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Russia almost certainly is subjecting Ukrainian civilians in occupied areas to so-called filtration operations. Individuals face one of three fates after undergoing filtration, which include being issued documentation and remaining in Russian-occupied Ukraine, forcefully deported to Russia, or detained in prisons in eastern Ukraine or Russia. This map shows that Ukrainians are being gathered for filtration from areas in eastern Ukraine, then sent to filtration operations in eastern Ukrainian cities such as Donetsk, Nikolske, and Novoazovsk. Filtration also occurs within Russia, such as in Taganrog. Some Ukrainians are sent to cities in western Russia, such as Pskov, Belgorod, Vladimir, and Omsk, while others can be sent much further east, as far as Vladivostok and Sakhalin.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future