facilities to ensure previously received training is being applied effectively. Also, a temporary ammunition storage facility in Thies was constructed to store munitions that were relocated from the densely populated Dakar region to mitigate the risk of a catastrophic event similar to the massive explosion in Beirut, Lebanon in August 2020.

Senegal
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY02–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 500 0 5,255
DOS Other 0 0 0 260
DoD 129 988 56 3,151
USAID 0 0 0 500
Country Total 1,129 1,488 56 9,166
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP
A woman stands in front of a large tractor-like piece of equipment that she operates to conduct mechanical demining

Somalia

Somalia Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center

In Somalia, United States efforts focus on capacity building within the Federal Government of Somalia security forces to properly manage their conventional weapons stockpiles, particularly in south-central Somalia, where the risk of illicit diversion to non-state actors is greatest. Since 2016, the United States has also supported mobile weapons and ammunition disposal teams to destroy 8,452 unsecured munitions.

Al-Shabaab remains a significant threat to Somalia’s security, stability, and prosperity, and it controls territory across south and central Somalia. Many weapons in al-Shabaab’s arsenal have been taken from government stockpiles, underscoring the need for improved security and accountability. Al-Shabaab also harvests explosives from poorly secured and abandoned munitions storage facilities to create improvised explosive devices. The widespread trafficking of small arms and light weapons and ammunition, including from Yemen, enables al-Shabaab and other non-state actors to carry out attacks that continue to destabilize the Horn of Africa region.

From FY1998 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $41 million in conventional weapons destruction programs in Somalia for physical security and stockpile management, MANPADS stockpile reduction, humanitarian mine action, and other programs to promote stability.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Construction and refurbishment of weapons storage facilities.
  • Stockpile management training for Federal Government of Somalia security forces.
  • Deployment of weapons and ammunition disposal teams to south-central Somalia.
Somalia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY98–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 4,000 4,000 41,050
Country Total 2,000 4,000 4,000 41,050
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  546 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  2,083 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  42 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  8 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST

South Sudan

South Sudan Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green

The majority of landmine and explosive remnants of war contamination in the Republic of South Sudan is found in Central, Eastern, and Western Equatoria, Jonglei, Unity, Upper Nile, and Western Bahr el Ghazal States. This inhibits delivery of humanitarian assistance, impedes development, and poses a physical threat to civilians.

From FY2003 to FY2010, the United States invested more than $24.4 million in conventional weapons destruction funding in Sudan prior to the creation of South Sudan, directing much of it to what is now South Sudan.

Following South Sudan’s independence, from FY2011 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $20.9 million in South Sudan for mine and unexploded ordnance removal, and survivor assistance.

Between FY2019 and FY2022, the United States expanded its conventional weapons destruction programs to provide full survey and clearance activities, explosive ordnance disposal callouts, and explosive ordnance risk education in Central and Eastern Equatoria States. This restart of systematic clearance efforts reflects a more permissive operating environment, despite continued violent unrest and access issues elsewhere in the country.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey, clearance, explosive ordnance disposal callouts, and explosive ordnance risk education in Central and Eastern Equatoria States.
South Sudan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY11–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,135
DoD 0 0 0 826
Country Total 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,961
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  380,980 SQUARE METERS (94 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  57 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  450 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  5,578 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Sudan

Sudan Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

Sudan has been in conflict for the past several decades, including two civil wars and the armed conflict in Darfur that have contaminated large swathes of land with landmines and unexploded ordnance. While the 2020 Juba peace agreement provides a pathway to decrease violence over time, interethnic conflict has continued, and the Sudanese people, especially those displaced by conflict, still require humanitarian assistance. However, widespread landmine and explosive remnants of war contamination makes humanitarian access dangerous and difficult.

From FY2003 to FY2010, the United States invested more than $24.4 million in conventional weapons destruction funding in Sudan prior to the creation of South Sudan, directing much of it to what is now South Sudan.

From FY2011 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $4.4 million in conventional weapons destruction funding in Sudan.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

Coordination meetings including national mine action authorities, demining NGOs, international donors, and other key stakeholders.

  • Demining coordination meetings.
  • Survey and clearance of explosive hazards.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education in “peace markets”.
Sudan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY11–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 650 1,000 0 4,450
Country Total 650 1,000 0 4,450
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  16,911 SQUARE METERS (4 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  98 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  142 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION SERVICE

Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red, yellow, and green with a white isosceles triangle edged in black with its base on the hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in the center of the triangle

Zimbabwe still has dense anti-personnel minefields along its borders with Mozambique dating back to the Zimbabwe Liberation War from 1964 to 1979, when millions of landmines were placed along the border with Mozambique by Rhodesian Security Forces. These minefields continue to kill and injure civilians and constrain economic development, particularly by killing livestock and preventing agriculture. At the end of 2020, the Zimbabwe Mine Action Center reported 34.1 million square meters (8,426 acres) of contaminated land.

From FY1998 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $28.9 million for conventional weapons destruction in Zimbabwe. This assistance has released a total of 13.8 million square meters (3,410 acres) of land to productive use and destroyed 61,845 landmines and other explosive hazards.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Demining operations in Mashonaland and Mashonaland East Provinces, and the CORSAN minefield in Masvingo Province.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education for at-risk communities.
  • Prosthetics for landmine survivors.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program supported the evaluation of a Rotastar wet soil-sifting bucket and the dual-sensor handheld standoff mine detection system. Additionally, four commercial GPZ-7000 handheld detectors were deployed.

Zimbabwe
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY98–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 1,500 3,000 24,184
DoD 88 185 253 4,775
Country Total 2,588 1,685 3,253 28,959
*Total includes all funding from FY1998—FY2022 Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  535,720 SQUARE METERS (132 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  1,660,396 SQUARE METERS (410 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  25 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  10,618 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  9,309 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  1,124 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  APOPO, THE HALO TRUST, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID

Africa--Regional Programs

Kenya has long, porous, unguarded borders across which small arms and light weapons proliferation is common. In addition, remote and poorly secured munitions stockpiles, such as those near Kenya’s border with Somalia, are attractive targets for criminals and terrorists.

The governments of the Great Lakes region established the Nairobi Protocol in 2004 to reduce illicit small arms and light weapons proliferation. They subsequently created the Regional Center on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa, and Bordering States (RECSA) to implement the Protocol. From FY2006 to FY2022, the United States provided more than $7.3 million in support of RECSA initiatives throughout the region to counter illicit small arms and light weapons proliferation.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • Strengthening RECSA’s capacity to provide physical security and stockpile management support and reduce the threat of proliferation in the Great Lakes Region.
  • Training to bolster Kenyan police capacity to effectively store, manage, and account for their stockpiles of weapons and ammunition.

IN FY2022:

  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  65 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  13 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED

Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Africa Command conducted an introductory course to physical security and stockpile management course and reviewed of Sierra Leone’s physical security and stockpile management and explosive ordnance disposal plans.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund supported the World Health Organization to integrate rehabilitation into existing healthcare systems in Rwanda; the International Committee of the Red Cross to strengthen the rehabilitation sector in Côte d’Ivoire, Rwanda, Tanzania, Togo, and Zambia; Results for Development to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in healthcare systems in Ethiopia; and Johns Hopkins University- Bloomberg School of Public Health to develop health systems that are responsive to growing needs for rehabilitation across the lifespan in Uganda.

A person kneeling in a field holding a metal detector while searching for landmines.

The HALO Trust

Overview

CAMBODIA | LAOS | PALAU | VIETNAM

Three people sitting on the floor in a room talking to each other.

World Education, Inc.

Thousands of communities across East Asia and Pacific face lingering dangers from landmines and explosive remnants of war dating back to World War II, the Vietnam War, and the Indochina Wars, with many Pacific Island nations still contaminated with unexploded ordnance following World War II battles between Japan and Allied forces. Strong economic development and population expansion into previously uninhabited areas in the decades since combat ended continue to expose civilians to landmines and explosive remnants of war. Climate change is also seriously impacting communities across the region, further complicating land development activities as well as landmines and unexploded ordnance clearance efforts. In mainland Southeast Asia, heavier rainy seasons caused by stronger typhoons result in increased landslides and devastating floods, which can expose long buried explosives or slow clearance work. In the Pacific, rising sea levels displace communities and force them into previously uninhabited areas contaminated by explosive remnants of war. The United States is a global leader in addressing these emerging challenges, adjusting operational plans as landslides expose large air-dropped bombs that require immediate attention, and adjusting operations when newly populated areas require assistance to find and remove unexploded ordnance.

For nearly 30 years, U.S. conventional weapons destruction programs have been a key component of our diplomatic engagement in the region, establishing access to communities impacted by explosive hazards and accelerating survey and clearance throughout the region. These investments in landmine and unexploded ordnance operations save lives, deepen diplomatic ties, and open new economic opportunities. Unexploded ordnance cooperation was at the forefront of initial post-war reconciliation efforts and remains a foundation of the United States’ commitment to regional peace and prosperity.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $822 million in the East Asia and Pacific region for unexploded ordnance clearance, explosive ordnance risk education, assistance for survivors of landmine and unexploded ordnance accidents, local capacity building, and improving weapons and ammunition management.

A solid green circle
125,509,785
SQ M LAND CLEARED
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
6,280
LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
102,841
EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
84
METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
A green ball with gray markings on the edges
317,318,233
SQ M CLUSTER MUNITIONS REMNANT SURVEY
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
2,183,175
RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
1993–2022 Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: East Asia and Pacific Regional Map, full text description in Appendix A

Map and table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in East Asia and Pacific FY1993–FY2022
East Asia and Pacific FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 Total
Regional 11,659 3 0 4,000 15,662
red circle Burma1 8,035 1,000 0 0 9,035
red circle Cambodia 159,606 12,417 10,361 9,515 191,899
yellow circle Fiji 0 370 1,330 0 1,700
red circle Laos 230,880 39,508 40,000 45,004 355,392
yellow circle Marshall Islands 2,009 0 0 0 2,009
red circle Palau 4,417 910 893 115 6,335
red circle Papua New Guinea 0 0 0 12 12
yellow circle Philippines 3,023 0 0 0 3,023
red circle Solomon Islands 6,818 60 0 63 6,941
red circle Thailand 18,957 681 1,443 2,448 23,529
red circle Timor-Leste 0 0 22 344 366
red circle Vietnam 148,248 18,084 19,587 20,268 206,187
Total 593,652 73,033 73,636 81,769 822,090

1. Countries with activities in FY22 that were solely funded through Global/Multi-Country funding, but received direct funding in the past.

Percentage of the $81.8 Million Allocated to East Asia and Pacific in FY2022 by Country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving lives through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: Steps in a Greener Direction in Laos

Two women with shovels squatting down to dig small holes in the ground to plant small trees.

Norwegian People’s Aid

Article and images courtesy of Norwegian People’s Aid.

Laos is already experiencing the impacts of climate change and is vulnerable to future climate-related effects due to its heavy reliance on locally grown staple crops, rain-fed agriculture, and limited adaptive capacity. This vulnerability is compounded by poverty, malnutrition, and contamination from unexploded ordnance.

Changes in temperature and rainfall are projected to severely impact Laos in the form of extreme weather including greater heat, flooding, landslides, and droughts. Two of its most important staple crops: rice and coffee, are at particular risk.

Norwegian People’s Aid’s operates an unexploded ordnance survey and clearance program operates in the southern provinces of Attapeu, Champasak, Salavan, and Xekong, which are heavily contaminated with cluster bombs and other unexploded ordnance, particularly along the southern portion of the Ho Chi Minh trail built during the Vietnam War.

Making land safe for agriculture and socio-economic development, along with employing individuals from affected communities, is a priority for Norwegian People’s Aid. Climate change-related impacts make unexploded ordnance removal operations more challenging, put its deminers and their families at risk of extreme heat and other weather events, and increase pressure on human use of unexploded ordnance-contaminated areas before they can be cleared.

Ladavanh Keodala, age 17, and Douangdaophet Keobounphan, age 20, are members of Zero Waste Laos, a youth-led volunteer organization working on environmental protection and climate change. Founded by Souksaveuy Keotiamchanh when she was 27, Zero Waste Laos is also a woman-led organization with over 80 percent female membership. In 2022, Ladavanh and Douangdaophet were part of a core team of Zero Waste Laos members who trained over 400 national staff members of Norwegian People’s Aid to promote environmental awareness within its staff and reduce its environmental footprint. Key achievements include developing green office and operations monitoring tools, establishing a waste management system, and holding annual staff training. Norwegian People’s Aid has reduced office waste sent to landfills by over 60 percent. Norwegian People’s Aid has reduced office waste sent to landfills by over 60 percent.

In 2022, Norwegian People’s Aid’s collaboration with Zero Waste Laos included helping them implement a country-wide ‘tree and seedling planting initiative’ and organizing a series of “Youth Climate Action in Southern Laos” events. The tree planting initiative included distributing and planting 3,000 fruit trees at 100 schools. In total, with support from the European Union reinforced by unexploded ordnance clearance funded by the U.S. Department of State, Zero Waste Laos planted and distributed 8,200 fruit trees to schools throughout Laos in 2022.

Ladavanh says, “We have the distinction of being, per capita, the most heavily bombed nation in the world. The many connections between environmental protection and unexploded ordnance clearance efforts are underappreciated. People especially lack knowledge about how unexploded ordnance can be a source of harmful soil or water pollution, and about the need for better waste management in unexploded ordnance removal operations.”

Ladavanh believes that unexploded ordnance clearance operators like Norwegian People’s Aid can make a difference in addressing climate change. “By partnering with Zero Waste Laos, Norwegian People’s Aid is taking steps in a greener direction.”

A group of people sort through office trash to pull out recyclable material.

Norwegian People’s Aid

Cambodia

Cambodia flag

Cambodia faces a range of challenges due to explosive remnants of war from U.S. air strikes during the Vietnam War over its eastern and northeastern regions and along its border with Vietnam. Internal conflicts that ended in 1999 left behind additional explosive remnants of war. Extensive minefields were also laid by the Khmer Rouge, Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, Vietnamese, and Thai militaries during the Indochina Wars and Vietnamese occupation, especially along a 750-kilometer mined area on the Thai border known as the K5 mine belt. The United States joined Cambodia at its 30th Anniversary of Mine Action to celebrate Cambodia’s success in mine action since 1992 and look to the future, as continued cooperation aims to make its land safe for the Cambodian people.

A group of people wearing protective gear walk down a dirt road toward a person kneeling and working on the ground.

The HALO Trust

From FY1993 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $191.8 million in Cambodia to conduct surveys, clear landmines and explosive remnants of war, support national capacity development, enhance weapons and ammunition management, and provide explosive ordnance risk education.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Teams working to clear dense anti-personnel and anti-tank minefields in the K5 mine belt in northwestern Cambodia.
  • A cluster munitions remnant survey in eastern Cambodia to identified new explosive hazards for clearance.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education, reducing the risk of accidents and injuries in communities throughout the country.
  • The explosive harvesting program to repurpose explosive material from excess ammunition stockpiles to destroy landmines and explosive remnants of war.
  • Training for Royal Cambodian Armed Forces personnel at its military technical academy to improve capacity to manage weapons and ammunition, including significant progress on reducing obsolete or expired state-held stocks of small arms and light weapons and ammunition.
  • A continued partnership with the Cambodian government to fund survey and clearance teams operated by the Cambodian Mine Action Center, a true partnership between both governments demonstrating the importance of humanitarian mine action.
  • The United States and Cambodia concluded a five-year strategy to enhance the capacity of local clearance operators and operations.
  • A five-year strategy to enhance capacity of a local clearance operator and its operations.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program, in cooperation with nongovernmental organizations, continued evaluating the Armored Remote-Control Chase Vehicle, the Badger tracked excavator, the Bearcat vegetation clearance system, handheld standoff mine detection systems, Mini and Medium MineWolf tilling systems, Nemesis and Rex tools, Rambo demining support vehicles, Scorpion unexploded ordnance detection systems, Traxx remote area preparation platforms, VMX10 unexploded ordnance detector, wet soil sifting excavator attachments, tracking devices, and the Little Storm rough terrain system.

Cambodia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY93–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 11,405 9,000 9,000 140,747
DOS Other 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 0 0 0 100
DoD 1,012 1,361 515 31,025
USAID 0 0 0 15,084
Country Total 12,417 10,361 9,515 191,899
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  41,059,936 SQUARE METERS (10,146 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  53,271,014 SQUARE METERS (13,164 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A green ball with gray markings on the edges  65,165,073 SQUARE METERS (16,102 ACRES) CLUSTER MUNITIONS REMNANT SURVEY CLUSTER MUNITIONS SURVEY REMNANTS SURVEY
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  3,433 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  6,232 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  17,887 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  39,753 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  83.79 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  6,937 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  8 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  400 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  GOLDEN WEST HUMANITARIAN FOUNDATION, THE HALO TRUST, HUMANITY AND INCLUSION, LANDMINE RELIEF FUND, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID

Laos

Laos Flag: Three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red with a large white disk centered in the blue band

Laos contains some of the highest levels of explosive remnants of war in the world, a majority of which are from U.S. aerial bombing campaigns conducted during the Vietnam War. Unexploded cluster munitions from that war remain in most of the country’s 17 provinces. These and other types of unexploded ordnance continue to injure and kill civilians while removing productive land from cultivation and hindering economic growth. FY2022 marked a significant milestone, as surveys were completed in Savannakhet, Attapeu, Champasak, Salavan, and Xekong Provinces. This demonstrated our commitment to the people of Laos and will enable faster clearance of unexploded ordnance moving forward.

From FY1995 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $355 million in Laos to support survey and clearance, explosive ordnance risk education, survivor assistance, and capacity development.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and clearance operations in Savannakhet, Xiengkhouang, Champasak, Xekong, Salavan, and Attapeu Provinces.
  • Cluster munitions remnants surveys, allowing the Lao Government to better establish clearance priorities so land can be returned to communities faster.
  • Destruction of significant amounts of explosive remnants of war, with implementing partners conducting explosive ordnance disposal rapid response based on community requests throughout the year.
  • A comprehensive study to identify best practices to enhance monitoring and evaluation efforts and improve ongoing explosive ordnance risk education programs.
  • Operations for the national unexploded ordnance operator, UXO Lao, at its headquarters and in Luang Prabang, Houaphan, Khammouane, Savannakhet, Salavan, and Attapeu Provinces.
  • The National Regulatory Authority’s work overseeing the mine action sector in Laos, including a new project to enhance information management and improve the national database that tracks known hazardous areas.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Indo-Pacific Command conducted visits to assess the effectiveness of current programs and determine potential future cooperation.

With previous year funding from USAID, the Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support programs providing independent living support to persons with disabilities.

Laos
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY95–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 37,500 40,000 45,000 326,864
DOS Other 0 0 0 750
DoD 8 0 4 7,057
USAID 2,000 0 0 20,721
Country Total 39,508 40,000 45,004 355,392
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  36,704,676 SQUARE METERS (9,070 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A green ball with gray markings on the edges  184,403,160 SQUARE METERS (45,567 ACRES) CLUSTER MUNITIONS REMNANT SURVEY
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  2,956 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  39 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  53,060 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  120,146 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  32 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  CENTER FOR INTERNATIONAL STABILIZATION AND RECOVERY, THE HALO TRUST, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID, TETRA TECH, WORLD EDUCATION, INC.

Palau

Palau Flag: Light blue with a large yellow disk shifted slightly to the hoist side

Many of Palau’s islands remain contaminated with explosive remnants of war from World War II. From FY2009 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $6.3 million in conventional weapons destruction in Palau.

In FY2022, the Department of State continued to partner with the Government of Palau on its explosive remnants of war clearance program, responding to persistent unexploded ordnance challenges. This included conducting a survey to identify and record explosive hazards, clearing areas according to Palau’s annual unexploded ordnance plan, and building Palau’s capacity to independently manage its unexploded ordnance priorities.

Three people load old explosive hazards onto a trailer.

Norwegian People’s Aid

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued supporting the evaluation of the Mobile Bomb Cutter in Palau. To date, the cutter has destroyed 2,116 pieces of World War II-era unexploded ordnance.
  • U.S. Indo-Pacific Command conducted visits to assess the effectiveness of current programs and determine potential future cooperation.
Palau
Source FY20 FY21* FY22 FY09–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 800 820 0 5,931
DOD 110 73 115 404
Country Total 910 893 115 6,335
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  37,110 SQUARE METERS (9.2 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  402,392 SQUARE METERS (99.4 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  10 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  1,276 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters EOD inside and three black dots in a row above the blue box  12 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID

Vietnam

Vietnam flag: Red field with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

Vietnam remains heavily impacted by unexploded ordnance after 30 years of conflict from the Indochina Wars and the Vietnam War. Most of the unexploded ordnance are cluster munitions that are concentrated in provinces near the former Demilitarized Zone, including Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Ha Tinh, Thua Thien Hue, and Quang Nam Provinces. Significant concentrations of unexploded ordnance also remain in parts of southern Vietnam as well as landmine contamination along the country’s northern border with China.

Vietnam’s 10-year review of its National Action Program to Address Unexploded Ordnance highlighted achievements by Vietnam, as well as those by the United States and the international donor community, to develop the humanitarian mine action sector in Vietnam. Cooperation on unexploded ordnance survey and clearance continues to be a major foundation for the United States’ engagement with the people of Vietnam.

From FY1993 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $206 million for conventional weapons destruction programs in Vietnam that cleared unexploded ordnance and other explosive hazards, provided explosive ordnance risk education and survivor assistance to impacted communities, and supported national capacity development.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Large-scale survey and clearance operations in the central provinces of Quang Tri and Quang Binh, which have the highest concentration of U.S.-origin unexploded cluster munitions.
  • Operations in Thua Thien Hue province to enhance the technical capacity of the national mine action authority in the field, as well as identify and clear high priority sites with explosive hazard contamination.
  • The Vietnam National Mine Action Center and two provincial mine action centers. With the provision of a technical advisor, information management support, and humanitarian mine action capacity building, the United States is helping these centers develop the expertise to carry out a national humanitarian mine action program independent of U.S. assistance.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education in primary and secondary schools in Da Nang, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien Hue provinces.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued evaluating the Scorpion unexploded ordnance detection system, Bearcat vegetation clearance system, two area preparation vegetation removal attachments, and a rotary sifter for mine and unexploded ordnance clearance.

A group of people kneeling in a semi-circle holding a detonator switch.

Mines Advisory Group

In addition, the U.S. Indo-Pacific Command helped Vietnam reduce the social, economic, and environmental impact of landmines and explosive remnants of war through their detection and clearance. U.S. Indo-Pacific Command also provided casualty care to survivors and furnished humanitarian mine action-related equipment, education, training, and technical assistance.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund strengthened Vietnam’s rehabilitation sector and integrated rehabilitation into existing healthcare systems.

Vietnam
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY93–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 17,500 18,200 19,000 168,680
CDC 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 584 1,387 1,268 8,860
USAID 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 18,084 19,587 20,268 206,187
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  47,708,063 SQUARE METERS (11,789 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A green ball with gray markings on the edges  67,750,000 SQUARE METERS (16,741 ACRES) CLUSTER MUNITIONS REMNANT SURVEY
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  3,641 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  9 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  30,618 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  2,023,276 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters EOD inside and three black dots in a row above the blue box  15 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  CATHOLIC RELIEF SERVICES, INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID, PEACETREES VIETNAM, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

East Asia and Pacific--Regional Programs

Cambodia, Laos, Palau, Thailand, and Vietnam continued receiving U.S. support through the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, over and above the United States’ bilateral conventional weapons destruction assistance to those countries. This builds on previous assistance to help authorities conduct long-term risk management. This project addresses the physical risks from explosive remnants of war and builds the national capacity of mine action authorities and governments to create long-lasting success in managing clearance of landmines and explosive remnants of war.

Two people in the woods look at maps and other documentation on a bulletin board

Tetra Tech

East Asia and Pacific--Other U.S. Support

Burma: With prior year funding from USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund, the United Nations Office for Project Services, through small grants to local non-governmental organizations, worked to ensure civilian victims of conflict and persons with disabilities have access to health, rehabilitation, and assistive technology services and provided support to their families and communities; and supported Johns Hopkins University-Bloomberg School of Public Health to strengthen localized non-governmental health systems that are responsive to rehabilitation needs across survivors’ lifespans as part of a multi-country program.

Papua New Guinea: U.S. Indo-Pacific Command conducted visits to assess the effectiveness of current programs and determine potential future cooperation.

Solomon Islands: U.S. Indo-Pacific Command conducted visits to assess the effectiveness of current programs and continue developing an indigenous, sustainable humanitarian mine action program.

Thailand: The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program, in partnership with the Thailand Mine Action Center, continued evaluating its Mini MineWolf, an earth-tilling system capable of clearing anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines, as well as an Armored Remote Control Chase Vehicle. The U.S. Indo-Pacific Command continued to support Thailand’s detection and clearance programs to reduce the social, economic, and environmental impact of landmines and explosive remnants of war. U.S. Indo-Pacific Command also continued to provide casualty care to survivors and furnished humanitarian mine action -related equipment, education, training, and technical assistance.

Timor-Leste: U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Pacific continued to enhance Timor-Leste’s explosive ordnance disposal capacity by conducting train-the-trainer instruction on site survey, training lane/training support construction, technical and non-technical survey, and mentorship. This training, which was at the direction of U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, included skill development, program assessment, and advice on capacity development. U.S. Indo-Pacific Command also provided casualty care to survivors and furnished humanitarian mine action-related equipment, education, training, and technical assistance.

Overview

ALBANIABOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA | BULGARIA | CROATIA | GEORGIA | KOSOVOMONTENEGRO |  SERBIA | UKRAINE

A man in a field stands next to an unexploded rocket sticking out of the ground.

c

The United States conventional weapons destruction program continues to support regional security, national capacity building, and economic development in Eastern Europe and the Western Balkans. Funding from the United States and other donors has freed much of Southeast Europe from the impact of landmines and explosive remnants of war and enabled significant progress to reduce stockpiles of aging and excess munitions.

The U.S. Government’s investment in physical security and stockpile management helps reduce the risk of illicit transfers of small arms and light weapons to nefarious actors and prevent accidental explosions at depots storing excess, obsolete, and aging ammunition. In FY2022, U.S.-funded projects across the region continued to help partners ensure their at-risk stockpiles are stored according to international standards, and to properly dispose obsolete or excess ammunition.

Landmines and explosive remnants of war continue to impact many communities in parts of eastern Europe. Explosive hazards from the Yugoslav wars in the Balkans and Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine prevent families from returning home, block rebuilding efforts, and hinder economic development. In FY2022, U.S. funded projects cleared landmines and explosive remnants of war, while also building local capacity so partners can address future hazards on their own over the long term. The United States also continues to provide explosive ordnance risk education to vulnerable people and communities.

Conventional weapons destruction is a key component of U.S. diplomatic outreach to partner countries in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Our investments in landmine and unexploded ordnance clearance, survivors’ assistance, explosive ordnance risk education, and physical security and stockpile management deepen people-to-people ties and foster relationships based on saving lives and improving regional security.

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $636 million in Europe for explosive ordnance clearance, risk education, survivors’ assistance, and to improve stockpile security and destroy excess munitions.

Countries with activities in FY22 that were solely funded through Global/Multi-Country funding, but received direct funding in the past.

A white circle with a thick green outlineA solid green circle
3,450,814
SQ M LAND RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
322
LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
2,086
EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
1,730
METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
67,536
RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS1

1. This total reflects the number of recipients reached through in-person risk education.  More than 18 million additional recipients were reached through social media in Ukraine.

1993–2022 Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: Europe Regional Map, full text description in Appendix A

Map and table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
Total U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in Europe FY1993–FY2022
Europe FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 Total
Regional 275 100 0 0 375
blue circle Albania 47,272 2,807 1,413 3,880 55,372
red circle Armenia1 14,205 0 0 0 14,205
red circle Azerbaijan 30,971 0 500 4,225 35,696
red circle Bosnia and Herzegovina 121,286 3,022 4,422 4,665 133,395
yellow circle Bulgaria 12,530 0 300 0 12,830
red circle Croatia 41,604 585 2,213 1,005 45,407
red circle Cyprus 621 0 0 25 646
yellow circle Czechia 600 0 0 0 600
red circle Estonia 5,216 0 0 704 5,920
red circle Georgia 38,532 4,613 1,980 4,875 50,000
yellow circle Hungary 350 0 0 0 350
blue circle Kosovo 37,419 5,249 1,497 1,520 45,685
yellow circle Lithuania 500 0 0 0 500
red circle Moldova 2,823 1,582 2,189 1,420 8,014
blue circle Montenegro 12,526 0 1,700 0 14,226
blue circle North Macedonia 2,343 348 357 479 3,527
yellow circle Romania 2,519 0 0 0 2,519
red circle Serbia 22,540 1,000 1,294 1,430 26,264
yellow circle Serbia and Montenegro2 5,646 0 0 0 5,646
yellow circle Slovakia 0 1,000 0 0 1,000
yellow circle Slovenia 270 0 0 0 270
red circle Ukraine 55,150 14,119 13,798 91,286 174,353
Total 455,198 34,425 31,663 115,514 636,800

1. Countries with activities in FY22 that were solely funded through Global/Multi-Country funding, but received direct funding in the past.
2. Serbia and Montenegro split into two countries in 2007.

Percentage of the $114 Million Allocated to Europe in FY2022 by Country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving Lives Through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: Managing Wildfires with Humanitarian Mine Action in Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Article and images courtesy of Mines Advisory Group.

The Čavaš land release project is located in the municipality of Ravno, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ravno is on a hillside along the eastern edge of the or Popovo field, which regulates the flow of the Trebisnjica river and is the main factor for economic development and agricultural production in the region. Close to this sits the suspected hazardous area near the village of Čavas.

Adding to the dangers from landmines and explosive remnants of war, the area has struggled in recent years with wildfires that are an even more significant danger for beekeepers, hunters, farmers, and residents living in the immediate vicinity of the suspected minefield.

The inability of firefighters to fight wildfires due to the minefield creates consequences for a wider area than the mined area, as an uncontrolled fire in a minefield can spread to non-risk areas, causing damage on a larger scale. Wildfires in 2020 and 2021 destroyed much of the area’s flora and fauna and damaged surrounding towns and buildings.

During their land release project, the Mines Advisory Group community liaison team interviewed local residents to gather additional information about mines and explosive remnants of war. Residents testified about their fears of mines and explosive remnants of war, the consequences of their inability to move freely in these areas, and inability to use land that could benefit their households. The community liaison team also noted and addressed the high-risk behaviors of local people, who would work in contaminated areas to feed their families.

In December 2021, the Mines Advisory Group demining team began work in Čavaš and released a total area of over 1.2 million square meters (more than 314 acres) in June 2022, clearing the area of 18 anti-personnel mines and 21 explosive remnants of war.

These successful clearance and release efforts have allowed residents to access their lands to extinguish and prevent future wildfires, restore local flora and fauna, and further develop the beekeeping for which the area is known. All of this has had an extremely positive impact on their safety, nutrition, and economic potential.

Antonio (firefighter):

When Antonio was around eight years old, he was walking close to the house to help collect firewood.

“As I was walking, I felt pressure on my shin, and I hesitated and looked down. My father said, ‘Don’t move!’ I froze. He eased my leg back and followed the camouflaged tripwire to a green metal object placed next to a tree. It was a landmine. I had been so lucky. I trusted my father and I stayed calm. But there were more landmines near our home.”

Antonio now works as a firefighter and still faces danger from landmines and explosive remnants of war on a regular basis, especially in the summer.

“In this area, we get a lot of wildfires, and we have to respond to protect people and their properties. But this area was a major battle zone, with landmines and unexploded bombs everywhere. When I am dealing with a wildfire, I jump from rock to rock to get around. Often there are explosions as the fires set things off. It can be dangerous. I remember while we were dealing with one fire, there were 27 explosions. That was a lot! Six months ago, we were fighting a big fire behind a wall when a fireball came toward us. There was a huge explosion. My friend was blown back about two meters. Something had exploded on the other side of the wall. He was okay, thankfully.”

Milenko (local beekeeper and farmer):

“I know this is a risky area. There was a wildfire last July, with many explosions. So we are used to the danger, but it isn’t easy. When the bees swarm, we have to go and collect them, which can be dangerous.

I am here today to check the bees and do some plowing. I grow vegetables. It is hard with the kids; I can’t watch them all the time, and there are landmines around.

This a very special area for medicinal herbs. We know of 12 different medicines, and the bees feed on them.

In 2008, we sent samples of the honey to a specialist laboratory in France and they found 20 different pollens they had never seen before. That is amazing!”

Two people standing by beehive, one holding a smoker and the other a lid

Mines Advisory Group

Albania

Albania Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Albania declared itself mine free in 2009 but unexploded ordnance remains at some former military ranges and depot explosion sites. These are known in Albania as unexploded ordnance ‘hotspots’ and continue to pose a threat to the local population.

From FY2000 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $55.3 million in Albania to clear hotspots, enhance stockpile security, and fund munitions disposal. Thanks to this assistance, Albania now has the capacity to finish clearing remaining hazards on its own.

Two men stand in front of a barrel and shovel a substance into a small container

ITF Enhancing Human Security

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Security upgrades to Ministry of Interior ammunition and weapons storage facilities. These made the facilities safer and compliant with international standards, and the upgrades provided more secure weapons storage for the Albanian State Police.
  • Ongoing activities to safely dispose of waste generated by prior conventional weapons and ammunition destruction activities.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • The New Jersey National Guard and Marine Corps Forces Europe provided a train-the-trainer course on International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 3.
  • Ammunition subject matter experts from the New Jersey National Guard completed a physical security stockpile management foundation course with the Albanian Ministry of Defense that was compliant with the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines.
  • U.S. European Command continued renovations at two ammunition storage facilities at Miraka and the Engineer Battalion Tirana to improve security fencing, perimeter lighting, and renovate explosive storehouses. In addition, they provided instruction on Basic Introduction to Ammunitions and Physical Security Stockpile Management, Introduction to Risk Management, and Class V Accounting.
  • The U.S. Air Forces in Europe also continued to mentor the Albanian government personnel by updating national regulations, teaching international best practices for humanitarian mine action programs.
Albania
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY00–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 750 500 45,497
DoD 1,807 663 3,380 8,486
USAID 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 2,807 1,413 3,880 55,372
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  3 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME-SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE CLEARING HOUSE FOR THE CONTROL OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina Flag: a wide medium blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag; the remainder of the flag is medium blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle

Thirty years after the breakup of Yugoslavia and subsequent regional conflicts, Bosnia and Herzegovina remains heavily contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war. Most remaining minefields are in formerly contested areas along the separation line between Bosnia and Herzegovina’s two political entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska. As of September 2022, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center estimated that more than 887 million square meters (219,182 acres) of its territory may still be contaminated with explosive hazards.

Two people standing by beehive, one holding a smoker and the other a lid

Mines Advisory Group

From FY1996 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $133.3 million in Bosnia and Herzegovina to clear landmines, provide explosive ordnance risk education and survivors assistance, and destroy munitions stockpiles.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Numerous survey and clearance operations across Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  • A program to connect schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina with schools in the United States as a part of the broader Children Against Mines Program.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education, as well as prosthetics and rehabilitative care to landmine survivors.
  • Destruction of excess and obsolete ammunition by the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to support the evaluation of the Rambo demining team support vehicle and the Target Reacquisition and Positioning System to facilitate project planning, supervision, and mapping.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY96–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 4,400 4,650 103,505
DOS Other 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 22 22 15 5,180
USAID 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 3,022 4,422 4,665 133,395
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  737,725 SQUARE METERS (182 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  4,225,903 SQUARE METERS (1,044 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  310 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  285 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  39,886 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  21 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  98 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, MARSHALL LEGACY INSTITUTE,
    MINE DETECTION DOG CENTER IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, TETRA TECH

Bulgaria

Bulgaria Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red

Bulgaria declared itself mine free in 1999 when the last minefields along its border with Greece were cleared. However, its massive Cold War-era stockpiles of conventional arms and ammunition pose serious challenges related to safety, security, and logistics. U.S. conventional weapons destruction assistance plays a key role helping Bulgaria’s Ministry of Defense reduce stockpiles of aging, unserviceable, or obsolete conventional arms and ammunition.

From FY1999 to FY2022, the United States provided more than $12.8 million for conventional weapons destruction in Bulgaria.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • Destruction of aging, unserviceable, or obsolete ammunition
Bulgaria
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY99–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 300 0 12,779
DoD 0 0 0 51
Country Total 0 300 0 12,830
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  254.4 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  NATO SUPPORT AND PROCUREMENT AGENCY

Croatia

Croatia Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield

Some communities in Croatia are still affected by landmines and explosive remnants of war from the Yugoslav Wars of 1991–2001. Croatia maintains a robust commercial humanitarian demining sector, which works in Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The Croatian Government funds most demining projects, in addition to research and development for demining-related technologies. Croatia also maintains a stockpile of conventional arms and ammunition inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds its national defense requirements. Much of this material is beyond its useful life, making it at risk for accidental detonation, and it urgently requires safe disposal. While Croatia has successfully reduced some stockpiles of conventional arms and ammunition, further destruction and demilitarization is needed.

From FY1999 to FY2022, the United States provided more than $45.4 million for conventional weapons destruction in Croatia.

  • In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:
  • Programs to demilitarize or destroy excess and aging ammunition.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • Explosive ordnance disposal mobile units from U.S. Naval Forces Europe provided Croatian Ministry of Defense forces in Split with train-the-trainer instruction to International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 3 Phase 2 and Phase 3. This training increased Croatia’s capability to train its forces and was essential for them to continue at underwater explosive ordnance disposal Level 3+.
  • Naval Forces Europe continued renovations at the National Humanitarian Demining Training Center in Split to provide a gender-inclusive training center for humanitarian mine action, explosive ordnance disposal, SCUBA Diver, and underwater explosive remnants of war clearance, as well as an explosive ordnance disposal training range.
Croatia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY99–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,200 0 41,928
DoD 585 1,013 1,005 3,479
Country Total 585 2,213 1,005 45,407
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  916.73 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY

Georgia

Georgia Flag: white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross

Georgia inherited large stockpiles of deteriorating Soviet munitions that are now more than 30 years old. It is also impacted by landmines and unexploded ordnance from the conflicts in its South Ossetia (1988–1992) and Abkhazia (1992–1993) regions, and the 2008 conflict with Russia.

From FY1998 to FY2022, the United States provided $50 million to Georgia for the safe disposal of mines and unexploded ordnance, destruction of excess and aging conventional weapons and ammunition, and capacity building assistance to help Georgia address future hazards on its own over the long term.

A man feeds ammunition cartridges into a machine

ITF Enhancing Human Security

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • The Ministry of Defense’s continued efforts to responsibly and safely destroy excess and obsolete ammunition, improve the storage conditions of ammunition prior to disposal, and strengthen security at ammunition storage facilities.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • Explosive ordnance disposal teams from the Minnesota Air National Guard monitored Georgian instructors as they taught an International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 2 course to new Georgian explosive ordnance disposal forces.
  • Ammunition subject-matter experts from the (U.S) Georgia National Guard taught a course on International Ammunition Technical Guidelines compliant physical security and stockpile management. They also worked closely with the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Interior to develop Georgia’s new National Regulations on Ammunition and Explosive Safety and align them with the International Ammunition Technical Guidelines and best practices.
  • U.S. European Command upgraded the Vartsikhe munitions central storage facility with security fencing, equipment, and on-the-job training on how to safely transport, store, and inspect munitions. European Command also worked with the Ministries of Defense and Interior on initial development of National Regulations on Ammunition and Explosive Safety. In addition, European Command mentored Georgian personnel on the Class V (Ammunition) accounting system.

With multi-country funding from USAID, the Leahy War Victims Fund supported integrating and strengthening rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

Georgia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY98–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,300 0 1,000 32,405
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 1,811 1,980 3,875 10,451
USAID 502 0 0 4,500
Country Total 4,613 1,980 4,875 50,000
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  451.9 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, RESULTS FOR DEVELOPMENT, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

Kosovo

Kosovo Flag: centered on a dark blue field is the geographical shape of Kosovo in a gold color surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc

Unexploded ordnance contamination continues to threaten human security and limit economic development in Kosovo. What remains is primarily from the conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s, and later from NATO air strikes during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. As of September 2022, the Kosovo Mine Action Center reported 11.5 million square meters (2,841 acres) of land still contaminated by landmines and cluster munitions spread across 80 sites.

Three people in protective hear carry a large loop slightly above the ground through wooded land

The HALO Trust

From FY1996 to FY2022, the United States provided more than $45.6 million in assistance to Kosovo for technical and non-technical survey and battle area clearance.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and battle area clearance to return land to the local population for their safe and productive use.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to deploy handheld standoff dual-head mine detectors, the Scorpion unexploded ordnance detection system, and new commercial detectors.
  • The U.S. Air Forces in Europe provided train-the-trainer courses to Kosovo Security Forces on International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 2 Phase 3, , and Golden West Humanitarian Foundation conducted a physical security and stockpile management foundation course.
  • Ammunition experts from the Iowa National Guard also conducted a thorough assessment of the Kosovo Security Forces Ammunition Storage plan.
Kosovo
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY96–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,000 1,000 800 21,525
DoD 249 497 720 6,688
USAID 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 5,249 1,497 1,520 45,685
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  1,065,989 SQUARE METERS (312 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  194,645 SQUARE METERS (48 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  159 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID, GOLDEN WEST HUMANITARIAN FOUNDATION

Montenegro

Montenegro Flag: a red field bordered by a narrow golden-yellow stripe with the Montenegrin coat of arms centered; the arms consist of a double-headed golden eagle surmounted by a crown

Montenegro has unexploded ordnance from the conflicts during the breakup of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and from NATO air strikes during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. Montenegro also has a substantial stockpile of aging ammunition inherited from the Yugoslav national military that exceeds its national defense requirements and is beyond its useful life.

From FY2007 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $14.2 million in Montenegro for ammunition destruction, stockpile security improvements, and landmine and unexploded ordnance clearance. Thanks in part to previous capacity building efforts, Montenegro no longer needs U.S. assistance to address its residual unexploded ordnance.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • The reduction of national stockpiles of excess and obsolete small arms and ammunition.
  • The improvement of munitions storage facilities to prevent illicit diversion or unplanned explosions.
Montenegro
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY07–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,700 0 12,299
DoD 0 0 0 1,927
Country Total 0 1,700 0 14,226
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  9.34 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY
An open cylinder with rusting rods inside leaking out a rust colored liquid

ITF Enhancing Human Security

Serbia

Serbia Flag: three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side

Serbia’s unexploded ordnance is the result of the Yugoslav Wars of 1991–2001 and NATO air strikes during the 1999 Kosovo conflict. Landmines also persist along Serbia’s border with Kosovo. As of September 2022, 561,800 square meters (138 acres) of land in the municipality of Bujanovac remained as confirmed or suspected landmine hazard areas. Cluster munitions are confirmed or suspected in three additional municipalities for a total area of 997,622 square meters (246 acres). The large stockpiles of obsolete ammunition inherited from the former Yugoslav National Army also pose a significant risk of illicit proliferation and accidental explosions

From FY2007 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $26.2 million in Serbia to destroy small arms, light weapons, and ammunition, and clear cluster munitions, landmines, and unexploded ordnance.

In FY2022 the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and clearance at Bujanovac and Tutin to remediate the impact of cluster munitions and landmines.
  • The Serbian Ministry of Defense, in destroying surplus ammunition at the Tehnički Remontni Zavod Kragujevac demilitarization facility
  • Safety and security enhancements to the Ministry of Interior’s Duvanište storage site.
  • Physical security and stockpile management training provided to the Ministry of Interior to ensure proper oversight.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Air Forces in Europe conducted an International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 1 train-the-trainer event.

Serbia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY07–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,000 1,000 1,000 25,230
DoD 0 294 430 1,034
Country Total 1,000 1,294 1,430 26,264
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  323,795 SQUARE METERS (80 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  9 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  8 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, NATO SUPPORT AND PROCUREMENT AGENCY, UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME-SOUTH EASTERN EUROPE CLEARING HOUSE FOR THE CONTROL OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS

Ukraine

Ukraine Flag: two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow

Russia’s full-scale invasion in February 2022 has intentionally littered massive swaths of Ukraine with landmines, unexploded ordnance, and improvised explosive devices, which block access to farmland, impede reconstruction efforts, prevent displaced families from returning to their homes, and continue to kill and maim innocent Ukrainian civilians. As of September 2022, the Government of Ukraine estimated that 160,000 square kilometers of its territory may have explosive hazards—this is an area roughly the size of Virginia, Maryland, and Connecticut combined (or nearly twice the size of Austria). Ukraine’s Ministry of Agriculture estimates that approximately 10 percent of the country’s farmland has explosive hazards that make it too dangerous to farm. Russia’s brutal invasion is thus further worsening the global food crisis.

From FY2004 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $174 million in Ukraine for humanitarian mine action and to help the Ministry of Defense to safely manage its ammunition stockpiles. This includes $27.4 million provided after Russia’s initial invasion of Ukraine in 2014 to support survey and clearance operations along what was then the heavily mined line of contact in Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts and provide capacity-building assistance to Ukraine’s demining authorities.

An older man with a cane and dog sit on a bench in front of a large destroyed building

Mines Advisory Group

In FY2022, the Department of State’s conventional weapons destruction program supported:

  • Survey and clearance of suspected and confirmed hazardous areas.
  • Digital and in-person explosive ordnance risk education for at-risk civilians.
  • Capacity-building assistance.

This assistance has helped the Government of Ukraine to coordinate and oversee both its own teams and the rapidly expanding humanitarian mine action assistance provided by the United States and the international community. The Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement and its interagency man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) task force coordinate U.S. and Allied efforts to bolster the accountability of weapons storage in Ukraine and neighboring states as part of broader U.S. efforts to mitigate potential conventional weapons diversion.

In February 2022, the Department of State’s demining partners evacuated their personnel and assets from eastern Ukraine. After Ukraine repelled Russia’s forces around Kyiv. In February 2022 the Department of State’s demining partners initially evacuated their personnel and assets from eastern Ukraine. After Ukraine repelled Russia’s forces around Kyiv, our partners redeployed in areas of Kyiv and Chernihiv Oblasts liberated from Russia’s forces to facilitate recovery efforts and prevent civilian casualties. By the end of FY2023, the Department will invest a total of $91.5 million in demining assistance, which includes regularly budgeted and supplemental FY2022 funding as well as prior year funding (this does not include expected FY2023 funding not finalized at the time of printing). This is more than all prior assistance to Ukraine combined. Our assistance trains Government of Ukraine demining and explosive ordnance disposal teams to international standards and equips them with the necessary tools to perform their duties, while also supporting the deployment of additional contractor and nongovernmental organization clearance teams, as well as explosive ordnance risk education teams to accelerate demining efforts.

Through its Ukraine Rapid Response Fund, the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations provided land-based and underwater metal detectors for first responders from Ukraine’s State Emergency Service to help emergency personnel locate explosive remnants of war and related hazards near civilian infrastructure and populated areas.

Through the Nonproliferation and Disarmament Fund, the U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation provided explosive ordnance disposal equipment to the State Emergency Service to enhance its emergency response. The Department also provided metal detectors to the Ministry of Defense and initiated an agreement for in-country demining training for the Ministry of Defense scheduled for FY2023.

The U.S. Department of State’s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs provided vehicles, metal detectors, bomb suits, explosive ordnance disposal equipment, and extensive training to enhance the National Police of Ukraine’s emergency response capacity.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to support the deployment of the Harrow Magnet area preparation and clearance system and the evaluation of the Traxx remote vegetation clearance system.
  • U.S. European Command is working closely with the Department of State and international partners to coordinate equipment and training to Ukrainian forces.

As part of multi-regional programs, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund developed health systems responsive to the need for rehabilitation, strengthened the delivery of rehabilitation services, and integrated rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

Ukraine
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY04–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 8,500 10,397 71,000 138,464
DOS Other 1,155 2,684 19,500 23,339
DoD 4,464 717 786 8,593
USAID 0 0 0 3,957
Country Total 14,119 13,798 91,286 174,353
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  560,372 SQUARE METERS (138 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  258,873 SQUARE METERS (63 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  44 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  534 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  26,872 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS1
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  DANISH REFUGEE COUNCIL, GENEVA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMANITARIAN DEMINING, THE HALO TRUST, JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY-BLOOMBERG SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, MOMENTUM FOR HUMANITY, NATO SUPPORT AND PROCUREMENT AGENCY, ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CO-OPERATION IN EUROPE, SPIRIT OF SOCCER, SWISS FOUNDATION FOR MINE ACTION, TETRA TECH, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

1. This total reflects the number of recipients reached through in-person risk education.  More than 18 million additional recipients were reached through social media in Ukraine.

Regional Programs

South Caucasus Regional Program: In September 2022, the Department of State provided $2,000,000 in FY2022 funding for humanitarian demining operations in areas affected by the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Landmines and unexploded ordnance across the conflict-affected area continue to kill and maim civilians, block economic development, and impede the safe return of displaced families. Since the November 9, 2020 trilateral arrangement, more than 280 people have been killed or injured in landmine accidents in the region. The Department of State’s FY2022 funding built on the $500,000 announced in November 2021 and further strengthened the technical capacity of demining organizations to clear landmines and unexploded ordnance. This funding supported clearance operations and explosive ordnance disposal and strengthened humanitarian demining capacity in line with international standards. 

Since FY1999, the United States has provided more than $50.4 million to support clearance operations in the conflict-affected area, provided explosive ordnance risk education, assisted landmine survivors, and strengthened the capacity of demining organizations. These efforts played a critical role bolstering human security and enabling displaced communities to return to their homes in demined areas and rebuild their lives safely.

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  852,495 SQUARE METERS (210 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  160 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  1,100 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  778 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST, MINES ADVISORY GROUP
A red triangular sign with a skull and crossbones beside three stakes, one white, one blue, one red

Center for International Stabilization and Recovery

Europe--Other U.S. Support

Armenia and Azerbaijan: With funding from USAID, the Leahy War Victims Fund supported the World Health Organization to integrate rehabilitation in existing healthcare systems as part of a multi-regional program.

With funding from the Department of Defense, the United States provided support for conventional weapons destruction in the following countries:

Azerbaijan: U.S. European Command completed a holistic requirements determination site survey of the Mine Action Agency of the Republic of Azerbaijan. During this visit U.S. European Command, along with subject matter experts from the Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program, Humanitarian Demining Training Center, and U.S. Marine Corps Forces Europe researched requirements and capability gaps in technology, demining, explosive ordnance disposal, physical security and stockpile management, and emergency medical response in preparation for U.S. European Command to conduct planning and prepare to provide equipment and training support in all of these areas. Following this site survey, three additional projects were created including two train-the-trainer courses for physical security and stockpile management and explosive ordnance disposal Level 1-3. The third project will train and equip Azerbaijani demining personnel with Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System mine detection devices.

Cyprus: The U.S. European Command completed a holistic requirements determination site survey of the Cypriot National Guard. During this visit U.S. European Command and subject matter experts from Humanitarian Demining Training Center and U.S. Marine Corps Forces Europe researched requirements and capability gaps in demining, explosive ordnance disposal, physical security and stockpile management, and emergency medical response in preparation for U.S. European Command to conduct planning and prepare to provide equipment and training support in all of these areas.

Estonia: U.S. European Command supported military diver and underwater explosive ordnance disposal training, as well as database training, equipment, and technical assistance.

Moldova: The U.S. Army Europe continued to renovate two ammunition storage facilities in Floresti and Cahul. The upgrades consist of security fencing, renovation of three explosive storehouses, ramp replacements, floor refurbishment, and depot emergency water supply. In addition, U.S. Army Europe provided Moldovan personnel with supplies, equipment, and on-the-job mentorship on how to safely transport, store, and inspect munitions. They also assisted Moldovan government personnel with updating their national regulations for international best practices in humanitarian mine action.

North Macedonia: The Vermont National Guard conducted train-the-trainer courses on International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 1 Phase 1 and 2.

Overview

IRAQ | JORDAN | LEBANON | LIBYAWest Bank and Gaza Strip Areas | YEMEN

A woman in protective gear kneels beside a bed holding a hand-held device

Norwegian People’s Aid

Since 1993, the United States has invested more than $1 billion in conventional weapons destruction assistance in the Middle East and North Africa to enhance stability and improve human security. In Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, and Syria, Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS)-emplaced improvised explosive devices and landmines, as well as explosive remnants of war, threaten displaced families returning to their homes and impede stabilization efforts and local economic development. In Libya, illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons fuels both domestic and regional violence, imperils U.S. national security, and continues to displace civilians. In Yemen, the ongoing conflict is producing significant quantities of explosive remnants of war, and the massive use of landmines and improvised explosive devices continue to kill civilians and impede the safe delivery of urgent humanitarian assistance. 

According to the 2022 Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, of the six countries worldwide with the highest number of civilian casualties from landmines and explosive remnants of war in 2021, three are in the Middle East—Iraq, Syria, and Yemen—due in large part to the ongoing conflicts in these countries. In Syria alone, 1,227 landmine casualties were reported in 2021.

In the summer of 2022, farmers across areas of Iraq liberated from ISIS were able to safely harvest crops for the first time since ISIS was defeated. This was partly due to U.S. investments in survey, marking, and clearance operations that enabled the safe return of displaced families to their communities, the restoration of basic services, and economic development. This farmland is critical for the economic recovery and food security of local communities. In 2022, intensive flooding in Yemen washed many landmines into roads and other civilian areas, causing numerous injuries and fatalities. 

U.S. investment has also established professional national mine action centers and built strong and capable host country capacities. Explosive ordnance risk education reduced deaths and injuries, and survivor assistance projects provided rehabilitation and reintegration support. Together, these programs help lay the groundwork for stability and prosperity across the region.

A white circle with a thick green outlineA solid green circle
39,811,885

SQ M LAND RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
7,677

LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
27,865

EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
An illustration of a clock
8,984

IED OR COMPONENTS DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
20

METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
998,146

RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
1993–2022 Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: Middle East and North Africa Regional Map, full text description in Appendix A

Map and table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
TOTAL U.S. CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS DESTRUCTION FUNDING IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA FY1993–FY2022
Middle East & North Africa FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 Total
Regional 935 0 0 0 935
yellow circle Bahrain 10 0 0 0 10 
yellow circle Egypt 718 0 0 0 718 
red circle Iraq 553,486 43,659 38,280 40,253 675,678
blue circle Jordan 28,922 400 400 400 30,122
red circle Lebanon 77,173 5,044 8,324 6,085 96,626
red circle Libya 48,575 3,000 2,000 2,000 55,575
red circle Morocco 531 147 164 1,154 1,996
yellow circle Oman 4,338 0 0 0 4,338
yellow circle Syria 86,065 5 0 7,000 93,070
green circle Tunisia 1,383 0 0 0 1,383
red circle West Bank and Gaza Strip Areas 6,313 55 1,013 1,014 8,395
red circle Yemen 40,401 4,800 4,000 2,000 55,201
Total 852,850 57,110 54,181 59,906 1,024,047
Percentage of the $59.9 Million Allocated to the Middle East and North Africa in FY2022 by Country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving Lives Through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: Combating Desertification Through Demining in Western Iraq

Images and article courtesy of Tetra Tech.

The long shadow of war against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) lies heavily upon western Anbar Governorate, Iraq. Wide areas of land are littered with improvised explosive devices (IEDs), unexploded ordnance (UXO), and other explosive remnants of war, disrupting the lives of Iraqis in myriad ways. Contamination from explosive hazards delays redevelopment of vital infrastructure and prevents farmers from working their fields and shepherds from tending their flocks. Now old battle lines are intersecting with the threat of desertification.

According to the United Nations and the World Bank, Iraq is one of the world’s top five countries most affected by climate change. Record low rainfall, heat waves, decreasing vegetative cover, soil erosion, and salinization threaten its food security. The Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture reports 55% of the country’s landmass is under threat of desertification.

In arid areas with recent conflicts, such as western Anbar Governorate, demining can be the first step in combating desertification. With United States funding, Tetra Tech clears explosive hazards from critical water and sanitation systems across Iraq, including the Anah Oasis.

Engineer Omar Al-Ani has worked at Anah Oasis, an important agricultural nursery and orchard in Anbar Governorate for 15 years. Before the war with ISIS, Omar helped manage the thriving oasis, including farming olives, pistachios, lemons, almonds, and date palms that are regionally and economically important as valuable food crops adapted to grow in saline soils, and which act as vegetative cover to combat erosion.

In 2014, ISIS seized control of Anah Oasis and used it as a site for manufacturing and storing massive quantities of improvised explosive devices. During the occupation, no crops were grown, greenhouses were destroyed, and irrigation systems fell into disrepair. Between the improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance left from the 2017 operations to liberate the area from ISIS, the once-fertile landscape and broken water delivery systems were littered with explosive hazards.

In 2019, the Iraqi Minister of the Desertification Directorate declared Anah Oasis as a priority revegetation area. In support of these efforts, U.S. company Tetra Tech, under a State Department contract, cleared the area of improvised explosive devices, rockets, and ten vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices (car bombs). As soon as clearance was completed, Omar eagerly returned to his beloved oasis to assess the damage and began the slow and laborious process of removing rubble, rebuilding water delivery systems, and replanting crops. Three years later, Anah Oasis employs 60 full-time staff and 150 seasonal workers who tend to a wide variety of plants and trees. Omar has added ornamental windbreak plants to help combat soil erosion and pasture plants whose seeds spread rapidly in the desert to develop vegetative cover.

Thanks to the efforts of the United States, other international donors, and people like Omar Al-Ani, Anah Oasis is combating desertification and providing food security to the people of Anbar and beyond.

Two men working with plants growing in small patches

Tetra Tech

Iraq

Iraq Flag: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the Takbir (Arabic expression meaning "God is great") in green Arabic script is centered in the white band

During the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria’s (ISIS) brutal control of large swaths of northern and western Iraq, the group planted an unprecedented level of mass-produced, technologically sophisticated improvised explosive devices and other explosive hazards to kill civilians, discourage the return of displaced communities, block economic development, and hinder stabilization. Since 2015, the United States and other international donors have made significant progress in clearing improvised explosive devices emplaced by ISIS, but much work remains. The United States remains dedicated to the survey and clearance of these explosive hazards and delivering explosive ordnance risk education to help prevent injuries. The clearance of areas liberated from ISIS remains a priority for the United States, including the ancestral homelands of Iraq’s ethnic and religious minority communities in Ninewa Governorate, even as we continue long-standing support for the survey and clearance of legacy hazards in northern and southern Iraq and capacity building assistance to Iraq’s Directorate of Mine Action and the Iraqi Kurdistan Mine Action Authority.

The United States remains the largest international supporter of humanitarian mine action in Iraq investing more than $675 million from FY2003 to FY2022 to support survey and clearance as well as explosive ordnance risk education.

In the foreground a person kneels with a tool in a dug-out area; in the background large machinery scoops dirt into piles

Mines Advisory Group

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and clearance in areas liberated from ISIS in Anbar, Kirkuk, Ninewa, and Salah Al-Din Governorates. This work helped displaced Iraqis, including members of Christian, Yezidi, Shabak, Kaka’i, and Turkmen minority communities, safely return home and begin rebuilding their lives and local economies.
  • Clearance of legacy explosive hazards in Kurdistan and U.S.-origin unexploded ordnance in southern Iraq.
  • Strengthening of the Iraqi Directorate of Mine Action’s capacity to conduct strategic planning and operational coordination as well as manage information associated with demining operations across Iraq.
  • Investment in virtual and in-person explosive ordnance risk education for at-risk communities across Iraq to help them teach children and adults about the dangers of explosive hazards.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to deploy the Wirehound handheld detector, a stand-alone orbital sifter, and the Rebel Crusher sifter/rock crushing plant with, multiple commercial front-loader attachments. The program also deployed a Rotastar wet soil screener and a Rambo demining support vehicle.

Iraq
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY03–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 43,500 38,150 40,000 568,301
DOS Other 0 0 0 992
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 159 130 253 105,935
Country Total 43,659 38,280 40,253 675,678
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle    21,420,546 SQUARE METERS (5,293 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline    11,694,126 SQUARE METERS (2,890 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A green ball with gray markings on the edges    920,000 SQUARE METERS (227 ACRES) CLUSTER MUNITIONS REMNANTS SURVEY
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle    712 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle   1,387 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  13,672 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a clock   7,649 IED OR COMPONENTS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside   239,748 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside   DANISH REFUGEE COUNCIL, THE HALO TRUST, IMMAP, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID, SPIRIT OF SOCCER, SWISS FOUNDATION FOR DEMINING, TETRA TECH

Jordan

Jordan Flag: Three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star

Jordan declared itself mine-free in 2012 and has made significant progress to reduce the threat of landmines and explosive remnants of war from the 1948 conflict following the partition of Palestine, the 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the 1970 civil war. However, residual contamination remains along its northern border and in the Jordan River Valley.

From FY1996 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $30.1 million in Jordan to clear mines and explosive remnants of war, destroy old and obsolete ammunition, deliver explosive ordnance risk education, and provide rehabilitation and reintegration support to survivors of landmine and unexploded ordnance accidents.

A person points to a poster with illustrations showing how to be safe around explosive ordnance

Mines Advisory Group

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Rehabilitative care, vocational training, and prosthetics to Jordanians and Syrian refugees who are survivors of landmine and unexploded ordnance accidents.
Jordan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY96–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 400 400 400 24,436
DOS Other 0 0 0 300
CDC 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 400 400 400 30,122
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross 1,170 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside POLUS CENTER FOR SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Lebanon

Lebanon Flag: Three horizontal bands consisting of red (top), white (middle, double width), and red (bottom) with a green cedar tree centered in the white band

Lebanon has significant landmine and explosive remnants of war contamination from its 1975–1990 civil war, the laying of minefields along the Blue Line between 1984–2000, and the Israel-Hizballah conflict of 2006. Additionally, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and other terrorist and violent extremist groups seeded fertile land along Lebanon’s northeast border with Syria with landmines and improvised explosive devices in 2017 before the Lebanon Armed Forces dislodged them. Over 31.6 million square meters (7,809 acres) of land has suspected or confirmed explosive hazard contamination according to the Lebanon Mine Action Center’s 2021 annual report. U.S. assistance cleared the last landmines in and around Lebanon’s famed cedar forests, which enabled the Lebanon Mine Action Center to declare Lebanon’s Northern Governorate mine free in December 2021. The United States continues to support the Lebanon Armed Forces’ capacity to store and manage ammunition, with physical upgrades to its facilities and storekeeper training.

From FY1998 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $96.6 million in Lebanon to survey and clear landmines and explosive remnants of war, procure and train mine detection dogs, provide explosive ordnance risk education, build the capacity of the Lebanon Mine Action Center, and provide medical assistance and vocational training for landmine survivors. Our work makes the United States the largest international provider of demining assistance in Lebanon. U.S. assistance has also significantly strengthened the Lebanese Armed Forces’ capacity to manage its arms and ammunition stockpiles.

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and clearance of explosive hazards in South and Nabatieh Governorates, and in northeast Lebanon, to provide access for livestock and agricultural development.
  • Clearance of explosive hazards from the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah conflict and the 1975–1990 civil war in Mount Lebanon Governorate to facilitate the return of displaced residents and boost economic development for communities in the Aley and Baabda Districts.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to evaluate soil excavation, sifting, and grinding attachments for its armored excavators as well as the Terrapin small remote excavator. Additionally, a Rebel Crusher sifter/rock crushing plant previously used in Iraq was relocated to Lebanon.

Lebanon
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY98–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,000 8,000 6,000 74,999
DOS Other 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 44 324 85 9,777
USAID 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 5,044 8,324 6,085 96,626
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  672,026 SQUARE METERS (166 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  588,984 SQUARE METERS (145 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  12 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  3,471 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  597 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  1,091 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  DANCHURCHAID, ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Libya

Libya Flag: Three horizontal bands of red (top), black (double width), and green with a white crescent and star centered on the black stripe

The full extent of landmine contamination, improvised explosive devices, and explosive remnants of war in Libya remains unknown due to continuing insecurity in the wake of the 2011 revolution, ISIS control of the area around Sirte in 2015, and renewed fighting around Tripoli in 2019-2020. Illicit small arms proliferation also fuels conflict within Libya, in neighboring states, and across the Sahara. The United States works with allies, international organizations, and implementing partners to mitigate these threats, which hinder development, limit the reach of humanitarian assistance, and threaten the security of displaced Libyans who are seeking to return to their homes and communities.

From FY2011 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $55.5 million to help partners and allies clear explosive remnants of war, respond to emergency callouts, and provide explosive ordnance education.

Several people exiting two pick-up trucks moving toward a pile 4 explosive hazards

ITF Enhancing Human Security

In FY2022, Department of State supported:

  • The survey and clearance of battlefields around Tripoli, Sirte, Benghazi, and Misrata, and responded to emergency callouts.
  • Immediate response to callouts to destroy explosive hazards left behind by the fighting following the worst violence in years in Tripoli in August 2022.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education in Sirte and Benghazi to help prevent injuries from unexploded ordnance.
  • The Libya Mine Action Center’s development of standard operating procedures, national standards, and increased capacity.
Libya
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY11–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 3,000 2,000 2,000 36,000
DOS Other 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 3,000 2,000 2,000 55,575
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  18,060 SQUARE METERS (4.5 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  464 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  1,086 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP insideDANCHURCHAID, FREE FIELDS FOUNDATION, THE HALO TRUST, ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY

West Bank and Gaza Strip Areas

The West Bank and Gaza Strip have landmines and unexploded ordnance from the decades of conflict beginning in 1948. Jordan laid 13 minefields from 1948 to 1967, and Israel laid 77 more after the 1967 war. Israel Defense Force training exercises in parts of the West Bank have produced additional unexploded ordnance, which is often discovered by local herders and farmers.

From FY2011 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $8.3 million to survey and clear landmines and unexploded ordnance from privately-owned land that is not subject to disputes between Palestinians and Israelis. This decade-long effort is the only one of its kind in the West Bank. In the Gaza Strip we also provided emergency callouts to enable the delivery of humanitarian assistance efforts and for civilians displaced during the 2021 conflict to return to their homes.

In FY2022, Department of State supported:

  • Clearance of minefields and quality control and quality assurance activities in the West Bank.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program evaluated two soil-sifting excavator attachments, a large mine-sifting screener, Ferex 4.034 and Magnex magnetometer systems, and a Target Reacquisition and Positioning System (a low-cost differential global positioning system) that can map humanitarian demining tasks in the West Bank.

West Bank and Gaza Strip Areas
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY11–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,000 1,000 8,088
DoD 55 13 14 307
Country Total 55 1,013 1,014 8,395
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  4,600 SQUARE METERS (1.1 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  8 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  14 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  23,811 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST, ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION SERVICE

Yemen

Yemen Flag: Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black

Landmines, unexploded ordnance, and improvised explosive devices from the ongoing conflict continue to kill Yemeni civilians across the country, block access to critical infrastructure for basic services, and obstruct desperately needed humanitarian assistance. Republic of Yemen Government officials estimate that in recent years, Iran-backed Houthi forces have laid over one million landmines, making Yemen one of the most heavily mined countries in the world.

The United States is the largest contributor to the United Nations Development Programme’s engagement with the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center, having invested more than $55.2 million from FY1997 to FY2022. Our support provides survey and clearance, explosive ordnance risk education, survivors’ assistance, and capacity building for the Yemen Executive Mine Action Center.

A group of children hold up brochures

The HALO Trust

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey and clearance to help families safely return home and begin rebuilding their lives and local economies.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education and survivors’ assistance for medical care, rehabilitative care, vocational training, and micro-grants to landmine survivors.
  • Additional training and capacity building for the Aden-based Yemen Executive Mine Action Center. The Center continued to integrate an information management system, trained its staff on information management practices and procedures, helped develop national standards for non-technical surveys, and provided virtual training on how to conduct them.
Yemen
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY97–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 4,800 4,000 2,000 50,355
DoD 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 4,800 4,000 2,000 55,201
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  5,413,543 SQUARE METERS (1,337 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  67 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  2,803 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  12,510 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a clock  1,332 IED OR COMPONENTS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  729,133 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  183 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  19.8 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  DANISH REFUGEE COUNCIL, GENEVA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMANITARIAN DEMINING, THE HALO TRUST, MARSHALL LEGACY INSTITUTE UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

Middle East and North Africa--Other U.S. Support

With funding from the Department of Defense:

Morocco: U.S. Africa Command and Morocco graduated 19 instructors for EOD Level 3. Projects completed in FY2022 included explosive ordnance disposal Level 3 Phase 2 and 3 training, and the procurement of equipment for instructors and students of explosive ordnance disposal Level 3+ training.

Syria: The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued supporting the evaluation of internet protocol camera systems on robotic armored demining platforms that allow remote access to structures to search for explosive hazards.

Overview

AFGHANISTAN | KAZAKHSTAN | KYRGYZ REPUBLICSRI LANKA | TAJIKISTAN

A person in protective gear leans over numerous plastic bottles

The HALO Trust

With support from the United States, South and Central Asian countries are securing weapons and ammunition stockpiles, clearing landmines and unexploded ordnance that threaten civilians, promoting peace and security, and strengthening economic ties in the region, all of which advances U.S. regional and global security priorities. It is critical that all sides continue to broaden and deepen this partnership to secure arms and ammunition that might otherwise fall into the wrong hands, promote peace and stability through demining, and expand mutual ties. Assistance provided by the United States pursues two tracks simultaneously. It addresses the most dangerous explosive hazards through immediate action while building partner nation capacity to manage future hazards over the long term, independent of U.S. assistance. This approach is essential to enhancing regional stability and fostering economic development.

Humanitarian mine action programs in Afghanistan continue despite the August 2021 takeover by the Taliban. Delivered through nongovernmental organizations, United States assistance is designed to directly benefit Afghan civilians who face the dangers of landmines and explosive remnants of war on a daily basis without aiding the Taliban. International and national nongovernmental organizations with decades of experience clearing explosives provide Afghans with one of the most capable mine action programs in the world. U.S. assistance not only removes landmines, improvised explosive devices, and unexploded and abandoned ordnance, it improves the lives and well-being of Afghans. Demining organizations provide employment and make land safe for farming, which provides a measure of economic and food security. The Kyrgyz Republic and Kazakhstan are addressing the substantial risk from unsecured and deteriorating weapons and ammunition through stockpile reduction and disposal. Tajikistan is a regional leader in landmine clearance and explosive hazard remediation and is successfully managing its aging munitions stockpiles while clearing explosive hazards along its borders and within the central Rasht Valley region. Sri Lanka is dealing with extensive landmines, improvised explosive devices, and unexploded ordnance hazards that endanger civilian security, inhibit livelihoods, and impede the resettlement of communities. The latter two countries have made significant progress in returning land and infrastructure to safe use and are nearing a future in which their people can thrive free from the threat of explosive hazards.

A white circle with a thick green outlineA solid green circle
15,967,148
SQ M LAND RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
11,687
LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
62,057
EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
1,150
METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross
51,207
SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
67,059
RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS

Table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
Total Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in South and Central Asia FY1993–FY2022
South and Central Asia FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 Total
Regional 2,060 0 0 200 2,260
red circle Afghanistan 517,112 21,162 20,330 15,193 573,797
yellow circle India 300 0 0 0 300
red circle Kazakhstan 295 3,088 0 91 3,474
red circle Kyrgyz Republic 3,292 500 2,000 2,000 7,792
red circle Nepal1 6,936 0 1,587 0 8,523
red circle Pakistan 832 0 0 0 832
red circle Sri Lanka 72,361 5,679 8,308 8,525 94,873
red circle Tajikistan 27,233 1,939 4,162 2,612 35,946
yellow circle Uzbekistan 99 0 0 0 99
Total 630,520 32,368 36,387 28,621 727,896

1. Countries with activities in FY22 that were solely funded through Global/Multi-Country funding, but received direct funding in the past.

Percentage of the $28.6 million allocated to South and Central Asia in FY2022 by country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving Lives Through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: Adapting Community Liaison Techniques in Mine Action for Climate Resilience Article and images courtesy of the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action in Afghanistan and Tajikistan

Six people walk up a steep rocky incline with a valley and mountains in the background [Swiss Foundation for Mine Action]

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

Article and images courtesy of the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action.

Though it began by providing purely technical solutions, the humanitarian mine action sector has recently taken on an increased role in pre- and post-clearance development activities. This is partly due to a growing global awareness of the impact of climate change and its effects on vulnerable populations. To respond to this challenge, the Swiss Foundation for Demining expanded the role of its mine action community liaisons to increase sustainable climate resilience.

 In traditional humanitarian mine action, the community liaison approach places the needs and priorities of mine affected communities at the center of the planning, implementation and monitoring of mine action and other sectors. Community liaisons directly engage with local residents, who share experiences, express priorities, and assist in identifying solutions to problems within their communities.

In Afghanistan, the Swiss Foundation for Demining expanded its mine action community liaison work by adding a socioeconomic impact assessment to quantitatively measure the benefits of land release for the local community. The assessment was a simple questionnaire, which identified key economic indicators such as the price of cattle, land values, agriculture, water resources, etc. Thanks to the inclusive nature of the survey the members of the community participated actively before, during, and after clearance. Importantly, much of the process was led by locals who expressed their own needs and hopes for positive post clearance environmental outcomes despite the region’s history of conflict, and its rough terrain, and harsh climate.

Swiss Foundation for Demining teams in Tajikistan took note of the Afghanistan assessment’s findings and adapted their community liaison concept to specifically address environmental issues caused by pesticide pollution in the Khatlon region. They employed a similar survey methodology with significant local engagement, but qualitatively measured not only social but also climate resilience needs to develop a more accurate picture of local environmental priorities within the Vakhsh district. As a result of this local feedback, they prioritized the refurbishment of irrigation infrastructure to increase food security in one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change in the region.

Though the projects in Afghanistan and Tajikistan were different, they used standard techniques that are common to all mine action organizations. Demining organizations routinely engage with village level leaders and local governments as part of their community liaison activities before they begin clearance operations. With some refinement, these existing interactions , and the relationships they foster, can help demining organizations build the capacity of local people for climate resilience.

Ultimately the success of any mine action project relies heavily on suitable resources—accounting and finance systems, personnel, working procedures, insurance, vehicles, equipment, networks into local government, consumables etc. Understanding local environmental challenges and helping local communities to build resilience against climate change needs similar resources modified slightly with the appropriate skills and experience of staff. Land release and land use post-clearance have many synergies with the activities needed to build climate change resilience within communities. So it is a natural progression for mine action organizations to integrate and work in parallel with the environmental sector to achieve more efficient gains and to protect vulnerable communities from the triple planetary crisis of climate change, pollution, and biodiversity loss. These initial efforts in South Central Asia to integrate humanitarian mine action with measures to increase local populations’ resilience to climate change hold promise for application to other humanitarian demining and battle area clearance projects worldwide.

Two cars and several people stand on a dirt road

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

Afghanistan

Afghanistan Flag: Three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), red, and green, with the national emblem in white centered on the red band and slightly overlapping the other 2 bands

To improve the lives of the Afghan people, the United States provides conventional weapons destruction funding and support to help clear landmines, including abandoned improvised mines and unexploded ordnance left behind by the 1979 Soviet invasion and over 40 years of subsequent conflicts. According to the Mine Action Program of Afghanistan, more than 1,200 civilian casualties were caused by landmines, improvised mines, and other explosive hazards in 2021. Children comprised 45 percent of those casualties. Unexploded ordnance and improvised explosive devices caused nearly 98 percent of these incidents. About two percent of civilian casualties are attributed to Soviet-era landmine contamination.

From FY1993 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $573 million for conventional weapons destruction programs in Afghanistan. This assistance continues to be delivered through nongovernmental organizations to directly benefit the Afghan people without assisting the Taliban.

A group of people sitting in chairs look at posters of explosive hazards

Swiss Foundation for Mine Action

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Clearing high-risk hazards such as minefields and unexploded ordnance, and abandoned improvised mines in Baghlan, Helmand, Kabul, Kandahar, Maidan Wardak, Nimroz, Nuristan, Paktika, and Panjsher Provinces.
  • Cross-border clearance of high-risk hazards in northern Badakhshan Province, and the conclusion of clearance operations of NATO-origin cluster munitions in Paktya, Faryab, and Nangarhar Provinces.
  • Surface and subsurface battle area clearance in central, western, and northern Afghanistan.
  • Emergency callout response teams to identify, secure, and destroy cached munitions in central and eastern Afghanistan.
  • The United Nations Mine Action Service to enhance oversight of information management and mine action programs.
  • Explosive ordnance risk education for individuals in high-risk areas.
  • Rehabilitation centers in Kabul, Farah, Paktya, and Paktika Provinces to provide physiotherapy, orthotics, and prosthetics services; and supported vocational rehabilitation and development training for landmine survivors and their immediate family members living with disabilities.
  • Upgrades and renovations to enable persons with disabilities to access those facilities.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program partners continued to evaluate technologies including the Minehound and Minehound Lite mine detector; the Scorpion unexploded ordnance detection system; the Storm Steep Slope Excavator; the Orbit Screener, which sifts mine-contaminated soil; and a suite of mine action attachments for excavators and loaders. Additionally, they continued to evaluate three Raptor armored tractors with two attachments: the Rotary Mine Comb anti-tank mine clearance system and a powered harrow with clutter collection magnet.

Afghanistan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY93–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 20,785 20,000 15,000 490,391
DOS Other 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 377 330 193 10,159
USAID 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 21,162 20,330 15,193 573,797
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022: 

  • A solid green circle  13,195,103 SQUARE METERS (3,260 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  223,207 SQUARE METERS (55 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  3,836 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  •        61,297 EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  62,480 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  51,172 SURVIVOR ASSISTANCE RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  382.5 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ACCESSIBILITY ORGANIZATION FOR AFGHAN DISABLED, AFGHAN TECHNICAL CONSULTANTS, DEMINING AGENCY FOR AFGHANISTAN, AGENCY FOR REHABILITATION AND ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AFGHANISTAN, THE HALO TRUST, ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY, MINE CLEARANCE PLANNING AGENCY, MINE DETECTION CENTER, NORWEGIAN PEOPLE’S AID, ORGANIZATION FOR MINE CLEARANCE AND AFGHANISTAN REHABILITATION, UNITED NATIONS MINE ACTION SERVICE

Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan Flag: A gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background; the hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern "koshkar-muiz"

Kazakhstan faces substantial risk from poorly secured, aging, and deteriorating ammunition stockpiles that threaten civilian safety due to their proximity to populated areas. Kazakhstan suffered major explosions at munitions storage facilities in 2019 and again in 2022. From FY2019 to FY2021, the United States invested more than $3.4 million to help Kazakhstan segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable ammunition and landmines. This improved host-nation capacity to avert unplanned explosions at ammunition depots and prevent the illicit proliferation of munitions pilfered from national stockpiles.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the Department of State supported:

  • A new program to help the Kazakhstan Ministry of Defense dispose of excess antitank landmines and construct a modular demilitarization facility to address other types of excess, obsolete, and degraded ammunition.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Central Command conducted a train-the-trainer course with the Kazakhstan Ministry of Defense on explosive ordnance disposal Level 2 and provided equipment to its demining center in Kapshaga. This included hook-and-line kits, inert training ordnance and explosive items, X-Ray equipment, and metal detectors.

Kazakhstan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY09–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,500 0 0 2,795
DoD 588 0 91 679
Country Total 3,088 0 91 3,474
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY

Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan Flag: Red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes

Kyrgyz Republic faces substantial risk from unsecured, deteriorating arms and ammunition storage sites that threaten civilian safety due to their proximity to populated areas. From FY2009 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $7.7 million to help Kyrgyz Republic refurbish its existing explosives storage facilities and segregate, secure, and destroy excess and unserviceable munitions. This assistance will improve capacity to prevent unplanned explosions at munitions sites that have the potential to injure and kill adjoining civilian populations. It will also reduce the risk of illicit proliferation of munitions from national stockpiles.

A gray metal building

ITF Enhancing Human Security
The skeletal frame of a building being constructed of metal

ITF Enhancing Human Security

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Kyrgyz Ministry of Defense efforts to dispose of expired artillery ammunition and outdated or obsolete advanced conventional weapons, renovate artillery ammunition storehouses, and train and develop proper national munitions stockpile management capacity.
Kyrgyz Republic
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY09–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 500 2,000 2,000 7,785
DoD 0 0 0 7
Country Total 500 2,000 2,000 7,792
Dollars in thousands

 In FY2022: 

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  759.4 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of 4 long weapons stacked vertically  60 MANPADS OR COMPONENTS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  3 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ITF ENHANCING HUMAN SECURITY

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka Flag: Yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other larger panel depicts a yellow lion holding a sword on a maroon rectangular field that also displays a yellow bo leaf in each corner

Landmines and unexploded ordnance still litter Sri Lanka over a decade after the end of its civil war. They are a critical impediment to the resettlement of displaced families and economic development. This is particularly true as the government returns land to civilian use that was previously controlled by the military. The widespread presence of mines, unexploded ordnance, and improvised explosive devices poses an enduring hazard to returnees in those areas. According to the national mine action center, as of October 2022, approximately 17.7 million square meters (4,374 acres) of confirmed hazardous areas remained.

From FY1995 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $94.8 million to survey and clear explosive hazards and provide explosive ordnance risk education to prevent further injuries, support training in munitions physical security and stockpile management, and provided additional capacity building measures.

A person in protective gear holding a metal detector

Mines Advisory Group

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Survey, clearance, and explosive ordnance risk education in Jaffna, Kilinochchi, Mannar, Mullaitivu, Trincomalee, and Vavuniya Districts.
  • The Sri Lankan Police Training Brigade to better secure and account for its stocks of arms and ammunition by constructing new storage facilities and upgrading existing ones.
  • Armory storekeeper and management training to improve Sri Lanka’s capacity to safely handle and manage its national stockpiles.

The Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program continued to evaluate the Rex lightweight armored excavator, the Improved Backhoe system and rake attachments, the Light Soil Sifter, a soil-sifting excavator attachment, and handheld standoff detection systems. This equipment provided area preparation, area reduction, and mine-clearance capabilities to clear villages and agricultural land.

With prior year funds, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued its multi-regional programs to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

A kneeling person in protective gear with a tool in her hand digging in the dirt

Mines Advisory Group
Sri Lanka
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY95–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 5,500 8,000 8,500 81,841
DOS Other 0 0 0 122
CDC 0 0 0 175
DoD 179 308 25 4,835
USAID 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 5,679 8,308 8,525 94,873
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  1,588,364 SQUARE METERS (392 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  156,127 SQUARE METERS (38.5 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  9,589 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  1,192 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a clock  20 IEDS OR COMPONENTS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  1,328 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  71 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  9 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  DELVON ASSOCIATION FOR SOCIAL HARMONY, THE HALO TRUST, MINES ADVISORY GROUP, SKAVITA HUMANITARIAN ASSISTANCE AND RELIEF PROJECT, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

Tajikistan

Tajikistan Flag: Three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe

Tajikistan inherited an enormous stockpile of aging munitions following the collapse of the Soviet Union, including large-caliber ordnance and other explosives. Due to its porous borders with Afghanistan, poorly secured small arms and light weapons and ammunition present a real threat to national and regional security. Tajikistan also has extensive landmine and cluster munitions contamination along its southern and western borders that stems from its civil war in the 1990s and earlier Soviet attempts to prevent border crossings by Afghan militants and narcotics traffickers. During its civil war (1992–1997), Tajikistan’s Central Rasht Valley region was heavily littered with landmines and unexploded ordnance that impedes the socioeconomic development of this fertile region. Explosive hazards limit access to valuable agricultural land and endanger border crossings, farming, wood gathering, and livestock grazing.

From FY2004 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $35.9 million to clear landmines and unexploded ordnance, destroy excess and aging munitions, and provide survivors’ assistance. The United States also provided physical security and stockpile management training, and national capacity building for the Tajikistan National Mine Action Center.

A group of people in protective gear standing together

Norwegian People’s Aid

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Multiple demining teams, including one to respond to explosive ordnance disposal callouts and destroy stockpiled munitions. Two mixed-gender clearance teams, three manual demining teams, and four non-technical survey teams worked along the southern Tajik-Afghan border.
  • The Tajikistan National Mine Action Center’s capacity by providing training on demining, program management, project development, and quality-assurance.
  • A regional workshop to share lessons learned across Central Asian countries and foster closer cooperation on security and defense issues.
  • Several regional training courses to build national capacity in explosive ordnance disposal and munitions stockpile management.

With funding from the Department of Defense, U.S. Central Command conducted train-the-trainer courses at International Mine Action Standards explosive ordnance disposal Level 3 for Tajik Ministry of Defense personnel. U.S. Central Command also provided supervision for Ministry of Defense instructors teaching Level 1 and Level 2 courses. Humanitarian mine action casualty care training and equipment provided included hook-and-line kits, combat lifesaver equipment, de-armers, and various hand tools.

As part of its multi-regional programs, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund strengthened the health rehabilitation sector and the integration and improvement of rehabilitation services in existing healthcare.

Tajikistan
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 *FY04–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 3,300 2,500 28,783
DoD 439 862 112 4,283
USAID 0 0 0 2,880
Country Total 1,939 4,162 2,612 35,946
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  582,040 square meters (144 acres) Land Cleared
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  222,307 square meters (55 acres) Land Released
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  696 landmines destroyed
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  973 Explosive Remnants of War destroyed
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  3,251 Explosive Ordnance Risk Education Recipients
  • An illustration of a person in a chair, a medical person standing next to them, and a red cross  35 Survivor Assistance Recipients
  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  7.9 Metric Tons of Unserviceable Ammunition Destroyed
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  International Committee of the Red Cross, Momentum for Humanity, Norwegian Peoples Aid, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Swiss Demining Foundation, Tajikistan National Mine Action Center, World Health Organization

South and Central Asia--Other U.S. Support

Nepal: USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support Humanity and Inclusion to establish a sustainable, integrated, public-private rehabilitation system to improve the mobility and functional independence of survivors of conflict and others in need of rehabilitation services. As part of a multi-regional program conducted with prior year funds, USAID continued to help the World Health Organization to integrate and strengthen rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems.

Pakistan: With prior year funds, USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support Johns Hopkins University-Bloomberg School of Public Health to develop health systems that are responsive to needs for rehabilitation across the patient lifespan as part of a multi-regional program.

Overview

Caribbean Region | Colombia | Ecuador | El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras | Peru

Three people stand around a table looking at papers

In Latin America, the United States funds physical security and stockpile management programs in Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, and the Caribbean region. Its work there improves the security and management of munitions stockpiles, disrupts the diversion and illicit trafficking of small arms and light weapons, and reduces the risk of catastrophic unplanned explosions at munition storage sites. These programs strengthen civilian security, make it more difficult for drug traffickers, criminal gangs, and terrorists to obtain weapons from poorly secured stockpiles, and bolster the integrity of the U.S. southern border. U.S. efforts to reduce the availability of illicit weapons across the hemisphere support Pillar IV of the U.S. Strategy for Addressing the Root Causes of Migration in Central America, which focuses on countering and preventing violence, extortion, and other crimes perpetrated by criminal gangs, trafficking networks, and other organized criminal organizations.

In addition to addressing the illicit proliferation of weapons, the United States provides humanitarian demining assistance to Colombia, which remains the country in the Americas that is most heavily affected by landmines. Explosive hazards continue to threaten the livelihood of Colombians, making it difficult for families to safely return to their homes and disrupting the restoration of local economies. Since 2016, demining operations have expanded into previously inaccessible locations, thanks to the Government of Colombia’s peace accord with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

The Government of Colombia, with the assistance of the United States and other international donors, continues to clear Colombia’s remaining explosive hazards and return agricultural land to productive use. In many areas, landmines and improvised explosive devices have physically displaced communities and reduced their access to agricultural land, which is their primary source of income. These disruptions are amplified for indigenous communities, which also depend on their protected ancestral lands for subsistence farming and spiritual practices. The return of cleared land in Colombia allows farmers and indigenous communities to restart agricultural production, increases the availability and diversity of sustainable food sources, and contributes to both economic and cultural stability.

A white circle with a thick green outlineA solid green circle
235,874
SQ M LAND RETURNED TO COMMUNITIES
A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle
76
LANDMINES DESTROYED
An illustration of three bombs stacked together
138
EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR/IEDS DESTROYED
An illustration of three bullets side by side
769
METRIC TONS OF AMMUNITION DESTROYED
An illustration of three guns stacked vertically
6,087
SMALL ARMS/LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside
65,655
RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
1993–2022 Overview of the U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Program: Western Hemisphere Regional Map, full text description in Appendix A

Map and table legend:

  • red circle U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • yellow circle Received U.S. support in the past
  • blue circle Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in FY22
  • green circle Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
Total Conventional Weapons Destruction Funding in the Western Hemisphere FY1993–FY2022
Western
Hemisphere
FY93-19 FY20 FY21 FY22 FY93-22
Regional1 0 0 0 1,500 1,500
yellow circle Argentina 579 0 0 0 579
yellow circle Belize 300 0 0 0 300
yellow circle Caribbean Region2 0 1,850 0 0 1,850
yellow circle Chile 3,450 0 0 0 3,450
red circle Colombia 135,952 24,023 21,537 24,587 206,099
yellow circle Dominican Republic 500 0 0 0 500
red circle Ecuador 9,816 1,500 3,207 1,591 16,114
blue circle El Salvador3 6,828 0 0 0 6,828
blue circle El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras1,3 1,000 1,500 3,000 2,000 7,500
blue circle Guatemala3 900 0 0 0 900
yellow circle Haiti 3,500 0 0 0 3,500
blue circle Honduras3 1,464 0 0 0 1,464
yellow circle Mexico 775 0 0 0 775
green circle Nicaragua 4,281 0 0 0 4,281
yellow circle Paraguay 200 0 0 0 200
red circle Peru 28,967 2,168 2,515 1,021 34,671
yellow circle Suriname 390 0 0 0 390
yellow circle Uruguay 200 0 0 0 200
Total 199,102 31,041 30,259 30,699 291,101

1. Regional funding for FY22 includes $1.5 million plus $2 million allocated in the El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras funding line.
2. The Caribbean Region includes The Bahamas, Barbados, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Jamaica, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Trinidad and Tobago.
3. El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala began receiving regional funding in FY19.

Percentage of the $30.6 million allocated to the Western Hemishere in FY2022 by country, full text description in Appendix A

Improving Lives Through U.S. Conventional Weapons Destruction Programs: Humanitarian Mine Action, Reforestation and Sustainable Development in Colombia

A man and woman in a field with a potted plant to be put in the ground

Article courtesy of Swiss Foundation for Mine Action and Danish Refugee Council.

The prolonged armed conflict in Colombia has significantly degraded the natural environment. Landmines and explosive remnants of war make large tracts of land unusable. Conflict and instability also foster the cultivation of illicit crops, as well as illegal mining and resource extraction. This has led to the unchecked exploitation of natural resources, reduction of native flora and fauna, soil erosion, deforestation, biodiversity loss, and contamination of water sources.

Though its primary purpose is to safeguard human life, humanitarian mine action reduces the risks explosive ordnance poses to local wildlife, and releasing land for legitimate use diminishes the incentives for local people to engage in illicit activities. Land release also enables further conservation and ecological recovery, as well as opportunities for ecotourism.

Colombia has seen several recent success stories where land release contributed positively to local environmental resilience.

In the Department of Caquetá, for example, the Danish Refugee Council cleared land in two areas within the Indi Wasi-Alto Fragua National Park that are also part of the Indigenous Reservation of Yurayaco. Danish Refugee Council and the local national park authority purchased native plants that were grown in a local indigenous community’s nursery and used them to reforest. In 2021 and 2022, local people and the Danish Refugee Council reforested 28,900 square meters (more than 7 acres) in accordance with ancestral indigenous procedures.

This kind of rapid reforestation after mine clearance contributes to the recovery of biodiversity, increases environmental resilience, and reduces the planting of illicit crops, so long as subsequent mid- and long-term maintenance is provided.

In Meta Department, the Association of Women’s Cacao Growers of Cubarral was founded seven years ago to heal the damage caused by violence to women and their families. Currently, the association is made up of 11 women, some of whom are heads of the family, and others who are elderly or disabled. Together, they plant coffee and cocoa on land released through humanitarian mine action. This has generated significant employment in a municipality characterized by low employment, helped local women earn an income, and restored the agricultural capacity of the region. It demonstrates how humanitarian mine action in support of environmental restoration can lead to economic growth.

These stories all reflect close cooperation between humanitarian mine action operators and local communities. The lesson is that humanitarian mine action can contribute to greater local resilience from an ecological and socio-economic perspective. This holistic approach helps mitigate the negative environmental consequences of conflict and demining, aids the recovery of biodiversity, and benefits the local community.

A woman holds a cacao on a tree while another woman uses a tool to cut it off the tree

The Caribbean Region

Armed violence in the Caribbean continues to threaten civilian security and regional stability. The region’s unique geography makes it a key transit point for illicitly trafficked arms, narcotics, and other goods that flow between the United States and Central and South America. The region accounts for approximately 23 percent of all globally recorded homicides despite being home to less than 1 percent of the world’s population.

Under the auspices of the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative, 16 Caribbean states and U.S. stakeholders developed a set of priority actions to address the illicit proliferation of firearms and ammunition called the Caribbean Firearms Roadmap.1 The United States supports implementation of the roadmap.

In FY2022 (with prior year funds), the State Department supported:

  • The drafting and implementation by Caribbean states of national action plans (as called for by the Caribbean Basin Security Initiative).
  • Training programs to bolster capabilities in detecting and preventing firearms and ammunition trafficking.
  • Physical security assessments of vulnerable conventional weapons stockpiles.
Caribbean Region
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY19–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 750 0 0 750
DOS-Other 1,100 0 0 1,100
Country Total 1,850 0 0 1,850
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament, and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

1. “Roadmap for Implementing the Caribbean Priority Actions on the Illicit Proliferation of Firearms and Ammunition across the Caribbean in a Sustainable Manner by 2030 ”, which began in 2020. 

Colombia

Colombia Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red

Following its 2016 peace accord with the FARC, the Government of Colombia has committed significant resources to address the widespread landmine and improvised explosive device contamination throughout the country. This includes development of the civilian support and coordination provided by the national mine action authority, Descontamina, which is under the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace, and more than 5,200 humanitarian deminers from its military.

The Office of the High Commissioner for Peace reports that Colombia has suffered more than 12,000 recorded mine incidents since 1990, the highest number in the Western Hemisphere. Its six most heavily affected departments are Antioquia, Caquetá, Cauca, Meta, Nariño, and Norte de Santander.

Since FY2001, the United States has invested more than $206 million to support Colombia’s mine action sector. In addition to helping Colombia build its substantial national demining capacity, this assistance facilitates the survey of priority municipalities and clearance of high-impact minefields, with an increased focus on areas where such efforts coincide with planned development and stabilization projects.

A man in protective gear kneeling on a hillside with his hands in heavy vegetation

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Clearance in several municipalities across its six most heavily affected departments as well as explosive ordnance risk education for children and communities through sport-based activities.
  • Technical advisors to the Office of the High Commissioner for Peace to strengthen its capacity and support the country-wide quality management program to ensure land is cleared in accordance with international and national standards. This assistance also supports clearance activities performed by Colombia’s own military humanitarian demining units.

With funding from the Department of Defense:

  • The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development Program evaluated one Little Storm mine clearance system based on a commercial excavator specialized for operation in rough terrain, one Bearcat area preparation system, and four Rambo demining support systems.
  • U.S. Southern Command also procured chargers and spare batteries for 694 portable VHF radios to ensure the Colombian military’s sufficient, properly functioning communications equipment to conduct humanitarian demining operations.

With prior year funding from USAID, the Leahy War Victims Fund continued to support the development of inclusive sport activities and physical rehabilitation services in conflict affected communities and continued supporting the strengthening of functional rehabilitation services. As part of multi-regional programs, the fund also supported the integration and strengthening of rehabilitation services in existing healthcare systems with prior year funds.

Colombia
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY01–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR-CWD 21,000 21,000 21,000 164,599
CDC 0 0 0 450
DoD 23 37 1,087 13,683
USAID 3,000 500 2,500 27,367
Total 24,023 21,537 24,587 206,099
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • A solid green circle  197,572 SQUARE METERS (49 ACRES) LAND CLEARED
  • A white circle with a thick green outline  18,580 SQUARE METERS (4.6 ACRES) LAND RELEASED
  • A black square with a white circle in the middle  34 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL CALLOUTS
  • A tall green rounded rectangle behind a low black rounded rectagle  76 LANDMINES DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three bombs stacked together  46 EXPLOSIVE REMNANTS OF WAR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a clock  92 IED OR COMPONENTS CLEARED OR DESTROYED
  • An illustration of a person pointing to a panel with a red caution sign inside  65,655 EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE RISK EDUCATION RECIPIENTS
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  ARCANGELES FOUNDATION, COLOMBIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST LANDMINES, HUMANITARIAN DISARMAMENT AND PEACEBUILDING, GENEVA INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR HUMANITARIAN DEMINING, HUMANITY AND INCLUSION, THE HALO TRUST, ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES, ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION, RESULTS 4 DEVELOPMENT, SPIRIT OF SOCCER, SWISS FOUNDATION FOR DEMINING, WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION

Ecuador

Ecuador Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag

Since a border conflict with Peru in 1995, Ecuador has invested significant resources to responsibly store and manage its national munitions stockpiles. In February 2020, the Department of State launched a new conventional weapons destruction program to support Ecuador’s ongoing efforts.

From FY2001 to FY2022, the United States invested more than $14.6 million to support conventional weapons destruction activities in Ecuador. In FY2022, U.S. assistance continued to improve management and security at priority munitions depots, facilitate the destruction of obsolete ordnance, and assure that the explosive ordnance disposal training curriculum for Ecuador’s armed forces met international standards.

In FY2022, Department of State supported:

  • Destruction of obsolete ordnance and provided ammunition management courses to Ecuador’s armed forces.
  • Prioritizing the destruction of man-portable air defense systems (MANPADS) in coordination with the Ecuadorian Army, which diminishes the risk of illicit trafficking of such weapons, promotes regional security, and safeguards global aviation.
  • Physical security and infrastructure upgrades to priority weapons facilities to better protect and safely manage stored munitions.

With funding from the Department of Defense, and with the assistance of explosive ordnance disposal instructors from the Kentucky Air National Guard and U.S. Navy corpsmen, U.S. Southern Command and the Humanitarian Demining Training Center, provided the Ecuadorian Army with train-the-trainer courses and equipment for landmine clearance, non-technical survey, and humanitarian mine action casualty care.

Ecuador
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY01–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 2,000 1,500 11,025
DoD 0 1,207 91 5,089
Country Total 1,500 3,207 1,591 16,114
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  15.8 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  2,237 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of 4 long weapons stacked vertically  91 MANPADS, ATGMS, OR COMPONENTS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  93 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  7 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras

El Salvador Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRALGuatemala Flag: three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue, with the coat of arms centered in the white band

Honduras flag: three equal horizontal bands of cerulean blue (top), white, and cerulean blue, with five cerulean, five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered in the white band

Central America’s porous borders and illegal armed groups facilitate and sustain the illicit proliferation of small arms and light weapons that threaten civilians and host nation security forces. Additionally, the significant stockpiles of confiscated weapons that this region’s governments have neither secured nor properly disposed of remains a major proliferation risk. Many of the weapons confiscated from criminal organizations are military-grade, and highly vulnerable to theft.

The Department of State consolidated its El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras projects into one regional project in FY 2019. From FY 2019 to FY 2022, the United States invested $7.5 million to support conventional weapons destruction in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. These projects are designed to better secure vulnerable depots through physical security and stockpile management enhancements and provide specialized training to develop national capacity within the region’s military and national police forces. Some confiscated firearms and obsolete ammunition and ordnance were also destroyed, in coordination with local authorities. These objectives contribute to Pillar IV of the 2021 White House Strategy to Address the Root Causes of Migration in Central America, which is to “[c]ounter and prevent violence, extortion, and other crimes perpetrated by criminal gangs, trafficking networks, and other organized criminal organizations.”

A man in protective gear kneeling in the dirt beside a metal object

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • The destruction of obsolete munitions.
  • Continued to strengthen national military and police physical security and stockpile management capacities by providing training for security forces personnel, installing physical upgrades to weapons storage facilities, and reducing easy access to government weapons.
El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY19–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 1,500 3,000 2,000 7,500
Country Total 1,500 3,000 2,000 7,500
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  12.27 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of three guns stacked vertically  3,850 SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  192 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • An illustration of an orange diamond shape with the shape black lock in the center  34 ARMORIES BUILT OR REHABILITATED
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  THE HALO TRUST

Peru

Peru Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band

Peru retains a significant amount of excess and obsolete weapons and ammunition stemming from a border conflict with Ecuador in 1995. U.S. conventional weapons destruction programs address the vulnerabilities of weapons stockpiles located in both remote and urban areas by providing physical security upgrades to depots and facilitating training for security personnel to ensure the safe management of these aging munitions. Better management and the eventual destruction of excess munitions is required for Peru to reduce the risk of illicit proliferation and unplanned depot explosions.

From FY1999 to FY2022, the United States contributed more than $34.6 million to first support humanitarian mine action activities and, more recently, to implement a small arms and light weapons disposal project. Previous assistance to Peru’s mine action sector strengthened its national mine action authority and ensured the country was sufficiently equipped to reduce its landmine contamination on its own. Currently, Department of State assistance helps mitigate the risk of unplanned explosions of obsolete ordnance and strengthens Peru’s capacity to efficiently manage its munitions stockpiles.

Several people pulling on a large metal container

In FY2022, the Department of State supported:

  • Physical security and stockpile management capacity building to address excess and obsolete munitions at priority depots through the destruction of weapons and ammunition.
  • Expansion of physical security and stockpile management assistance with the Peruvian National Superintendence for the Control of Security Services, Arms, Ammunition and Explosives for Civilian Use.
  • Specialized physical security and stockpile management, and explosive ordnance disposal training to help Peru’s air force destroy its obsolete weapons.

With funding from the Department of Defense, and with the assistance of explosive ordnance disposal instructors from the Wisconsin Air National Guard and the New Jersey Air National Guard, in FY2022 U.S. Southern Command provided training courses in physical security and stockpile management and explosive ordnance disposal Level 1.

Peru
Source FY20 FY21 FY22 FY99–22 TOTAL
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 1,000 1,000 20,006
DoD 168 1,515 21 13,665
USAID 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 2,168 2,515 21 34,671
Dollars in thousands

In FY2022:

  • An illustration of three bullets side by side  738 METRIC TONS OF UNSERVICEABLE AMMUNITION DESTROYED
  • An illustration of two people standing on either side of a spoked wheel  11 PERSONNEL TRAINED IN STOCKPILE MANAGEMENT
  • A blue rectangle with the letters IP inside  MINES ADVISORY GROUP

Nongovernmental Organizations Headquartered in the United States

Catholic Relief Services (CRS) , established in 1943, is the official overseas relief and development agency of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops. For more than a decade, Catholic Relief Services has worked to reduce the risk of injury or death from unexploded ordnance in Vietnam and trained children, teachers, parents, and community members in explosive ordnance risk education.

Development Alternatives Inc.  is a U.S. based nongovernmental organization that works with national and local governments, bilateral and multilateral donors, private corporations, and philanthropies around the world to address fundamental social and economic development problems caused by inefficient markets, ineffective governance, and instability.

The Golden West Humanitarian Foundation (GWHF)  is a United States-based nonprofit charitable organization dedicated to innovation in training and technology, and overcoming limitations in humanitarian mine action operations. Golden West provides expert explosive ordnance disposal and physical security and stockpile management consulting, International Mine Action Standards and International Ammunition Technical Guidelines compliant training, and technology making humanitarian mine action safer, faster, and more cost effective.

The Marshall Legacy Institute (MLI)  is a Virginia-based nonprofit organization founded to help restore hope, alleviate suffering, and nurture stability in war-torn countries. Marshall Legacy Institute has established indigenous programs in 15 mine-affected countries that help rid them of landmines and their lasting impact.

Momentum for Humanity (formerly United Cerebral Palsy of Los Angeles/Wheels for Humanity)  is a California nonprofit founded in 2007 that helps people with mobility impairments maximize their independence and quality of life by building and strengthening rehabilitation services, including assistive technologies.

PeaceTrees Vietnam  is a Seattle-based nongovernmental organization founded in 1995 as a grassroots effort to bring peace, friendship, and renewal to the people of Quang Tri, one of the most war-torn provinces of Vietnam. PeaceTrees’ work includes mine and unexploded ordnance clearance, explosive ordnance risk education, survivor assistance, scholarships to landmine survivors and their families, and community restoration projects.

The Polus Center for Social & Economic Development , established in 1979, is a Massachusetts-based nonprofit nongovernmental. The organization partners with public and private foundations to address the impact of mines and unexploded ordnance on communities around the world.

World Education, Inc. , a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, was founded in 1951 to meet the needs of the educationally disadvantaged and provides training and technical assistance in non-formal education across a wide array of sectors. World Education has worked to support survivor assistance, explosive ordnance risk education, and disability inclusion.


International and Foreign Nongovernmental Organizations

Accessibility Organization for Afghan Disabled  is a nonprofit and nonpolitical nongovernmental organization working for persons with disabilities along with their immediate family members as a peer-support, advocate organization founded in 2007 in Kabul, Afghanistan.

Afghan Technical Consultants , established in 1989, was the first humanitarian demining nongovernmental organization in Afghanistan endorsed by the United Nations. Afghan Technical Consultants work to reduce civilian casualties and enable land release through detection, clearance, and explosive ordnance risk education.

Agency for Rehabilitation and Energy Conservation in Afghanistan (AREA)  is a non-governmental, non-political, non-profit developmental organization that envisions the achievement of peace and stability in Afghanistan through empowering communities at the grassroots level.

APOPO , established in 1995, is a registered Belgian nongovernmental organization and U.S. non-profit that trains sub-Saharan African pouched rats and mine detection dogs to help detect landmines, returning safe land back to communities for development so they can proceed with their lives.

Arcangeles Foundation  is a nonprofit working to improve the living conditions of vulnerable populations in Colombia. Its main objective is to achieve social inclusion and to ensure for future generations an inclusive and sustainable world.

The Colombian Campaign Against Landmines  monitors fulfillment of the Ottawa Convention on behalf of the Colombian Government, compiles reports each year for the Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, and supports survivor assistance and explosive ordnance risk education.

DanChurchAid (DCA)  is an independent ecumenical humanitarian organization based in Copenhagen, Denmark, that provides humanitarian assistance and mine action programs combining explosive ordnance risk education, mine clearance, and community-development activities.

Delvon Assistance for Social Harmony (DASH)  is a Sri Lankan humanitarian demining organization founded in 2010 to increase the safety and security of people living in mine-affected areas through the removal and destruction of mines and unexploded ordnance. To support sustainable post-conflict recovery, the organization strives to employ displaced persons, especially widows and female heads of households.

The Demining Agency for Afghanistan (DAFA) , formed in 1990, is an Afghan humanitarian mine clearance organization. The organization’s mission is to clear all hazardous and mine-contaminated areas in Afghanistan by committing resources to humanitarian demining, clearance for road reconstruction, local government-sponsored construction plans, and disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.

Free Fields Foundation  is a neutral, nonprofit, humanitarian mine action organization founded in 2012 and based in Tripoli, Libya. Free Fields Foundation is accredited by the Libyan Mine Action Centre to conduct explosive ordnance risk education, non-technical survey, explosive ordnance disposal and battle area clearance.

The HALO Trust (HALO)  is the world’s largest humanitarian landmine removal organization. Its mission is to protect lives and restore livelihoods for those affected by conflict. HALO employs more than 8,600 staff and operates in over 25 countries and territories. HALO’s work, clearing landmines and other debris of war, creates safe and secure environments in some of the world’s most vulnerable communities.

Humanitarian Disarmament and Peacebuilding (HDP) , formerly Danish Demining Group, is a humanitarian mine action and armed violence reduction unit within the Danish Refugee Council, a non-profit and nongovernmental organization working to protect and provide long-lasting solutions to communities affected by war and armed conflict.

Humanity & Inclusion  works with persons with disabilities and other vulnerable populations in situations of conflict, natural disaster, exclusion, and extreme poverty. The organization implements mine action programs, working to clear mines and unexploded ordnance from civilian areas, providing explosive ordnance risk education programs, and rendering assistance to those who have been injured.

Information Management and Mine Action Programs (iMMAP)  is an international nonprofit nongovernmental organization that provides targeted information management support to partners responding to complex humanitarian and development challenges. iMMAP’s expertise in data collection, analysis, and presentation supports the decision-making process for its diverse, multi-sector partners.

The International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)  is a coalition of NGOs whose stated objective is a world free of anti-personnel mines and cluster munitions, where mine and cluster munitions survivors see their rights respected and can lead fulfilling lives.

ITF Enhancing Human Security (ITF)  is a humanitarian nonprofit organization established by the Republic of Slovenia Government in March 1998. ITF focuses on humanitarian mine action, conventional weapons destruction, and other forms of post-conflict assistance and continues to expand its thematic and geographic scope of activities globally.

Mines Advisory Group (MAG)  began operations in Afghanistan in 1989. In association with its U.S. partner MAG America, UK-based Mines Advisory Group is a humanitarian organization working in countries affected by conflict and insecurity to clear mines and unexploded ordnance, implement conventional weapons stockpile management and destruction programs, provide explosive ordnance risk education, and offer capacity-building support.

The Mine Clearance Planning Agency (MCPA)  is an Afghan nongovernmental organization founded in 1990 specializing in landmine impact and post-clearance surveys, technical survey and battle area clearance, polygon surveys, and mine- and unexploded ordnance-impact free community surveys. The agency provides manual, mechanical, and mine detection dog clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, explosive ordnance risk education, mine action training, and management information systems for mine action programs.

The Mine Detection Center (MDC)  was established in 1989 with the goal to free Afghanistan from the impacts of mines and unexploded ordnance so that individuals and communities can live in a safe environment conducive to national development. The center clears contaminated land and safely destroys mines and unexploded ordnance using a variety of assets and techniques.

The Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC)  in Bosnia and Herzegovina trains dogs to detect landmines, explosives, narcotics, and to conduct search and rescue operations, and trains dog handlers and trainers. Currently dogs work in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iraq, Lebanon, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, Angola, Turkey, and other Southeast European countries. The center is also involved in humanitarian demining, explosive ordnance risk education and mine survivor assistance.

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) , a Norwegian nongovernmental organization, was founded in 1939 on the principles of solidarity, dignity, peace, and freedom. For more than 20 years, the organization has implemented mine action programs in more than 40 countries and territories.

The Organization for Mine Clearance and Afghan Rehabilitation (OMAR) was established in 1990 to teach Afghan refugees and internally displaced Afghans about the dangers of mines and unexploded ordnance. In 1992, the organization expanded its operations to mine clearance, hiring and training more than 1,500 deminers in manual and mechanical demining, battle area clearance, explosive ordnance disposal, and working with mine detection dogs.

Results for Development (R4D)  is a global nonprofit founded in 2008 that supports local change agents—government officials, civil society leaders, and social innovators—to drive reforms and engage in continuous improvement.

Skavita Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Project (SHARP) (skavita.sl@gmail.com) is a Sri Lankan nongovernmental organization based in Colombo that conducts humanitarian demining activities.

Spirit of Soccer (SOS) , founded in 1996, is a UK- and U.S.-registered nonprofit that uses soccer/football skills clinics and tournaments to educate children about the dangers posed by mines and unexploded ordnance in conflict and post-conflict regions. Spirit of Soccer has created explosive ordnance risk education courses in post-conflict countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Colombia, Iraq, Jordan, Kosovo, Lebanon, Laos, Sri Lanka, and Moldova.

The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) was established in 1997 and has worked in over 30 countries worldwide for the last 23 years. The overall objective of the foundation is to clear contaminated land of explosive contamination and to promote mine action in general; the foundation aims to mitigate the social, economic, and environmental impacts of landmines and environmental contamination worldwide.


Government and International Organizations

The International Committee of the Red Cross’s (ICRC)  Physical Rehabilitation Program (PRP), formerly the ICRC MoveAbility Foundation was established in 1983 under the International Committee of the Red Cross and aims to improve physical rehabilitation capacities in low- and middle-income countries by maintaining and increasing access to quality and sustainable services.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) , founded in 1951, helps ensure the orderly and humane management of migration, and provides humanitarian assistance to migrants in need, be they refugees, displaced persons, or other uprooted people.

NATO Support and Procurement Agency (NSPA) , NATO’s integrated logistics and services provider, implements U.S. funded CWD programs in Bulgaria and Slovakia. NSPA also implemented the NATO Partnership for Peace Trust Fund in Ukraine which closed this year in the wake of Russia’s full-scale invasion,. NSPA has also worked on physical security and stockpile management and conventional weapons destruction programs in several countries including Albania, Azerbaijan,Jordan, Mauritania, and Serbia.

The Organization of American States (OAS)  was established in 1948 with the goal of encouraging sustainable peace, justice, solidarity, collaboration, integrity, and independence among the nations of the Americas. The organization supports a regional approach to demining programs in the Western Hemisphere and executes conventional weapons destruction programs.

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)  is the world’s largest regional security organization with 57 participating states in Europe, Central Asia, and North America. The organization offers a forum for political dialogue and decision-making in the fields of early warning, conflict prevention, crisis management, and post-conflict rehabilitation.

The Regional Centre on Small Arms in the Great Lakes Region, Horn of Africa, and Bordering States (RECSA) , established in 2005, helps build the capacity of its 15 African member countries, and coordinates and monitors the implementation of the Nairobi Protocol signed in April 2004. Its mission is to coordinate action against small arms and light weapons proliferation in the Great Lakes region, Horn of Africa, and bordering states. RECSA’s vision is a safe and secure sub-region in a peaceful continent, free from arms proliferation.

The Tajikistan National Mine Action Center (TNMAC) (muhabbat.ibrohimzoda@tnmac.gov.tj) is a state institution under the government of the Republic of Tajikistan established in January 2014 to coordinate all mine action-related projects.

The United Nations Development Program/Southeastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (UNDP/SEESAC)  works to strengthen the capacities of national and regional stakeholders to control and reduce the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, advance gender equality, facilitate regional cooperation and thus contribute to enhanced stability, security, and development.

The United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) , established in 1997 by the UN General Assembly, is housed in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations, Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions. It is the coordinator for the Inter-Agency Coordination Group on Mine Action, which brings together working-level representatives of 12 UN mine action organizations to set priorities among UN participants and share information, and sets up and manages mine action coordination centers as part of peacekeeping operations.

United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament, and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC)  is the UN regional entity specialized in disarmament, arms control and non-proliferation in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Its main function is to assist States to implement international instruments and commitments in these fields.

United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) , established in 1973, helps advance sustainable implementation practices in development, humanitarian, and peacebuilding contexts in some of the world’s most challenging environments. Support is concentrated in areas where it has a clear mandate and expertise: infrastructure, procurement, project management, human resources, and financial management services.

The World Health Organization (WHO)  is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The organization’s broad mandate includes advocating for universal healthcare, monitoring public health risks, coordinating responses to health emergencies, and promoting human health and well-being.


Academic Institutions

The Center for International Stabilization and Recovery (CISR) , was established at James Madison University in 1996. Through its publications, training courses, fellowships, and web tools, the center supports information exchange within the humanitarian mine action and conventional weapons destruction communities. CISR produces To Walk the Earth in Safety, and publishes The Journal of Conventional Weapons Destruction, which was first published in 1997 and is the longest-running source of information on conventional weapons destruction in the world.

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) , formed in 1998, supports the ongoing improvement of mine action performance. The Centre enables national authorities, mine action organizations, and other partners to do their jobs better by furthering knowledge, promoting norms and standards, and developing capacity.

Johns Hopkins University-Bloomberg School of Public Health , based in Baltimore and founded in 1916, works with communities and populations to identify the causes of disease and disability, and implement large-scale solutions.

Small Arms Survey (SAS) , based at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence, providing a valuable resource for governments, policymakers, researchers, and civil society.


Contractor

Tetra Tech  is a leading provider of consulting and engineering services for projects worldwide. With 20,000 associates working together, Tetra Tech delivers clear solutions to complex problems in water, environment, infrastructure, resource management, energy, international development, and munitions response.

Several people in protective gear stand in a row on a dirt road

From 1993 through 2022, the United States contributed more than $4.6 billion for conventional weapons destruction programs in more than 120 countries or areas. The following charts provide a consolidated view of the United States’ funding for conventional weapons destruction globally. Budget figures for fiscal year 2021 (October 1, 2020–September 30, 2021) and prior years reflect actual allocations, while budget figures for fiscal year 2022 (October 1, 2021–September 30, 2022) reflect, with a few exceptions, initial planned allocations. The 23rd edition of To Walk the Earth in Safety will include updated figures for fiscal year 2022 that reflect the final allocations.

Legend for Charts:

  •   U.S. supported activity in 2022
  •   Received U.S. support in the past
  •   Mine-impact free & U.S. supported activity in 2022
  •   Mine-impact free with past U.S. support
  • DOS NADR-CWD: Department of State – Nonproliferation, Anti-terrorism, Demining and Related Programs
  • DOS Other: Department of State – Other funding
  • CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • DoD: Department of Defense
  • USAID: U.S. Agency for International Development
Afghanistan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 318,019 22,700 32,066 20,500 20,000 21,321 20,785 20,000 15,000 490,391
DOS Other 20,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,000
CDC 1,800 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,800
DoD 7,297 744 451 134 225 408 377 330 193 10,159
USAID 51,447 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 51,447
Country Total 398,563 23,444 32,517 20,634 20,225 21,729 21,162 20,330 15,193 573,797
Albania
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 36,770 1,777 1,500 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,000 750 500 45,497
DoD 217 147 100 33 80 2,059 1,807 663 3,380 8,486
USAID 1,389 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,389
Country Total 38,376 1,924 1,600 1,233 1,080 3,059 2,807 1,413 3,880 55,372
red circleAngola
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 92,204 5,600 4,700 4,000 7,000 4,100 7,000 4,000 8,500 137,104
DOS Other 3,170 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,170
CDC 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150
DoD 8,088 152 551 193 179 245 48 172 145 9,773
USAID 8,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8,351
Country Total 111,963 5,752 5,251 4,193 7,179 4,345 7,048 4,172 8,645 158,548
yellow circleArgentina
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
Country Total 579 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 579
red circleArmenia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 3,992 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,292
DOS Other 3,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,000
DoD 3,191 40 10 226 237 64 0 0 0 3,768
USAID 2,148 997 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,145
Country Total 12,331 1,337 10 226 237 64 0 0 0 14,205 
red circleAzerbaijan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 22,110 532 0 0 0 0 0 500 2,000 25,142
DOS Other 1,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,100
DoD 6,975 0 140 41 62 11 0 0 2,225 9,454
Country Total 30,185 532 140 41 62 11 0 500 4,225 35,696
yellow circleBahrain
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
Country Total 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
yellow circleBelize
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Country Total 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
red circleBenin
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 562 500 0 1,062
DoD 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14
Country Total 14 0 0 0 0 0 562 500 0 1,076
red circleBosnia & Herzegovina
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 72,157 3,974 4,500 2,750 2,445 5,629 3,000 4,400 4,650 103,505
DOS Other 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
CDC 3,210 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,210
DoD 4,660 0 78 249 126 8 22 22 15 5,180
USAID 20,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20,500
Country Total 101,527 3,974 4,578 2,999 2,571 5,637 3,022 4,422 4,665 133,395
yellow circleBulgaria
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 10,479 0 0 0 0 2,000 0 300 0 12,779
DoD 31 0 0 8 12 0 0 0 0 51
Country Total 10,510 0 0 8 12 2,000 0 300 0 12,830
red circleBurkina Faso
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 941 600 0 900 1,000 500 1,500 1,500 6,941
Country Total 0 941 600 0 900 1,000 500 1,500 1,500 6,941
red circleBurma (Myanmar)
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 835 2,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,835
DOS-OTHER 850 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 850
USAID 2,850 0 500 500 500 0 1,000 0 0 5,350
Country Total 4,535 2,000 500 500 500 0 1,000 0 0 9,035
green circleBurundi
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,935 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,935
DoD 1,318 118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,436
Country Total 3,253 118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,371
red circleCambodia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 68,316 8,307 8,522 6,352 9,320 10,525 11,405 9,000 9,000 140,747
DOS Other 4,943 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,943
CDC 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100
DoD 17,998 2,379 1,717 1,969 1,601 2,473 1,012 1,361 515 31,025
USAID 14,281 500 303 0 0 0 0 0 0 15,084
Country Total 105,638 11,186 10,542 8,321 10,921 12,998 12,417 10,361 9,515 191,899
yellow circleCaribbean Region
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 750 0 0 750
DOS Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,100 0 0 1,100
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,850 0 0 1,850
yellow circleCentral African Republic
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 224 0 0 0 785 0 0 0 0 1,009 
Country Total 224 0 0 0 785 0 0 0 0 1,009 
red circleChad
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 6,899 1,657 750 1,000 1,250 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 15,556
DoD 5,000 0 50 54 86 0 0 0 0 5,190
Country Total 11,899 1,657 800 1,054 1,336 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 20,746
yellow circleChile
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 3,447 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,450
Country Total 3,447 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,450
red circleColombia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 23,060 7,039 8,500 21,000 21,000 21,000 21,000 21,000 21,000 164,599
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 1,679 0 742 3,338 3,285 3,492 23 37 1,087 13,683
USAID 12,600 2,000 3,085 808 2,874 0 3,000 500 2,500 27,367
Country Total 37,789 9,039 12,327 25,146 27,159 24,492 24,023 21,537 24,587 206,099
red circleCongo, Democratic Republic of the
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 10,613 500 3,221 3,000 4,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 2,000 32,334
DoD 976 107 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,083
USAID 2,600 2,000 1,722 1,275 0 0 0 0 0 7,597
Country Total 14,189 2,607 4,943 4,275 4,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 2,000 41,014
yellow circleCongo, Republic of the
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,320 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,320 
DoD 1,328 191 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,519 
Country Total 2,648 191 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,839
red circleCroatia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 35,838 850 2,040 0 1,000 1,000 0 1,200 0 41,928
DoD 713 0 0 28 55 80 585 1,013 1,005 3,479
Country Total 36,551 850 2,040 28 1,055 1,080 585 2,213 1,005 45,407
red circleCyprus
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 10 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 260 
DoD 95 18 20 196 32 0 0 0 25 386 
Country Total 105 268 20 196 32 0 0 0 25 646
yellow circleCzechia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
Country Total 600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 600
green circleDjibouti
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,900 
DoD 1,172 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,172 
Country Total 3,072 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,072
yellow circleDominican Republic
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
USAID 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
red circleEcuador
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 5,025 0 0 0 0 1,000 1,500 2,000 0 9,525
DoD 3,791 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,207 91 5,089
Country Total 8,816 0 0 0 0 1,000 1,500 3,207 91 14,614
yellow circleEgypt
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
Country Total 718 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 718
blue circleEl Salvador1
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,038 0 350 300 0 0 0 0 0 1,688 
CDC 2,840 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,840 
USAID 2,300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,300 
Country Total 6,178 0 350 300 0 0 0 0 0 6,828
blue circleEl Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras1
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 1,500 3,000 2,000 7,500
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 1,500 3,000 2,000 7,500
yellow circleEritrea
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 11,623 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11,623 
DOS Other 1,560 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,560 
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450 
DoD 4,485 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,485 
Country Total 18,118 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,118
red circleEstonia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,499 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,499 
DoD 2,148 54 0 7 236 272 0 0 704 3,421
Country Total 4,647 54 0 7 236 272 0 0 704 5,290 
green circleEswatini
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 439 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 439
DoD 836 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 836
Country Total 1,275 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,275
yellow circleEthiopia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 3,545 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,545 
DOS Other 1,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,500 
CDC 2,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,846 
DoD 3,984 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,984 
USAID 3,882 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,882 
Country Total 15,757 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15,757
yellow circleFiji
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 370 1,330 0 1,700
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 370 1,330 0 1,700
red circleGeorgia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 28,105 500 0 500 0 0 2,300 0 1,000 32,405
DOS Other 2,644 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,644
DoD 1,281 209 20 55 55 1,165 1,811 1,980 3,875 10,451
USAID 0 0 0 1,998 1,000 1,000 502 0 0 4,500
Country Total 32,030 709 20 2,553 1,055 2,165 4,613 1,980 4,875 50,000
blue circleGuatemala1
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 250 0 350 300 0 0 0 0 0 900
Country Total 250 0 350 300 0 0 0 0 0 900
yellow circleGuinea
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 103 0 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 1,103
Country Total 103 0 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 1,103
blue circleGuinea-Bissau
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 6,037 0 800 500 700 0 500 300 0 8,837 
DoD 1,444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,444 
Country Total 7,481 0 800 500 700 0 500 300 0 10,281
yellow circleHaiti
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
USAID 3,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,500
Country Total 3,500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,500
blue circleHonduras1
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 816 0 300 348 0 0 0 0 0 1,464
Country Total 816 0 300 348 0 0 0 0 0 1,464
yellow circleHungary
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350
Country Total 350 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 350
yellow circleIndia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
USAID 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
Country Total 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
red circleIraq
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 176,331 37,835 30,945 106,350 55,000 40,190 43,500 38,150 40,000 568,301
DOS Other 992 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 992
CDC 450 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 450
DoD 104,970 0 58 209 85 71 159 130 253 105,935
Country Total 282,743 37,835 31,003 106,559 55,085 40,261 43,659 38,280 40,253 675,678
blue circleJordan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 21,136 500 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 24,436
DOS Other 300 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300
CDC 2,968 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,968
DoD 2,418 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,418
Country Total 26,822 500 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 30,122
red circleKazakhstan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 295 0 0 0 0 0 2,500 0 0 2,795
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 588 0 91 679
Country Total 295 0 0 0 0 0 3,088 0 91 3,474
red circleKenya**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,482 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,482 
DoD 724 151 280 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,155 
USAID 400 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 400 
Country Total 2,606 151 280 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,037
blue circleKosovo
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 7,450 550 475 1,250 5,000 0 5,000 1,000 800 21,525
DoD 4,465 120 204 71 86 276 249 497 720 6,688
USAID 17,472 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17,472
Country Total 29,387 670 679 1,321 5,086 276 5,249 1,497 1,520 45,685
red circleKyrgyz Republic
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 800 400 285 750 750 300 500 2,000 2,000 7,785
DoD 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
Country Total 807 400 285 750 750 300 500 2,000 2,000 7,792
red circleLaos
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 66,984 26,880 20,500 30,000 30,000 30,000 37,500 40,000 45,000 326,864
DOS Other 750 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 750
DoD 6,900 0 111 10 0 24 8 0 4 7,057
USAID 9,800 2,000 2,166 3,005 1,750 0 2,000 0 0 20,721
Country Total 84,434 28,880 22,777 33,015 31,750 30,024 39,508 40,000 45,004 355,392
red circleLebanon
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 34,175 3,324 4,500 4,000 5,000 5,000 5,000 8,000 6,000 74,999
DOS Other 2,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,000
DoD 9,150 44 39 39 22 30 44 324 85 9,777
USAID 9,850 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9,850
Country Total 55,175 3,368 4,539 4,039 5,022 5,030 5,044 8,324 6,085 96,626
yellow circleLesotho
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
Country Total 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
yellow circleLiberia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 360 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 360 
CDC 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150 
USAID 4,429 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,429 
Country Total 4,939 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,939
red circleLibya
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 4,000 1,500 2,500 16,000 3,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 36,000
DOS Other 19,575 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 19,575
Country Total 23,575 1,500 2,500 16,000 3,000 2,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 55,575
yellow circleLithuania
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
red circleMalawi
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 0 0 0 0 130 0 1,500 1,300 0 2,930
Country Total 0 0 0 0 130 0 1,500 1,300 0 2,930
red circleMali
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 1,200 500 1,000 1,250 1,000 0 0 1,000 5,950
DoD 0 0 170 182 110 0 0 0 0 462
Country Total 0 1,200 670 1,182 1,360 1,000 0 0 1,000 6,412
yellow circleMarshall Islands
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 628 285 295 460 341 0 0 0 0 2,009 
Country Total 628 285 295 460 341 0 0 0 0 2,009 
red circleMauritania
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,395 300 500 0 0 0 1,000 500 500 5,195
DoD 4,410 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,410 
Country Total 6,805 300 500 0 0 0 1,000 500 500 9,605
yellow circleMexico
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 275 0 500 0 0 0 775
Country Total 0 0 0 275 0 500 0 0 0 775
red circleMoldova
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 507 132 35 78 78 1,993 1,582 2,189 1,420 8,014
Country Total 507 132 35 78 78 1,993 1,582 2,189 1,420 8,014
blue circleMontenegro2
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 7,449 0 1,750 0 0 1,400 0 1,700 0 12,299
DoD 727 428 562 30 141 39 0 0 0 1,927
Country Total 8,176 428 2,312 30 141 1,439 0 1,700 0 14,226
red circleMorocco
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 0 0 90 0 368 73 147 164 1,154 1,996
Country Total 0 0 90 0 368 73 147 164 1,154 1,996
green circleMozambique
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 34,082 700 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 35,782 
DOS Other 1,600 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,600 
CDC 2,100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,100 
DoD 13,187 189 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13,376 
USAID 4,533 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,533 
green circleNamibia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 3,351 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,351 
DOS Other 670 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 670 
DoD 5,148 110 80 0 42 114 0 0 0 5,494 
Country Total 9,169 110 80 0 42 114 0 0 0 9,515 
red circleNepal**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOD 165 36 36 0 0 0 0 0 0 237 
USAID 2,000 131 1,580 420 406 2,162 0 1,587 0 8,286
Country Total 2,165 167 1,616 420 406 2,162 0 1,587 0 8,523
green circleNicaragua
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 4,081 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,081 
DoD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 
Country Total 4,281 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,281
red circleNiger
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 693 500 1,250 1,250 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 7,693
DoD 0 0 0 3 325 0 0 0 0 328 
Country Total 0 693 500 1,253 1,575 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 8,021
yellow circleNigeria
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,449 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,449 
DoD 0 0 315 321 55 0 0 0 0 691 
Country Total 1,449 0 315 321 55 0 0 0 0 2,140 
blue circleNorth Macedonia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,998 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,998
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 345 348 357 479 1,529
Country Total 1,998 0 0 0 0 345 348 357 479 3,527
yellow circleOman
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,785 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,785 
DoD 2,553 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,553 
Country Total 4,338 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,338
red circlePakistan**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 832 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 832
Country Total 832 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 832
red circlePalau
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 1,315 505 505 600 655 731 800 820 0 5,931
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 106 110 73 115 404
Country Total 1,315 505 505 600 655 837 910 893 115 6,335
red circlePapua New Guinea
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 12
yellow circleParaguay
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Country Total 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
red circlePeru
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 10,906 0 2,600 500 2,000 0 2,000 1,000 1,000 20,006
DoD 11,944 0 0 0 0 17 168 1,515 21 13,665
USAID 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000
Country Total 23,850 0 2,600 500 2,000 17 2,168 2,515 1,021 34,671
yellow circlePhilippines
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 920 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 920 
DoD 0 173 45 335 0 0 0 0 0 553 
USAID 1,550 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,550 
Country Total 2,470 173 45 335 0 0 0 0 0 3,023
yellow circleRomania
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,369 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,369 
DoD 150 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150 
Country Total 2,519 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,519
blue circleRwanda**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 4,203 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,203 
DOS Other 700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 700 
DoD 7,790 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,790 
USAID 0 0 0 0 0 1,500 0 1,000 505 3,005 
Country Total 12,693 0 0 0 0 1,500 0 1,000 505 15,698
yellow circleSão Tomé and Príncipe
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
Country Total 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50
red circleSenegal
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,505 400 400 450 0 0 1,000 500 0 5,255
DOS Other 260 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 260
DoD 619 1,147 100 10 90 12 129 988 56 3,151
USAID 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500
Country Total 3,884 1,547 500 460 90 12 1,129 1,488 56 9,166
red circleSerbia2
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 16,685 195 2,100 1,250 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 25,230
DoD 0 3 200 107 0 0 0 294 430 1,034
Country Total 16,685 198 2,300 1,357 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,294 1,430 26,264
yellow circleSerbia & Montenegro2
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646
Country Total 5,646 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5,646
red circleSierra Leone
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 147 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 147 
DOD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 39 
USAID 1,593 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,593 
Country Total 1,740 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 39 1,779
yellow circleSlovakia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 zTotal 
DOS NADR – CWD 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 1,000
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 0 0 1,000
yellow circleSlovenia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 270
Country Total 270 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 270
red circleSolomon Islands
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,000 446 350 567 715 550 60 0 0 4,688
DoD 789 306 569 200 234 92 0 0 63 2,253
Country Total 2,789 752 919 767 949 642 60 0 63 6,941
red circleSomalia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 20,345 1,800 2,000 2,740 2,165 2,000 2,000 4,000 4,000 41,050
Country Total 20,345 1,800 2,000 2,740 2,165 2,000 2,000 4,000 4,000 41,050
red circleSouth Sudan3
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 8,535 2,000 300 300 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,135
DoD 826 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 826
Country Total 9,361 2,000 300 300 1,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,961
red circleSri Lanka
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 36,091 4,250 2,500 5,000 9,500 2,500 5,500 8,000 8,500 81,841
DOS Other 122 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122
CDC 175 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 175
DoD 2,124 507 601 697 310 84 179 308 25 4,835
USAID 7,900 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7,900
Country Total 46,412 4,757 3,101 5,697 9,810 2,584 5,679 8,308 8,525 94,873
red circleSudan3
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 650 1,000 0 4,450
Country Total 2,800 0 0 0 0 0 650 1,000 0 4,450
yellow circleSudan and South Sudan3
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 24,427 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24,427
Country Total 24,427 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24,427
yellow circleSuriname
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
Country Total 390 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 390
yellow circleSyria
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 550 8,000 9,510 63,000 0 5,000 0 0 7,000 93,060
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 10
Country Total 550 8,000 9,510 63,000 0 5,005 5 0 7,000 93,070
red circleTajikistan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 10,783 2,275 1,975 2,450 1,500 2,500 1,500 3,300 2,500 28,783
DoD 2,533 67 147 0 98 25 439 862 112 4,283
USAID 1,500 0 534 440 406 0 0 0 0 2,880
Country Total 14,816 2,342 2,656 2,890 2,004 2,525 1,939 4,162 2,612 35,946
red circleTanzania**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 
DoD 747 123 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 920 
USAID 1,700 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,700 
Country Total 2,463 123 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,636
red circleThailand
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 4,190 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,190
DoD 10,594 561 1,762 518 608 724 681 1,443 2,488 19,339
Country Total 14,784 561 1,762 518 608 724 681 1,443 2,448 23,529
red circleTimor-Leste
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 344 366
Country Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 22 344 366
red circleTogo**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
Country Total 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 32
green circleTunisia
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 217 536 630 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,383
Country Total 217 536 630 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,383
red circleUganda**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56 
DoD 0 0 207 0 0 0 0 0 0 207 
USAID 1,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,000 
Country Total 1,056 0 207 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,263
red circleUkraine
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 24,127 1,940 2,000 6,000 6,000 8,500 8,500 10,397 71,000 138,464
DOS Other 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,115 2,684 19,500 23,339
DoD 177 303 108 656 656 726 4,464 717 786 8,593
USAID 0 1,031 920 1,048 958 0 0 0 0 3,957
Country Total 24,304 3,274 3,028 7,704 7,614 9,226 14,119 13,798 91,286 174,353
yellow circleUruguay
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
Country Total 200 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200
yellow circleUzbekistan
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DoD 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
Country Total 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99
red circleVietnam
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 50,602 12,548 10,709 12,621 12,500 15,000 17,500 18,200 19,000 168,680
CDC 1,848 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1,848
DoD 2,065 340 722 1,168 115 1,211 584 1,387 1,268 8,860
USAID 26,799 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 26,799
Country Total 81,314 12,888 11,431 13,789 12,615 16,211 18,084 19,587 20,268 206,187
red circleWest Bank and Gaza Strip Areas
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 3,088 1,000 1,000 1,000 0 0 0 1,000 1,000 8,088
DoD 0 20 0 44 85 76 55 13 14 307
Country Total 3,088 1,020 1,000 1,044 85 76 55 1,013 1,014 8,395
red circleYemen
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 19,055 2,000 3,500 9,000 2,000 4,000 4,800 4,000 2,000 50,355
DoD 4,846 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4,846
Country Total 23,901 2,000 3,500 9,000 2,000 4,000 4,800 4,000 2,000 55,201
blue circleZambia**
Source FY93-FY14 FY15 FY16 FY17 FY18 FY19 FY20 FY21 *FY22 Total 
DOS NADR – CWD 2,050 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2,050 
DoD 437 0 0 0 0